Harriet Hosmer

Harriet Hosmer, engraving by Augustus Robin (1873)
Harriet Goodhue Hosmer with her assistants and carvers in the courtyard of her studio in Rome (1867)
The Sleeping Faun, circa 1870, Cleveland Museum of Art
Lady Ashburton
Mount Auburn Cemetery, Cambridge, MA
Illustration of the Prince of Wales visiting Hosmer's studio
H. G. Hosmer: Beatrice Cenci
Clasped Hands of Robert and Elizabeth Barrett Browning, 1853 by Hosmer
Daphne, modeled 1853
Zenobia, Queen of Palmyra, 1857, Art Institute of Chicago
Zenobia in Chains, c. 1859, Saint Louis Art Museum
Thomas Hart Benton, c. 1868, Lafayette Square Park. St. Louis
Queen Isabella c. 1893

Neoclassical sculptor, considered the most distinguished female sculptor in America during the 19th century.

- Harriet Hosmer

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Elizabeth Barrett Browning

English poet of the Victorian era, popular in Britain and the United States during her lifetime.

Portrait of Elizabeth Barrett Browning in 1859
Blue plaque outside "Belle Vue" in Sidmouth, Devon, where Elizabeth Barrett lived with her family from 1833 to 1835
Portrait of Barrett Browning by Károly Brocky, c. undefined 1839–1844
Elizabeth Barrett Browning with her son Pen, 1860
Clasped Hands of Robert and Elizabeth Barrett Browning, 1853 by Harriet Hosmer.
Letter from Robert Browning to Elizabeth Barrett, 10 September 1846
Elizabeth Barrett Browning's tomb, English Cemetery, Florence. 2007
An engraving of Elizabeth Barrett Browning, published in Eclectic Magazine

The couple came to know a wide circle of artists and writers including William Makepeace Thackeray, sculptor Harriet Hosmer (who, she wrote, seemed to be the "perfectly emancipated female") and Harriet Beecher Stowe.

Charlotte Cushman

American stage actress.

Charlotte Cushman as Meg Merrilees
The Cushman sisters, Charlotte and Susan, as Romeo and Juliet in 1846
Charlotte Cushman and Matilda Hays
Poster advertising Cushman's appearance as Hamlet in February, 1861.
An unfinished portrait of Cushman by Thomas Sully that was kept by Anne Hampton Brewster.
Mount Auburn Cemetery, Cambridge, MA

In 1854, Hays left Cushman for sculptor Harriet Hosmer, which launched a series of jealous interactions among the three women.

William Howe Cuyler Hosmer

Poet from the United States.

Circa 1855
Portrait photo- Poet of the Genesee

He was a cousin of sculptor Harriet Hosmer and tragic actress Jean Hosmer.

Neoclassicism

Western cultural movement in the decorative and visual arts, literature, theatre, music, and architecture that drew inspiration from the art and culture of classical antiquity.

Psyche Revived by Cupid's Kiss; by Antonio Canova; 1787; marble; 155 cm × 168 cm; Louvre
Charles Towneley in his sculpture gallery; by Johann Zoffany; 1782; oil on canvas; height: 127 cm, width: 102 cm; Towneley Hall Art Gallery and Museum (Burnley, UK)
Johann Joachim Winckelmann, often called "the father of archaeology"
Anton Raphael Mengs; Judgement of Paris; circa 1757; oil on canvas; height: 226 cm, width: 295 cm, bought by Catherine the Great from the studio; Hermitage Museum (Saint Petersburg, Russia)
Oath of the Horatii; by Jacques-Louis David; 1784; oil on canvas; 3.3 x 4.27 m; Louvre
The Three Graces; by Antonio Canova; 1813–1816; marble; height: 1.82 m; Hermitage Museum (Saint Petersburg, Russia)
Hôtel Gouthière on Rue Pierre-Bullet no. 6 (Paris), unknown date, unknown architect
"The Etruscan room", from Potsdam (Germany), c. undefined1840, illustration by Friedrich Wilhelm Klose
Château de Malmaison, 1800, room for the Empress Joséphine, on the cusp between Directoire style and Empire style
Revolutionary socialite Thérésa Tallien
Portrait of Antoine Valedau from 1809
The West building (1941) of the National Gallery of Art in Washington
Ostankino Palace, designed by Francesco Camporesi and completed in 1798, in Moscow, Russia
Arkhangelskoye estate
Schermerhorn Symphony Center, 2006
Fantasy View with the Pantheon and other Monuments of Ancient Rome; by Giovanni Paolo Panini; 1737; oil on canvas; 98.9 x 137.49 cm; Museum of Fine Arts (Houston, USA)
The ancient Capitol ascended by approximately one hundred steps . . .; by Giovanni Battista Piranesi; {{circa}} 1750; etching; size of the entire sheet: 33.5 × 49.4 cm; Metropolitan Museum of Art (New York City)
A Philosopher Lecturing on the Orrery; by Joseph Wright of Derby; {{circa}} 1766; oil on canvas; 1.47 x 2.03 m; Derby Museum and Art Gallery (Derby, England){{sfn|Fortenberry|2017|p=275}}
The Attributes of the Arts; by Anne Vallayer-Coster; 1769; oil on canvas; 90 x 121 cm; Louvre<ref>{{cite book|last1=Morrill|first1=Rebecca|title=Great Women Artists|date=2019|publisher=Phaidon|isbn=978-0-7148-7877-5|page=413|url=|language=en}}</ref>
Ariadne Abandoned; by Angelica Kauffmann; before 1782; oil on canvas; 88 x 70.5 cm; Gemäldegalerie Alte Meister (Dresden, Germany)<ref>{{cite book|last1=Morrill|first1=Rebecca|title=Great Women Artists|date=2019|publisher=Phaidon|isbn=978-0-7148-7877-5|page=211|url=|language=en}}</ref>
Self-Portrait with a Harp; by Rose-Adélaïde Ducreux; 1791; oil on canvas; 193 x 128.9 cm; Metropolitan Museum of Art
Julie Lebrun as Flora; by Élisabeth Vigée Le Brun; {{circa}}1799; oil on canvas; 129.5 x 97.8 cm; Museum of Fine Arts (St. Petersburg, Florida, USA)
Portrait of Charlotte du Val d'Ognes; by Marie-Denise Villers; 1801; oil on canvas; 161.3 x 128.6 cm; Metropolitan Museum of Art<ref>{{cite book|last1=Morrill|first1=Rebecca|title=Great Women Artists|date=2019|publisher=Phaidon|isbn=978-0-7148-7877-5|page=419|url=|language=en}}</ref>
Napoleon I on His Imperial Throne; by Jean-Auguste-Dominique Ingres; 1806; oil on canvas; 2.62 x 1.62 m; Army Museum (Paris){{sfn|Fortenberry|2017|p=276}}
Romania Unchanied; by Gheorghe Tattarescu; 1866; oil on canvas; 31 x 24 cm; private collection<ref>{{cite book|last1=Kessler|first1=Erwin|title=Tricolor|date=2018|publisher=Vellant|isbn=978-606-980-055-3|page=49|url=|language=English, Romanian}}</ref>
The Hanged Man (no. 25 in a character head series); by Franz Xaver Messerschmidt; after 1770; alabaster; height: 38 cm; Österreichische Galerie Belvedere (Vienna, Austria)<ref>{{cite book|last1=|first1=|title=ART ● Architecture ● Painting ● Sculpture ● Graphics ● Design|date=2011|publisher=|isbn=978-1-4454-5585-3|page=313|url=|language=en}}</ref>
Mercury or The Trade; by Augustin Pajou; 1780; marble; height: 196 cm; Louvre
The Winter; by Jean-Antoine Houdon; 1783; marble; height: 145 cm; Musée Fabre (Montpellier, France)<ref>{{cite book|last1=Laneyrie-Dagen|first1=Nadeije|title=Historie de l’art pour tous|date=2021|publisher=Hazan|isbn=978-2-7541-1230-7|page=264|url=|language=fr}}</ref>
Cephalus and Aurora; by John Flaxman; 1789-1790; probably marble; unknown dimensions; Lady Lever Art Gallery (Merseyside, England)
Venus Victrix; by Antonio Canova; 1804–1808; marble; length: 200 cm; Galleria Borghese (Rome)<ref>{{cite book|last1=Laneyrie-Dagen|first1=Nadeije|title=Historie de l’art pour tous|date=2021|publisher=Hazan|isbn=978-2-7541-1230-7|page=265|url=|language=fr}}</ref>
Central pavilion of the École Militaire (Paris), 1752, by Ange-Jacques Gabriel{{sfn|de Martin|1925|p=11}}
Panthéon (Paris), 1758–1790, by Jacques-Germain Soufflot (1713-1780) and Jean-Baptiste Rondelet (1743-1829){{sfn|Jones|2014|p=276}}
Hôtel de la Marine (Paris), 1761-1770, by Ange-Jacques Gabriel{{sfn|de Martin|1925|p=13}}
Commode of Madame du Barry; by Martin Carlin (attribution); 1772; oak base veneered with pearwood, rosewood and amaranth, soft-paste Sèvres porcelain, bronze gilt, white marble; 87 x 119 cm; Louvre<ref>{{cite book|last1=Jacquemart|first1=Albert|title=Decorative Art|date=2012|publisher=Parkstone|isbn=978-1-84484-899-7|page=65|url=|language=en}}</ref>
Hôtel du Châtelet (Paris), 1776<ref>{{cite book|last1=Larbodière|first1=Jean-Marc|title=L'Architecture de Paris des Origins à Aujourd'hui|date=2015|publisher=Massin|isbn=978-2-7072-0915-3|page=105|url=|language=fr}}</ref>
Stairway of the Grand Theater of Bordeaux (Bordeaux, France), 1777-1780, by Victor Louis{{sfn|de Martin|1925|p=17}}
Parisian corner cabinet; by Jean Henri Riesener; 1780–1790; oak, mahogany, marble, and ormolu mounts; 94.3 × 81.3 × 55.9 cm; Art Institute of Chicago (US)<ref>{{cite web |url=https://www.artic.edu/artworks/96539/corner-cabinet |title=Corner Cabinet - The Art Institute of Chicago}}</ref>
Large vase; 1783; hard porcelain and gilt bronze; height: 2 m, diameter: 0.90 m; Louvre
The Cabinet Doré of Marie-Antoinette at the Palace of Versailles (Versailles, France), 1783, by the Rousseau brothers{{sfn|de Martin|1925|p=61}}
Roll-top desk of Marie-Antoinette; by Jean-Henri Riesener; 1784; oak and pine frame, sycamore, amaranth and rosewood veneer, bronze gilt; 103.6 x 113.4 cm; Louvre<ref name="Decorative Art">{{cite book|last1=Jacquemart|first1=Albert|title=Decorative Art|date=2012|publisher=Parkstone|isbn=978-1-84484-899-7|page=61|url=|language=en}}</ref>
Writing table of Marie-Antoinette; by Adam Weisweiler; 1784; oak, ebony and sycamore veneer, Japanese lacquer, steel, bronze gilt; 73.7 x 81. 2 cm; Louvre
Ewer; 1784–1785; silver; height: 32.9 cm; Metropolitan Museum of Art
Folding stool (pliant); 1786; carved and painted beechwood, covered in pink silk; 46.4 × 68.6 × 51.4 cm; Metropolitan Museum of Art
Pair of vases; 1789; hard-paste porcelain, gilt bronze, marble; height (each): 23 cm; Metropolitan Museum of Art
Armchair (fauteuil) from Louis XVI's Salon des Jeux at Saint Cloud; 1788; carved and gilded walnut, gold brocaded silk (not original); overall: 100 × 74.9 × 65.1 cm; Metropolitan Museum of Art
Entrance of the Hôtel de Villette (Paris), unknown date, unknown architect
Panel win an arabesque in the Hôtel Gouthière (Paris), unknown date, unknown architect
Astronomical clock; by Philippe-Jacques Corniquet; {{circa}}1794; gilt bronze and enamel face; unknown dimensions; Musée des Arts Décoratifs (Paris)<ref>{{cite web |url=https://madparis.fr/~period/article-fiche-local4114en.html|title=ASTRONOMICAL CLOCK|website=madparis.fr|access-date=23 May 2021}}</ref>
Fan; by Charles Percier, Pierre-François-Léonard Fontaine and Antoine Denis Chaudet; {{circa}}1797-1799; paper, wood, and bone; 23.5 x 43.8 cm; Metropolitan Museum of Art (New York City)
Armchair of the salon of Madame Récamier; attributed to Jacob Frères; {{circa}}1798; various types of wood; 84.5 x 62.2 x 62 cm; Musée des Arts Décoratifs<ref>{{cite web |url=https://collections.louvre.fr/ark:/53355/cl010116204|title=Bergère du salon de Madame Récamier (OA 11384 à 11391), d'une paire avec OA 11386|website=collections.louvre.fr|access-date=23 May 2022}}</ref>
Coffeepot; 1797–1809; silver gilt; height: 33.3 cm; Metropolitan Museum of Art (New York City)
Empress Joséphine's Bedroom in Château de Malmaison (Rueil-Malmaison, France), 1800-1802, by Charles Percier and Pierre-François-Léonard Fontaine{{sfn|Jones|2014|p=275}}
Washstand (athénienne or lavabo); 1800–1814; legs, base and shelf of yew wood, gilt-bronze mounts, iron plate beneath shelf; height: 92.4 cm, width: 49.5 cm; Metropolitan Museum of Art
Portico of the Palais Bourbon (Paris), 1806-1808, by Bernard Poyet{{sfn|Hopkins|2014|p=111}}
La Madeleine (Paris), 1807-1842, by Pierre-Alexandre Vignon{{sfn|Hopkins|2014|p=111}}
Vase; 1809; hard-paste porcelain and gilded bronze handles; height: 74.9 cm, diameter: 35.6 cm; Wadsworth Atheneum (Hartford, Connecticut, US)<ref>{{cite book|last1=Odile|first1=Nouvel-Kammerer|title=Symbols of Power • Napoleon and the Art of the Empire Style • 1800-1815|date=2007|isbn=978-0-8109-9345-7|page=209|language=en}}</ref>
Egyptian Revival coin cabinet; by François-Honoré-Georges Jacob-Desmalter; 1809–1819; mahogany (probably Swietenia mahagoni), with applied and inlaid silver; 90.2 x 50.2 x 37.5 cm; Metropolitan Museum of Art
Clock with Mars and Venus; circa 1810; gilded bronze and patina; height: 90 cm; Louvre
King of Rome's Cradle; by Pierre-Paul Prud'hon, Henri Victor Roguier, Jean-Baptiste-Claude Odiot and Pierre-Philippe Thomire; 1811; wood, silver gilt, mother-of-pearl, sheets of copper covered with velvet, silk and tulle, decorated with silver and gold thread; height: 216 cm; Kunsthistorisches Museum (Vienna, Austria)<ref>{{cite book|last1=Odile|first1=Nouvel-Kammerer|title=Symbols of Power • Napoleon and the Art of the Empire Style • 1800-1815|date=2007|isbn=978-0-8109-9345-7|page=32|language=en}}</ref>
Carpet; 1814–1830; 309.9 × 246.4 cm; Metropolitan Museum of Art
Kedleston Hall (Kedleston, Derbyshire, England), 1760-1770, by Robert Adam{{sfn|Hopkins|2014|p=103}}
Eating Room (Osterley Park, London), 1761, by Robert Adam{{sfn|Bailey|2012|pp=226}}
Syon House (Middlesex, England), 1762, by Robert Adam{{sfn|Hopkins|2014|p=103}}
The Hall (Osterley Park), 1767, by Robert Adam{{sfn|Fortenberry|2017|p=274}}
Carpet; by Robert Adam; 1770–1780; knotted wool; 505.5 x 473.1 cm; Metropolitan Museum of Art (New York City)
Apotheosis of Virgil; by John Flaxman; {{circa}}1776; jasperware; diameter: 41 cm; Harris Museum (Preston, Lancashire, UK)<ref>{{cite book|last1=Farthing|first1=Stephen|title=ARTA Istoria Artei de la pictura rupestră la arta urbană|date=2020|publisher=rao|isbn=978-606-006-392-6|page=260|url=|language=ro}}</ref>
Somerset House (London), 1776-1801, by William Chambers{{sfn|Hopkins|2014|p=104}}
Urn on pedestal; circa 1780 with latter additions; by Robert Adam; inlaid mahogany; height: 49.8 cm; Metropolitan Museum of Art
Side table with many acanthus leafs and two bucrania; by Robert Adam; {{circa}}1780 with later addition; mahogany; overall: 88.6 × 141.3 × 57.1 cm; Metropolitan Museum of Art
Covered Wedgwood urn; {{circa}}1800; jasper ware with relief decoration; overall: 19.7 cm; Cleveland Museum of Art (Cleveland, Ohio, USA)<ref>{{cite web |url=https://www.clevelandart.org/art/1951.301.2|title=Covered Urn - Cleveland Museum of Art| date=30 October 2018 |access-date=6 May 2022}}</ref>
Maple secretary; circa 1790; maple and brass; height: 242.57 cm; Los Angeles County Museum of Art (US)
Candlestand; 1790-1800; mahogany, birch, and various inlays; 107 x 49.21 x 48.9 cm; Los Angeles County Museum of Art
Writing desk; 1790-1810; satinwood, mahogany, tulip poplar, and pine; 153.67 x 90.17 x 51.44 cm; Los Angeles County Museum of Art
White House (Washington, D.C.), 1792-1829, by James Hoban{{sfn|Hodge|2019|p=112}}
Capitol Building (Washington, D.C.), 1793-1863, by William Thornton and Thomas Ustick Walter{{sfn|Hodge|2019|p=112}}
Federal Hill Mansion (My Old Kentucky Home State Park, Bardstown, Kentucky), 1795
Armchair; possibly by Ephraim Haines; 1805-1815; mahogany and cane; height: 84.77 cm, width: 52.07 cm; Los Angeles County Museum of Art
Four-column pedestal card table with pineapple finial; 1815-1820; mahogany, tulip poplar, and pine woods; 74.93 x 92.71 x 46.67 cm; Los Angeles County Museum of Art
The Rotunda (University of Virginia, Charlottesville, Virginia), by Thomas Jefferson, 1822-1826{{sfn|Hodge|2019|p=31}}
South Carolina State House (Columbia, South Carolina), 1855, by John Rudolph Niernsee
James Dawkins and Robert Wood Discovering the Ruins of Palmyra, by Gavin Hamilton (1758)
Madame Raymond de Verninac by Jacques-Louis David, with clothes and chair in Directoire style. "Year 7": that is, 1798–1799
Portrait of Madame Récamier, by Jacques-Louis David, 1800
Elizabeth Alexeievna, Empress of Russia, in 1802

Since prior to the 1830s the United States did not have a sculpture tradition of its own, save in the areas of tombstones, weathervanes and ship figureheads, the European Neoclassical manner was adopted there, and it was to hold sway for decades and is exemplified in the sculptures of Horatio Greenough, Harriet Hosmer, Hiram Powers, Randolph Rogers and William Henry Rinehart.

Watertown, Massachusetts

City in Middlesex County, Massachusetts, and is part of Greater Boston.

Saltonstall's landing spot in Watertown, also known as Elbridge Gerry Landing
Edmund Fowle House, built in the 1700s and used by the Massachusetts government during the Revolutionary War
Browne House, built c. 1694
St. Stephen Armenian Apostolic Church
Hairenik Association building – Watertown, Mass.
Benjamin Robbins Curtis
Eliza Dushku

Harriet Hosmer (painter & sculptor), (1830–1908) known as the first female professional sculptor

Medusa

One of the three monstrous Gorgons, generally described as winged human females with living venomous snakes in place of hair.

Classical Greek gorgoneion featuring the head of Medusa; fourth century BC
An archaic Medusa wearing the belt of the intertwined snakes, a fertility symbol, as depicted on the west pediment of the Temple of Artemis on the island of Corcyra
Medusa by Arnold Böcklin, circa 1878
An embossed plaque in the Art Nouveau style from 1911
Perseus with the Head of Medusa, Benvenuto Cellini (1554)
Medusa, by Caravaggio (1595)
The Gates of Hell
An ancient Roman carving of the Medusa, now spolia in use as a column base in the Basilica Cistern
Coins of the reign of Seleucus I Nicator of Syria (312–280 BC)
The Medusa's head central to a mosaic floor in a tepidarium of the Roman era. Museum of Sousse, Tunisia
A Roman cameo of the 2nd or 3rd century
Municipal coat of arms of Dohalice village, Hradec Králové District, Czech Republic
Flag of Sicily
Ceremonial French military uniform belt of World War I
Medusa image in a historical caricature of the Reign of Terror during the French Revolution

Medusa (1854), marble sculpture by Harriet Hosmer, collection of the Detroit Institute of Art

Emma Stebbins

American sculptor and the first woman to receive a public art commission from New York City.

257x257px
Angel of the Waters (1873)
alt=Angel of the Waters statue|The Angel of the Waters (1873) in Central Park.
alt=Angel of the Waters statue|Angel of the Waters at Bethesda Fountain
alt=Industry and Commerce Statues|Industry (1859) and Commerce (1859)
alt=Horace Mann Statue|The Horace Mann (1865) statue outside the Massachusetts State House.
alt=Christopher Columbus Statue|Christopher Columbus (1867)
alt=Christopher Coumbus Statue|Christopher Columbus (1867)

While Caroline married John Rollin Tilton, an American painter, in 1858, Emma was welcomed into a society of expatriates by Harriet Hosmer, also an American sculptor.

Beatrice Cenci

Roman noblewoman who murdered her father, Count Francesco Cenci.

A possible portrait of Cenci variously attributed to Reni or Sirani, supposedly from life, praised by Stendhal, Dickens, and Hawthorne and inspiring Shelley's verse play of her life.
H. G. Hosmer: Beatrice Cenci
Beatrice Cenci after the rack by Sarah A. Doidge about 1890
"Beatrice Cenci" (1866), a study for a photographic series devoted to Cenci by Julia Margaret Cameron

A statue by American sculptor Harriet Goodhue Hosmer entitled Beatrice Cenci (1857) is on display at the Mercantile Library on the University of Missouri–St.

Edmonia Lewis

Mary Edmonia Lewis, also known as "Wildfire" (c.

Edmonia Lewis, U.S. postage stamp, 2022
Hiawatha, 1868, by Edmonia Lewis, inspired by Henry Wadsworth Longfellow's Song of Hiawatha. Like Hiawatha, Lewis was of Ojibwe descent.
Minnehaha, marble, 1868, collection of the Newark Museum
While in Rome, Lewis adopted the neoclassical style of sculpture, as seen in Bust of Dr. Dio Lewis (1868).
Edmonia Lewis, hands of Gerrit Smith and his wife Ann Carroll Fitzhugh
Lewis's grave in St. Mary's Roman Catholic Cemetery, London
Edmonia Lewis' grave after restoration
Forever Free, 1867
Edmonia Lewis, Anna Quincy Waterston, 1866, photo by David Finn, ©David Finn Archive, Department of Image Collections, National Gallery of Art Library, Washington, DC
Edmonia Lewis, Poor Cupid, 1872–1876, photo by David Finn, ©David Finn Archive, Department of Image Collections, National Gallery of Art Library, Washington, DC
Edmonia Lewis, Young Octavian, 1873, photo by David Finn, ©David Finn Archive, Department of Image Collections, National Gallery of Art Library, Washington, DC
Edmonia Lewis, Hagar, 1875, photo by David Finn, ©David Finn Archive, Department of Image Collections, National Gallery of Art Library, Washington, DC
Edmonia Lewis, Old Arrow Maker, 1866–1872, photo by David Finn, ©David Finn Archive, Department of Image Collections, National Gallery of Art Library, Washington, DC
Forever Free, 1867

Harriet Hosmer, a fellow sculptor and expatriate, also did this.

Anne Whitney

American sculptor and poet.

Drawing of Whitney
Africa, 1864, made during the Civil War to express her beliefs about abolition of slavery
Anne Whitney, Laura Brown, 1859, Smithsonian American Art Museum
her sculpture
William Lloyd Garrison
Child with Calla Lily Leaves. West Newton, MA. Photo by Diane Fassino.
Whitney's Leif Eriksson in Boston
Alice Freeman Palmer
Relief of George H. Palmer
Eben Norton Horsford

She was acquainted with American artists that were in Florence and Rome, like Edmonia Lewis, Harriet Hosmer, Florence Freeman, and others within the circle of stage actress Charlotte Cushman, a patron of the arts.