Harun al-Rashid

Hārūn al-RashīdHarun al RashidHarun ar-Rashidal-RashidHaroun al-RashidHaroun al-RaschidAr-RashidHārūn ar-RashīdAl-RashīdHaroun ar-Rashid
Harun al-Rashid (هَارُون الرَشِيد Hārūn Ar-Rašīd; "Aaron the Orthodox" or "Aaron the Rightly-Guided", 17 March 763 or February 766 – 24 March 809 (148–193 Hijri)) was the fifth Abbasid Caliph.wikipedia
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Islamic Golden Age

medieval Islamic worldIslamic civilizationGolden Age of Islam
Al-Rashid ruled from 786 to 809, during the peak of the Islamic Golden Age.
This period is traditionally understood to have begun during the reign of the Abbasid caliph Harun al-Rashid (786 to 809) with the inauguration of the House of Wisdom in Baghdad, where scholars from various parts of the world with different cultural backgrounds were mandated to gather and translate all of the world's classical knowledge into the Arabic language.

House of Wisdom

Bayt al-Hikmabecame the centre of the scientific worldGrand Library of Baghdad
He established the legendary library Bayt al-Hikma ("House of Wisdom") in Baghdad in present-day Iraq, and during his rule Baghdad began to flourish as a center of knowledge, culture and trade.
The House of Wisdom was founded either as a library for the collections of the Caliph Harun al-Rashid in the late 8th century (then later turned into a public academy during the reign of Al-Ma'mun) or was a private collection created by Al-Mansur (reign 754–775) to house rare books and collections of poetry in both Arabic and Persian.

Raqqa

CallinicumRaqqahRaqqa, Syria
In 796, he moved his court and government to Raqqa in present-day Syria.
The Hellenistic, Roman, and Byzantine city and bishopric Callinicum (formerly a Latin and now a Maronite Catholic titular see) was the capital of the Abbasid Caliphate between 796 and 809, under the reign of Harun al-Rashid.

Arabic name

laqabregnal namenasab
His epithet "al-Rashid" translates to "the Orthodox", "the Just", "the Upright", or "the Rightly-Guided".
An example is the Abbasid caliph Harun al-Rashid (of One Thousand and One Nights fame).

One Thousand and One Nights

Arabian NightsThe Arabian NightsThe Book of One Thousand and One Nights
Portions of the fictional One Thousand and One Nights are set in Harun's court and some of its stories involve Harun himself.
Common protagonists include the historical Abbasid caliph Harun al-Rashid, his Grand Vizier, Jafar al-Barmaki, and the famous poet Abu Nuwas, despite the fact that these figures lived some 200 years after the fall of the Sassanid Empire, in which the frame tale of Scheherazade is set.

Barmakids

BarmakidBarmakid familyAl-Barmaki
During his rule, the family of Barmakids, which played a deciding role in establishing the Abbasid Caliphate, declined gradually. His vizier (chief minister) Yahya the Barmakid, Yahya's sons (especially Ja'far ibn Yahya), and other Barmakids generally controlled the administration.
His son Yahya aided Harun Al-Rashid in capturing the throne and rose to power as the most powerful man in the Caliphate.

Abbasid invasion of Asia Minor (782)

first large-scale campaigna major invasionAbbasid invasion of Asia Minor
The latter expedition was a huge undertaking, and even reached the Asian suburbs of Constantinople.
Commanded by the Abbasid heir-apparent, the future Harun al-Rashid, the Abbasid army reached as far as Chrysopolis, across the Bosporus from the Byzantine capital, Constantinople, while secondary forces raided western Asia Minor and defeated the Byzantine forces there.

Al-Amin

al-AmīnCaliph Al-AminMuhammad ibn Harun al-Amin
On the day of accession, his son al-Ma'mun was born, and al-Amin some little time later: the latter was the son of Zubaida, a granddaughter of al-Mansur (founder of the city of Baghdad); so he took precedence over the former, whose mother was a Persian.
He succeeded his father, Harun al-Rashid, in 809 and ruled until he was deposed and killed in 813, during the civil war with his half-brother, al-Ma'mun.

Al-Ma'mun

al-Mamunal-Maʾmūnal-Ma'mūn
On the day of accession, his son al-Ma'mun was born, and al-Amin some little time later: the latter was the son of Zubaida, a granddaughter of al-Mansur (founder of the city of Baghdad); so he took precedence over the former, whose mother was a Persian.
Abdallah, the future al-Ma'mun, was born in Baghdad on the night of the 13 to 14 September 786 CE to Harun al-Rashid and his concubine Marajil, from Badghis.

Al-Kisa'i

al-Kisā’īKisa'ial-Kisāʾī
At some point the royal court relocated again to Al-Rayy, the capital city of Khorasan, where the famous philologist and leader of the Kufan school, Al-Kisa'i, accompanied the caliph with his entourage.
804 or 812) was preceptor to the sons of caliph Hārūn al-Rashīd and one of the ‘Seven Readers’ (seven canonical Qira'at) or ‘authorized’ Qur’ānic reader.

Al-Khayzuran

Al-Khayzuran bint 'AttaAl-Khayzuran bint Atta
He was the son of al-Mahdi, the third Abbasid caliph (ruled 775 – 786), and al-Khayzuran, a former slave girl from Yemen, who was a woman of strong personality and who greatly influenced affairs of state in the reigns of her husband, mother and sons.
Al-Khayzuran bint Atta (died 789) was the wife of the Abbasid Caliph Al-Mahdi and mother of both Caliphs Al-Hadi and Harun al-Rashid,She ruled from 775 to 789 during the reign of his wife and sons and is known for his immense influence on state affairs.

Al-Mahdi

Muhammad ibn Mansur al-MahdiCaliph Al MahdiMuhammad al-Mahdi
He was the son of al-Mahdi, the third Abbasid caliph (ruled 775 – 786), and al-Khayzuran, a former slave girl from Yemen, who was a woman of strong personality and who greatly influenced affairs of state in the reigns of her husband, mother and sons.
It was here that he fell in love with al-Khayzuran and had several children, including the fourth and fifth future Caliphs, al-Hadi and Harun al-Rashid.

Al-Fadl ibn al-Rabi'

al-Fadl ibn al-RabiFadl ibn al-Rabial-Fadl b. Rabi'
Al-Fadl ibn al-Rabi succeeded Yahya the Barmakid as Harun's chief minister.
Al-Fadl ibn al-Rabi (757/8–823/4) was one of the most influential officials of the Abbasid Caliphate in the reigns of Harun al-Rashid (reigned 786–809) and al-Amin (r.

Ja'far ibn Yahya

Ja'farJa'far al-BarmakiJa'far ibn Yahya al-Barmaki
His vizier (chief minister) Yahya the Barmakid, Yahya's sons (especially Ja'far ibn Yahya), and other Barmakids generally controlled the administration.
Ja'far ibn Yahya Barmaki, Jafar al-Barmaki (, جعفر بن يحيى, ja`far bin yaḥyā) (767–803) was a Persian vizier of the Abbasid caliph Harun al-Rashid, succeeding his father (Yahya ibn Khalid) in that position.

Zubaidah bint Ja'far

Zubaidah bint Ja`farZubaydaZubaida
On the day of accession, his son al-Ma'mun was born, and al-Amin some little time later: the latter was the son of Zubaida, a granddaughter of al-Mansur (founder of the city of Baghdad); so he took precedence over the former, whose mother was a Persian.
The exploits of her and her husband, Harun al-Rashid, form part of the basis for The Thousand and One Nights.

Muhammad al-Shaybani

al-Shaybaniash-ShaybaniMuhammad ibn al-Hasan al-Shaybani
He appointed the Hanafi jurist Muhammad al-Shaybani qadi (judge), but dismissed him again in 803.
He was so respected that Caliph Harun al-Rashid appointed him qadi (judge) of his capital city Raqqa (so, after 796 CE).

Charlemagne

Charles the GreatEmperor CharlemagneCharles
Harun sent various presents with the emissaries on their return to Charlemagne's court, including a clock that Charlemagne and his retinue deemed to be a conjuration because of the sounds it emanated and the tricks it displayed every time an hour ticked.
In 797 (or possibly 801), the caliph of Baghdad, Harun al-Rashid, presented Charlemagne with an Asian elephant named Abul-Abbas and a clock.

Abbasid invasion of Asia Minor (806)

large-scale invasion806Abbasid invasion of Asia Minor
After campaigns in Asia Minor, Nikephoros was forced to conclude a treaty, with humiliating terms.
The expedition was commanded in person by the Abbasid caliph, Harun al-Rashid ((r.

Abul-Abbas

Abu 'AbbasAbul Abbas
In 802 Harun sent Charlemagne a present consisting of silks, brass candelabra, perfume, balsam, ivory chessmen, a colossal tent with many-colored curtains, an elephant named Abul-Abbas, and a water clock that marked the hours by dropping bronze balls into a bowl, as mechanical knights—one for each hour—emerged from little doors which shut behind them.
Abul-Abbas was an Asian elephant given to Carolingian emperor Charlemagne by the Abbasid caliph Harun al-Rashid.

Vizier (Abbasid Caliphate)

vizierwaziroriginal Abbasid model
Rashid appointed him as his vizier with full executive powers, and, for seventeen years, this man Yahya and his sons, served Rashid faithfully in whatever assignment he entrusted to them.
775 – 785)). The early history of the office was dominated by the Barmakid family, which held unparalleled authority during the early part of the reign of Harun al-Rashid ((r.

Mashhad

MashadMeshedMashhad, Iran
The location later became known as Mashhad ("The Place of Martyrdom") because of the martyrdom of Imam ar-Ridha in 818.
The Abbasid caliph Harun al-Rashid is also buried within the same shrine.

Fourth Fitna

civil warAbbasid civil warFourth Islamic Civil War
After the death of Harun al-Rashid, civil war broke out in the empire between his two sons, al-Amin and al-Ma'mun, which spiralled into a prolonged period of turmoil and warfare throughout the Caliphate, ending only with Ma'mun's final triumph in 827.
Their father, Caliph Harun al-Rashid, had named al-Amin as the first successor, but had also named al-Ma'mun as the second, with Khurasan granted to him as an appanage.

Aghlabids

AghlabidAghlabid dynastyAghlabid Emirate
The Umayyads had been established in Spain in 755, the Idrisids in Morocco in 788, and the Aghlabids in Ifriqiya (modern Tunisia) in 800.
In 800, the Abbasid Caliph Harun al-Rashid appointed Ibrahim I ibn al-Aghlab, son of a Khurasanian Arab commander from the Banu Tamim tribe, as hereditary Emir of Ifriqiya as a response to the anarchy that had reigned in that province following the fall of the Muhallabids.

Al-Qasim ibn Harun al-Rashid

al-Qasim
Al-Rashid virtually dismembered the empire by apportioning it between his two sons al-Amin and al-Ma'mun (with his third son, al-Qasim, being belatedly added after them).
Al-Qasim ibn Harun al-Rashid was the third son of the Abbasid Caliph Harun al-Rashid (r.

Yahya ibn Khalid

Yahya al-BarmakiYahya the BarmakidYaḥyā ibn Khālid
His vizier (chief minister) Yahya the Barmakid, Yahya's sons (especially Ja'far ibn Yahya), and other Barmakids generally controlled the administration.
When Harun became Caliph as Harun al-Rashid, he made Yahya vizier.