Hassium

Hs108element 108SergeniumUnniloctium
Hassium is a chemical element with the symbol Hs and the atomic number 108.wikipedia
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Symbol (chemistry)

symbolchemical symbolchemical symbols
Hassium is a chemical element with the symbol Hs and the atomic number 108.
For example, "Uno" was the temporary symbol for hassium (element 108) which had the temporary name of unniloctium, based on its atomic number being 8 greater than 100.

Darmstadt

Darmstadt, GermanyHessen-DarmstadtDA
Later in 1984, an attempt was made at the Gesellschaft für Schwerionenforschung (GSI) in Darmstadt, Hesse, West Germany, which claimed to have synthesized it. Later in 1984, a research team led by Peter Armbruster and Gottfried Münzenberg at the Gesellschaft für Schwerionenforschung (GSI; Institute for Heavy Ion Research) in Darmstadt, Hesse, West Germany, attempted to create element 108.
The European Organisation for the Exploitation of Meteorological Satellites (EUMETSAT) and the European Space Operations Centre (ESOC) are located in Darmstadt, as well as GSI Centre for Heavy Ion Research, where several chemical elements such as bohrium (1981), meitnerium (1982), hassium (1984), darmstadtium (1994), roentgenium (1994), and copernicium (1996) were discovered.

Hesse

HessenHessianHessia
Later in 1984, an attempt was made at the Gesellschaft für Schwerionenforschung (GSI) in Darmstadt, Hesse, West Germany, which claimed to have synthesized it. Later in 1984, a research team led by Peter Armbruster and Gottfried Münzenberg at the Gesellschaft für Schwerionenforschung (GSI; Institute for Heavy Ion Research) in Darmstadt, Hesse, West Germany, attempted to create element 108.
The synthetic element hassium, number 108 on the periodic table, was named after the state of Hesse in 1997, following a proposal of 1992.

Osmium

Osos'''miumosmiophilic
Chemistry experiments have confirmed that hassium behaves as the heavier homologue to osmium, in group 8, reacting readily with oxygen to form a volatile tetroxide. The previous members of group 8 have relatively high melting points; (Fe, 1538 °C; Ru, 2334 °C; Os, 3033 °C).
The +8 oxidation state is notable for being the highest attained by any chemical element aside from iridium's +9 and is encountered only in xenon, ruthenium, hassium, and iridium.

GSI Helmholtz Centre for Heavy Ion Research

GSIGesellschaft für SchwerionenforschungInstitute for Heavy Ion Research
Later in 1984, an attempt was made at the Gesellschaft für Schwerionenforschung (GSI) in Darmstadt, Hesse, West Germany, which claimed to have synthesized it. Later in 1984, a research team led by Peter Armbruster and Gottfried Münzenberg at the Gesellschaft für Schwerionenforschung (GSI; Institute for Heavy Ion Research) in Darmstadt, Hesse, West Germany, attempted to create element 108.
Elements discovered at GSI: bohrium (1981), meitnerium (1982), hassium (1984), darmstadtium (1994), roentgenium (1994), and copernicium (1996).

Peter Armbruster

P. Armbruster
Later in 1984, a research team led by Peter Armbruster and Gottfried Münzenberg at the Gesellschaft für Schwerionenforschung (GSI; Institute for Heavy Ion Research) in Darmstadt, Hesse, West Germany, attempted to create element 108.
Peter Armbruster (born 25 July 1931) is a physicist at the Gesellschaft für Schwerionenforschung (GSI) facility in Darmstadt, Germany, and is credited with co-discovering elements 107 (bohrium), 108 (hassium), 109 (meitnerium), 110 (darmstadtium), 111 (roentgenium), and 112 (copernicium) with research partner Gottfried Münzenberg.

Period 7 element

7th periodperiod 77
In the periodic table of the elements, hassium is a transactinide element, a member of the 7th period and group 8; it is thus the sixth member of the 6d series of transition metals.

Yuri Oganessian

OganessianY. OganessianYuri Tsolakovich Oganessian
The synthesis of element 108 was first attempted in 1978 by a research team led by Yuri Oganessian at the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research (JINR) in Dubna, Moscow Oblast, Russian SFSR, Soviet Union.
From the mid-1970s to the mid-1990s, the partnership of JINR, led by Oganessian, and the GSI Helmholtz Centre for Heavy Ion Research in Germany, led to the discovery of six chemical elements (107 to 112): bohrium, meitnerium, hassium, darmstadtium, roentgenium, and copernicium.

Synthetic element

syntheticartificial elementsynthesized
It is not known to occur in nature and has been made only in laboratories in minuscule quantities.
Meanwhile, the American team had discovered seaborgium, and the next six elements had been discovered by a German team: bohrium, hassium, meitnerium, darmstadtium, roentgenium, and copernicium.

Transition metal

transition metalstransition elementtransition-metal
In the periodic table of the elements, hassium is a transactinide element, a member of the 7th period and group 8; it is thus the sixth member of the 6d series of transition metals.

Gottfried Münzenberg

G. MünzenbergG.Münzenberg
Later in 1984, a research team led by Peter Armbruster and Gottfried Münzenberg at the Gesellschaft für Schwerionenforschung (GSI; Institute for Heavy Ion Research) in Darmstadt, Hesse, West Germany, attempted to create element 108.
He was the driving force in the discovery of the cold heavy ion fusion and the discovery of the elements bohrium (Bh Z=107), hassium (Hs Z=108), meitnerium (Mt Z=109), darmstadtium (Ds Z=110), roentgenium (Rg Z=111) and copernicium (Cn Z=112).

Periodic table

periodic table of elementsperiodic table of the elementsperiodic system
In the periodic table of the elements, hassium is a transactinide element, a member of the 7th period and group 8; it is thus the sixth member of the 6d series of transition metals.
Although all elements up to oganesson have been discovered, of the elements above hassium (element 108), only copernicium (element 112), nihonium (element 113), and flerovium (element 114) have known chemical properties, and only for copernicium is there enough evidence for a conclusive categorisation at present.

Seaborgium

Sgelement 106
(A nuclide decaying in less than a microsecond would decay before it reached the detectors, and a nuclide predominantly decaying by spontaneous fission rather than alpha emission would not produce a chain anchored to known daughters.) The element 108 experiment finally went ahead after 266 109 had been synthesized and was found to decay by alpha emission, suggesting that isotopes of element 108 would do likewise, and this was corroborated by an experiment aimed at synthesising isotopes of element 106. This isomer of 271 Hs could be produced from the beta decay of 271 Bh and 271 Sg, which, being homologous to rhenium and molybdenum respectively, should occur in molybdenite along with rhenium and molybdenum if they occurred in nature.
The proton-rich isotopes from 258 Sg to 261 Sg were directly produced by cold fusion; all heavier isotopes were produced from the repeated alpha decay of the heavier elements hassium, darmstadtium, and flerovium, with the exceptions of the isotopes 263m Sg, 264 Sg, 265 Sg, and 265m Sg, which were directly produced by hot fusion through irradiation of actinide targets.

Meitnerium

MtUnnilennium109
GSI's experiment to create element 108 was delayed until after their creation of element 109 in 1982, as prior calculations had suggested that even–even isotopes of element 108 would have spontaneous fission half-lives of less than one microsecond, making them difficult to detect and identify. In 1994, IUPAC Commission on Nomenclature of Inorganic Chemistry recommended that element 108 be named "hahnium" (Hn) after the German physicist Otto Hahn so elements named after Hahn and Lise Meitner (it was recommended element 109 should be named meitnerium) would be next to each other, honouring their joint discovery of nuclear fission; it was reported that they felt the German suggestion was obscure.
It should be a very heavy metal with a density of around 37.4 g/cm 3, which would be the second-highest of any of the 118 known elements, second only to that predicted for its neighbor hassium (41 g/cm 3 ).

Albert Ghiorso

Albert Ghioirso
This set would serve as a response to earlier naming of "americium", "californium", and "berkelium" by physicists led by Glenn T. Seaborg and Albert Ghiorso at LBL.
In the 1970s and 1980s, resources for new element research at Berkeley were diminishing, but the GSI laboratory at Darmstadt, Germany, under the leadership of Peter Armbruster and with considerable resources, was able to produce and identify elements 107-109 (107, bohrium; 108, hassium and 109, meitnerium).

Ruthenium

RuRu(NH 3 ) 6 3+ ruthenate
The previous members of group 8 have relatively high melting points; (Fe, 1538 °C; Ru, 2334 °C; Os, 3033 °C). Calculations on its ionisation potentials, atomic radii, orbital energies and ground levels of its ionized states are similar to those of osmium, implying hassium's properties would resemble those of the other group 8 elements: iron, ruthenium, and osmium.

Group 8 element

8group 8group 8 elements
In the periodic table of the elements, hassium is a transactinide element, a member of the 7th period and group 8; it is thus the sixth member of the 6d series of transition metals. Calculations on its ionisation potentials, atomic radii, orbital energies and ground levels of its ionized states are similar to those of osmium, implying hassium's properties would resemble those of the other group 8 elements: iron, ruthenium, and osmium.
It consists of iron (Fe), ruthenium (Ru), osmium (Os) and hassium (Hs).

Otto Hahn

HahnHahn, OttoOtto-Hahn
In 1994, IUPAC Commission on Nomenclature of Inorganic Chemistry recommended that element 108 be named "hahnium" (Hn) after the German physicist Otto Hahn so elements named after Hahn and Lise Meitner (it was recommended element 109 should be named meitnerium) would be next to each other, honouring their joint discovery of nuclear fission; it was reported that they felt the German suggestion was obscure.
Although element 108 was given the name hassium (after Hesse) by its officially recognized German discoverers in 1992, a 1994 IUPAC committee recommended that it be named hahnium (Hn), in spite of the long-standing convention to give the discoverer the right to suggest a name.

Timeline of chemical element discoveries

discoveredDiscovery of the chemical elementsDiscoveries of the chemical elements
In 1985, the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC) and the International Union of Pure and Applied Physics (IUPAP) formed a Joint Working Party (JWP) to assess discoveries and establish final names for elements with atomic numbers greater than 100.

Darmstadtium

110Dselement 110
The official justification for this naming, alongside that of "darmstadtium" for element 110, was that it completed a set of geographic names for the location of the GSI; this set was initiated by 19th-century names "europium" and "germanium".
Separation and detection must be carried out continuously to separate out the darmstadtium isotopes and have automated systems experiment on the gas-phase and solution chemistry of darmstadtium, as the yields for heavier elements are predicted to be smaller than those for lighter elements; some of the separation techniques used for bohrium and hassium could be reused.

Magic number (physics)

magic numbermagic numbersdoubly magic
A 2007 calculation on the decay properties of unknown, neutron-rich isotopes of superheavy elements suggested the isotope 292 Hs may be the most stable superheavy nucleus against alpha decay and spontaneous fission as a consequence of the shell closure at N = 184.
In December 2006, hassium-270, with 108 protons and 162 neutrons, was discovered by an international team of scientists led by the Technical University of Munich having the half-life of 22 seconds.

Curium

CmCm 3+ curium-242
In 1963, Soviet scientist Viktor Cherdyntsev, who had previously claimed the existence of primordial curium-247, claimed to have discovered element 108—specifically the 267 108 isotope, which supposedly had a half-life of 400 to 500 million years—in natural molybdenite and suggested the provisional name sergenium (symbol Sg); this name takes its origin from the name for the Silk Road and was explained as "coming from Kazakhstan" for it.
Thus, bombardment of 248 Cm with neon ( 22 Ne), magnesium ( 26 Mg), or calcium ( 48 Ca) yielded certain isotopes of seaborgium ( 265 Sg), hassium ( 269 Hs and 270 Hs), and livermorium ( 292 Lv, 293 Lv, and possibly 294 Lv).

Bohrium

Bh107bohrium-262
This isomer of 271 Hs could be produced from the beta decay of 271 Bh and 271 Sg, which, being homologous to rhenium and molybdenum respectively, should occur in molybdenite along with rhenium and molybdenum if they occurred in nature.
It should be a very heavy metal with a density of around 37.1 g/cm 3, which would be the third-highest of any of the 118 known elements, lower than only meitnerium (37.4 g/cm 3 ) and hassium (41 g/cm 3 ), the two following elements in the periodic table.

Island of stability

island of relative stabilityislands of stabilityregion of long-lived nuclei
* Island of stability
In 1939, an upper limit was estimated around element 104, and following the first discoveries of transactinide elements in the early 1960s, it seemed that element 108 might be the limit.

Atomic radius

atomic radiiatomicatomic size
Calculations on its ionisation potentials, atomic radii, orbital energies and ground levels of its ionized states are similar to those of osmium, implying hassium's properties would resemble those of the other group 8 elements: iron, ruthenium, and osmium.