Hatha yoga

Haṭha yogaHathayogaHatha yogiHata yogisHathayogihaṭhahaṭhayogaphysical yoga
Haṭha yoga is a branch of yoga.wikipedia
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Yoga

yogicyogiYog
Haṭha yoga is a branch of yoga.
The term "yoga" in the Western world often denotes a modern form of Hatha yoga, yoga as exercise, consisting largely of the postures called asanas.

Matsyendra

MatsyendranathMachindranathMinanatha
In India, haṭha yoga is associated in popular tradition with the Yogis of the Natha Sampradaya through its traditional founder Matsyendranath.
He is traditionally considered the founder of hatha yoga as well as the author of some of its earliest texts.

Asana

asanasāsanaYogasana
In the 20th century, a development of haṭha yoga, focusing particularly on asanas (the physical postures), became popular throughout the world as a form of physical exercise.
An asana is a body posture, originally and still a general term for a sitting meditation pose, and later extended in hatha yoga and modern yoga as exercise, to any type of pose or position, adding reclining, standing, inverted, twisting, and balancing poses.

Mudra

mudrasmudrāvitarka mudra
According to the Dattatreya Yoga Śastra, there are two forms of haṭha yoga: one practiced by Yajñavalkya consisting of the eight limbs of ashtanga yoga and another practiced by Kapila consisting of eight mudras. Later haṭha yoga texts adopt the practices of haṭha yoga mudras into a Saiva system, melding it with Layayoga methods which focus on the raising of kuṇḍalinī through energy channels and chakras.
In hatha yoga, mudras are used in conjunction with pranayama (yogic breathing exercises), generally while in a seated posture, to stimulate different parts of the body involved with breathing and to affect the flow of prana, bindu (male psycho-sexual energy), boddhicitta, amrita or consciousness in the body.

Vajrayana

Vajrayana BuddhismTantric Buddhismtantric
The oldest texts to use the terminology of hatha are also Vajrayana Buddhist.
These yogic circles came together in tantric feasts (ganachakra) often in sacred sites (pitha) and places (ksetra) which included dancing, singing, sex rites and the ingestion of taboo substances like alcohol, urine, meat, etc. At least two of the Mahasiddhas cited in the Buddhist literature are comparable with the Shaiva Nath saints (Gorakshanath and Matsyendranath) who practiced Hatha Yoga.

Yoga as exercise

yogamodern postural yogapostural yoga
This modern form of yoga is now widely known simply as "yoga".
It is derived from medieval Haṭha yoga, and is sometimes so named, but it is generally simply called "yoga".

Kundalini yoga

Laya yogaKundalinikuṇḍalinī
Later haṭha yoga texts adopt the practices of haṭha yoga mudras into a Saiva system, melding it with Layayoga methods which focus on the raising of kuṇḍalinī through energy channels and chakras.
However, it may include haṭha yoga techniques (such as bandha, pranayama, and asana), Patañjali's kriya yoga (consisting of self-discipline, self-study, and devotion to God), tantric visualization and meditation techniques of laya yoga (known as samsketas), and other techniques oriented towards the 'awakening of kundalini'.

Khecarī mudrā

khechari mudraKetchari MudraKhecari mudra
However, there is no mention of the tongue being inserted into the nasopharynx as in true khecarī mudrā.
(Sanskrit, खेचरी मुद्रा) is a hatha yoga practice carried out by curling the tip of the tongue back into the mouth until it reaches above the soft palate and into the nasal cavity.

James Mallinson (author)

James MallinsonJames Mallison
However, James Mallinson associates haṭha yoga with the Dashanami Sampradaya and the mystical figure of Dattatreya. James Mallinson gives a list of what he terms “early” haṭha yoga works, which he contrasts with later "classical" works such as the Haṭhapradīpikā:
Supervised by Alexis Sanderson, his doctoral thesis at Oxford was a translation of the Khecarīvidyā with an explanation of its place in the Hatha Yoga traditions.

Pranayama

prāṇāyāmabreathing techniqueprānāyāma
"when the undying moment does not arise because the breath is unrestrained [even] when the image is seen by means of withdrawal (pratyahara) and the other (auxiliaries of yoga, i.e. dhyana, pranayama, dharana, anusmrti and samadhi), then, having forcefully (hathena) made the breath flow in the central channel through the practice of nada, which is about to be explained, [the yogi] should attain the undying moment by restraining the bindu of the bodhicitta [i.e. semen] in the vajra [i.e. penis] when it is in the lotus of wisdom [i.e. vagina]".
In texts like the Bhagavad Gita and the Yoga Sutras of Patanjali, and later in Hatha yoga texts, it meant the complete cessation of breathing.

Mahamudra (Hatha Yoga)

mahāmudrāMaha MudraMahamudra
Mahamudra is a hatha yoga gesture (mudra) whose purpose is to improve control over the sexual potential.

Tantra

TantricTantrismTantrik
Currently, the oldest dated text to describe haṭha yoga, the 11th-century CE Amṛtasiddhi, comes from a tantric Buddhist milieu.
Later, according to Lorenzen, these early Yoga-related ideas develop into Hatha Yoga, and then diversify into the "mystical anatomy" of nadis and chakras of Tantric practices.

Nath

Nath SampradayaNathaNatha Sampradaya
In India, haṭha yoga is associated in popular tradition with the Yogis of the Natha Sampradaya through its traditional founder Matsyendranath.
A notable aspect of Nath tradition practice have been its refinements and use of Yoga, particularly Hatha Yoga, to transform one's body into a sahaja siddha state of awakened self’s identity with absolute reality.

Viparita Karani

viparītakaraṇī
These techniques sought to either physically reverse this process (by inverted postures like viparītakaraṇī) or to use the breath to force bindu upwards through the central channel.
Viparita Karani or legs up the wall pose is considered either as an asana or a mudra in haṭha yoga.

Amritasiddhi

Amṛtasiddhi
Currently, the oldest dated text to describe haṭha yoga, the 11th-century CE Amṛtasiddhi, comes from a tantric Buddhist milieu.
The Amṛtasiddhi (Sanskrit: अमृतसिद्धि), written in about the 11th century, is the earliest substantial text on what became haṭha yoga, though it does not mention the term.

Kundalini

Kundalini energyKundalini syndromeawakened kundalini
The Buddha also used a posture where pressure is put on the perineum with the heel, similar to modern postures used to stimulate Kundalini.
The term, along with practices associated with it, was adopted into Hatha yoga in the 11th century.

Vajroli mudra

amarolīsahajolīVajroli/Sahajoli Mudra
Vajroli mudra (Sanskrit: वज्रोली मुद्रा vajrolī mudrā), the Vajroli Seal, is a practice in Hatha yoga which requires the yogin to preserve his semen, either by learning not to release it, or if released by drawing it up through his urethra from the vagina of "a woman devoted to the practice of yoga".

Hatha Yoga Pradipika

Haṭha Yoga PradīpikāHYPSvatmarama
James Mallinson gives a list of what he terms “early” haṭha yoga works, which he contrasts with later "classical" works such as the Haṭhapradīpikā:
The Haṭha Yoga Pradīpikā (, हठयोगप्रदीपिका or Light on Hatha Yoga) is a classic fifteenth-century Sanskrit manual on haṭha yoga, written by Svātmārāma, who connects the teaching's lineage to Matsyendranath of the Nathas.

Enlightenment (spiritual)

enlightenmentspiritual enlightenmentspiritual awakening
After trying these, he then sought another path to enlightenment.
By the turn of the first millennium, Hatha yoga emerged as a prominent tradition of yoga distinct from the Patanjali's Yoga Sutras.

Joga Pradīpikā

Joga PradipikaJogapradipikaJP
The Joga Pradīpikā ("A Small Light on Yoga") is a hatha yoga text by Ramanandi Jayatarama written in 1737 in a mixture of Hindi, Braj Bhasa, Khari Boli and forms close to Sanskrit.

Sharngadhara-paddhati

PaddhatiSarngadhara PaddhatiŚārṅgadharapaddhati
The text is of interest as containing an account of Hatha Yoga, which it describes as being of two types, Gorakhnath's with six limbs and Markandeya's with eight limbs.

Maha Bandha

mahābandha
Maha bandha (Sanskrit: महा बंध, Mahā Bandha), translated as "The great bandha" is the combination of all three internal locks or bandhas of hatha yoga performed together.

Gheranda Samhita

Gheraṇḍa SaṃhitāGhSGherand Samhita
Eating, states the Gheranda Samhita, is a form of a devotional act to the temple of body, as if one is expressing affection for the gods.
It is one of the three classic texts of hatha yoga (the other two being the Hatha Yoga Pradipika and the Shiva Samhita), and one of the most encyclopedic treatises in yoga.

Haṭha Ratnāvalī

Hatha RatnavaliHRHaṭha Ratnavali
The Haṭha Ratnāvalī is a Haṭha yoga text written in the 17th century by Srinivasa.

Mark Singleton (yoga scholar)

Mark Singleton
According to Mark Singleton, this historical negativity and colonial antipathy likely motivated Swami Vivekananda to make an emphatic distinction between "merely physical exercises of Hatha yoga" and the "higher spiritual path of Raja yoga".
He is the author of the widely-read study of modern postural yoga Yoga Body : the Origins of Modern Posture Practice (2010), based on his PhD thesis; it argued that certain posture-based forms of modern yoga represent, in large part, a radical break from haṭha yoga tradition, with different goals, and an unprecedented emphasis on āsanas.