Hawaii hotspot

Hawaiian hotspotHawaiiHawaiian volcanoesHawaiianHawaiian volcanismHawaiʻi hotspothotspothotspot volcanoesthe one underlying Hawaiivolcanic activity
The Hawaii hotspot is a volcanic hotspot located near the namesake Hawaiian Islands, in the northern Pacific Ocean.wikipedia
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Hotspot (geology)

hotspothotspotshot spot
The Hawaii hotspot is a volcanic hotspot located near the namesake Hawaiian Islands, in the northern Pacific Ocean.
Well-known examples include the Hawaii, Iceland and Yellowstone hotspots.

Mantle plume

plumemantle plumesplumes
One of the best known and intensively studied hotspots in the world, the Hawaii plume is responsible for the creation of the Hawaiian–Emperor seamount chain, a 5800 km mostly undersea volcanic mountain range.
Because the plume head partly melts on reaching shallow depths, a plume is often invoked as the cause of volcanic hotspots, such as Hawaii or Iceland, and large igneous provinces such as the Deccan and Siberian traps.

James Dwight Dana

DanaJames D. DanaJames Dana
After the arrival of Europeans on the island, in 1880–1881 James Dwight Dana directed the first formal geological study of the hotspot's volcanics, confirming the relationship long observed by the natives.
Dana was responsible for developing much of the early knowledge on Hawaiian volcanism.

Kauai

KauaʻiKauai, HawaiiKaua'i
According to Wilson's theory, the Hawaiian volcanoes should be progressively older and increasingly eroded the further they are from the hotspot, and this is easily observable; the oldest rock in the main Hawaiian islands, that of Kauai, is about 5.5 million years old and deeply eroded, while the rock on Hawaii island is a comparatively young 0.7 million years of age or less, with new lava constantly erupting at Kīlauea, the hotspot's present center.
Kauai's origins are volcanic, the island having been formed by the passage of the Pacific Plate over the Hawaii hotspot.

Hawaiian–Emperor seamount chain

Hawaiian-Emperor seamount chainEmperor SeamountsHawaiian – Emperor seamount chain
One of the best known and intensively studied hotspots in the world, the Hawaii plume is responsible for the creation of the Hawaiian–Emperor seamount chain, a 5800 km mostly undersea volcanic mountain range. They can be organized into three general categories: the Hawaiian archipelago, which comprises most of the U.S. state of Hawaii and is the location of all modern volcanic activity; the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands, which consist of coral atolls, extinct islands, and atoll islands; and the Emperor Seamounts, all of which have since eroded and subsided to the sea and become seamounts and guyots (flat-topped seamounts).
In 1963, geologist John Tuzo Wilson hypothesized the origins of the Hawaiian–Emperor seamount chain, explaining that they were created by a hotspot of volcanic activity that was essentially stationary as the Pacific tectonic plate drifted in a northwesterly direction, leaving a trail of increasingly eroded volcanic islands and seamounts in its wake.

Nintoku Seamount

Nintoku
The project drilled Detroit, Nintoku, and Koko seamounts, all of which are in the far northwest end of the chain, the oldest section.
The seamount occupies a central position in the Emperor Seamount chain and is thus an important point in the paleolatitude history of the Hawaiian hotspot, instrumental to proving the scientific hunch that the Hawaii hotspot was a mobile entity.

Mauna Loa

MokuaweoweoLoaHawaiian volcano
Just reaching the summits proved daunting: Menzies took three attempts to ascend Mauna Loa, and Douglas died on the slopes of Mauna Kea. The Loa trend includes Lōihi, Mauna Loa, Hualālai, Kahoolawe, Lānai, and West Molokai.
The volcano's magma comes from the Hawaii hotspot, which has been responsible for the creation of the Hawaiian island chain over tens of millions of years.

Kīlauea

KilaueaKilauea VolcanoKīlauea volcano
According to Wilson's theory, the Hawaiian volcanoes should be progressively older and increasingly eroded the further they are from the hotspot, and this is easily observable; the oldest rock in the main Hawaiian islands, that of Kauai, is about 5.5 million years old and deeply eroded, while the rock on Hawaii island is a comparatively young 0.7 million years of age or less, with new lava constantly erupting at Kīlauea, the hotspot's present center. The Kea trend includes the volcanoes of Kīlauea, Mauna Kea, Kohala, Haleakalā, and West Maui.
It is the second youngest product of the Hawaiian hotspot and the current eruptive center of the Hawaiian–Emperor seamount chain.

Mauna Kea

Mauna Kea, HawaiiMauna Kea (Hawai'i)a 13,796' dormant volcano
Just reaching the summits proved daunting: Menzies took three attempts to ascend Mauna Loa, and Douglas died on the slopes of Mauna Kea. The Kea trend includes the volcanoes of Kīlauea, Mauna Kea, Kohala, Haleakalā, and West Maui.
It began as a preshield volcano driven by the Hawaii hotspot around one million years ago, and became exceptionally active during its shield stage until 500,000 years ago.

Detroit Seamount

Detroit
The project drilled Detroit, Nintoku, and Koko seamounts, all of which are in the far northwest end of the chain, the oldest section. The chain's rate of drift has slowly increased over time, causing the amount of time each individual volcano is active to decrease, from 18 million years for the 76-million-year-old Detroit Seamount, to just under 900,000 for the one-million-year-old Kohala; on the other hand, eruptive volume has increased from 0.01 km3 per year to about 0.21 km3.
The large difference between the youngest and oldest lavas provides evidence that the Hawaii hotspot migrated far more slowly than it does today; for example, Kohala volcano (the oldest volcano of Hawaii island) first emerged from the sea 500,000 years ago, and last erupted 120,000 years ago, a period of only 380,000 years in comparison to Detroit's 18 million or more years of volcanic activity.

Pacific-Kula Ridge

There is evidence that the chain started on a spreading ridge (the Pacific-Kula Ridge) that has now been subducted at the Aleutian trench.
The Pacific-Kula Ridge lay south of the Hawaii hotspot around 80 million years ago, moving northward relative to the hotspot.

Koko Guyot

KokoKoko seamount
The project drilled Detroit, Nintoku, and Koko seamounts, all of which are in the far northwest end of the chain, the oldest section.
Studies suggested that the magnetic arrangement of the rock, used to determine its latitude at formation (magnets align to the North pole; also, the drift and position of the Hawaii hotspot at various times is important to hotspot studies), were relatively stable.

Types of volcanic eruptions

volcanic eruptioneruptionvolcanic eruptions
Volcanoes fall into several eruptive categories.
Hawaiian eruptions are a type of volcanic eruption, named after the Hawaiian volcanoes with which this eruptive type is hallmark.

Hawaii

State of HawaiiHawaiʻiHI
They can be organized into three general categories: the Hawaiian archipelago, which comprises most of the U.S. state of Hawaii and is the location of all modern volcanic activity; the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands, which consist of coral atolls, extinct islands, and atoll islands; and the Emperor Seamounts, all of which have since eroded and subsided to the sea and become seamounts and guyots (flat-topped seamounts).
The Hawaiian islands were formed by volcanic activity initiated at an undersea magma source called the Hawaii hotspot.

Evolution of Hawaiian volcanoes

shield stagerejuvenatedrejuvenated stage
They can be organized into three general categories: the Hawaiian archipelago, which comprises most of the U.S. state of Hawaii and is the location of all modern volcanic activity; the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands, which consist of coral atolls, extinct islands, and atoll islands; and the Emperor Seamounts, all of which have since eroded and subsided to the sea and become seamounts and guyots (flat-topped seamounts).
An island's stage of development reflects its distance from the Hawaii hotspot.

1868 Hawaii earthquake

18681868 earthquake1868 Hawaii earthquake and tsunami
The most destructive recorded earthquake was the 2 April 1868 earthquake which had a magnitude of 7.9 on the Richter scale.
The island of Hawaii (commonly called the "Big Island") is the currently active volcanic center of the Hawaiian Islands formed over the Hawaii hotspot.

Titus Coan

Dana stayed with missionary Titus Coan, who would provide decades of first-hand observations.
These contributed to Dana's development of the Hawaii hotspot theory for the geologic evolution of the island chain.

Lōʻihi Seamount

Loihi SeamountLoihiLōihi
The Loa trend includes Lōihi, Mauna Loa, Hualālai, Kahoolawe, Lānai, and West Molokai.
Volcanoes in the Hawaiian Islands arise from the Hawaii hotspot, and as the youngest volcano in the chain, Lōihi is the only Hawaiian volcano in the deep submarine preshield stage of development.

Haleakalā

HaleakalaEast MauiHaleakala Crater
The Kea trend includes the volcanoes of Kīlauea, Mauna Kea, Kohala, Haleakalā, and West Maui.

Hualālai

HualalaiMount HualalaiHualalai Mountain
The Loa trend includes Lōihi, Mauna Loa, Hualālai, Kahoolawe, Lānai, and West Molokai.

Seismic tomography

tomographictomographypassive seismic tomography
The Hawaii hotspot has been imaged through seismic tomography, and is estimated to be 500 – wide.
The Hawaii hotspot produced the Hawaiian–Emperor seamount chain.

Atoll

coral atollatollsDarwin Point
Four of these volcanoes are active, two are dormant; more than 123 are extinct, most now preserved as atolls or seamounts.

Seamount

seamountssea mountseamount chain
Four of these volcanoes are active, two are dormant; more than 123 are extinct, most now preserved as atolls or seamounts.

Hawaii (island)

Hawaiiisland of HawaiiBig Island
According to Wilson's theory, the Hawaiian volcanoes should be progressively older and increasingly eroded the further they are from the hotspot, and this is easily observable; the oldest rock in the main Hawaiian islands, that of Kauai, is about 5.5 million years old and deeply eroded, while the rock on Hawaii island is a comparatively young 0.7 million years of age or less, with new lava constantly erupting at Kīlauea, the hotspot's present center. The chain extends from south of the island of Hawaii to the edge of the Aleutian Trench, near the eastern coast of Russia.

Aleutian Trench

AleutianAlaska-Aleutian MegathrustAleutian subduction zone
The chain extends from south of the island of Hawaii to the edge of the Aleutian Trench, near the eastern coast of Russia.