A report on Head of government

President Dilma Rousseff of Brazil and President Christina Kirchner of Argentina in 2015.
The heads of government of five members of the Commonwealth of Nations at the 1944 Commonwealth Prime Ministers' Conference. From left to right, Mackenzie King (Canada), Jan Smuts (South Africa), Winston Churchill (United Kingdom), Peter Fraser (New Zealand), and John Curtin (Australia).

Either the highest or the second-highest official in the executive branch of a sovereign state, a federated state, or a self-governing colony, autonomous region, or other government who often presides over a cabinet, a group of ministers or secretaries who lead executive departments.

- Head of government
President Dilma Rousseff of Brazil and President Christina Kirchner of Argentina in 2015.

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Grassalkovich Palace in Bratislava is the seat of the President of Slovakia.

Head of state

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Public persona who officially embodies a state in its unity and legitimacy.

Public persona who officially embodies a state in its unity and legitimacy.

Grassalkovich Palace in Bratislava is the seat of the President of Slovakia.
World's parliamentary states (as of 2022): Republics with an executive president elected by a parliament Parliamentary republics Parliamentary constitutional monarchies in which the monarch usually does not personally exercise power Presidential republics, one-party states, and other forms of government
Elizabeth II is the reigning monarch and head of state of the United Kingdom and 14 other countries
Charles de Gaulle, President and head of state of the French Fifth Republic (1959–1969)
George Washington, the first president of the United States, set the precedent for an executive head of state in republican systems of government
George V, Emperor of India, and Empress Mary at the Delhi Durbar, 1911.
Tekiso Hati, ambassador of the Kingdom of Lesotho, presenting his credentials to Russian president Vladimir Putin
Daniel B. Shapiro, U.S. ambassador to Israel, presents his credentials to Israeli president Shimon Peres on 3 August 2011
A 1992 Letter of Credence, written in French, for the Czechoslovakian Ambassador to Lithuania, signed by the President of Czechoslovakia and addressed to his Lithuanian counterpart
Albert II, King of the Belgians inspecting troops on Belgium's national day in 2011
Nicolas Sarkozy, President of France and General Jean-Louis Georgelin, Chief of the Defence Staff, reviewing troops during the 2008 Bastille Day military parade on the Champs-Élysées in Paris
Francis, from March 2013 the sovereign of the Vatican City State, an ex officio role of the Pope
Abdulmecid II is the 150th and last Caliph of Islam from Ottoman dynasty
Four generations of Danish kings in 1903: King Christian IX (left), Christian (X) (back), Frederick (VIII) (right), and Frederick (IX) (front)
The National Monument to Emperor Wilhelm I in Berlin, Germany, dedicated 1897, nearly 10 years after his death. The monument was destroyed by the communist government in 1950.
Title page of 1550 Italian edition of Machiavelli's The Prince
Bodin named on title page of Discorsi politici (1602) by Fabio Albergati who compared Bodin's political theories unfavourably with those of Aristotle
Frontispiece of Thomas Hobbes' Leviathan (1651)

Depending on the country's form of government and separation of powers, the head of state may be a ceremonial figurehead (such as the British monarch) or concurrently the head of government and more (such as the President of the United States, who is also commander-in-chief of the United States Armed Forces).

Prime ministers of the Nordic and Baltic countries in 2014. From left: Erna Solberg, Norway; Algirdas Butkevičius, Lithuania; Laimdota Straujuma, Latvia; Sigmundur Davíð Gunnlaugsson, Iceland; Alexander Stubb, Finland; Anne Sulling, Estonia (trade minister); Helle Thorning-Schmidt, Denmark; Stefan Löfven, Sweden.

Prime minister

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Head of the cabinet and the leader of the ministers in the executive branch of government, often in a parliamentary or semi-presidential system.

Head of the cabinet and the leader of the ministers in the executive branch of government, often in a parliamentary or semi-presidential system.

Prime ministers of the Nordic and Baltic countries in 2014. From left: Erna Solberg, Norway; Algirdas Butkevičius, Lithuania; Laimdota Straujuma, Latvia; Sigmundur Davíð Gunnlaugsson, Iceland; Alexander Stubb, Finland; Anne Sulling, Estonia (trade minister); Helle Thorning-Schmidt, Denmark; Stefan Löfven, Sweden.
Narendra Modi, The Prime Minister of India
The prime ministers of five members of the Commonwealth of Nations at the 1944 Commonwealth Prime Ministers' Conference.
Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru (1889–1964), the first Prime minister of India
John A. Macdonald (1815–1891), first Canadian Prime Minister.
Sirimavo Bandaranaike (1916–2000), former Prime Minister of Sri Lanka and the first female head of government
British prime minister William Pitt (1759–1806), the youngest head of government at the age of 24.
Countries with prime ministers (blue) and those that formerly had that position (dark red + Mexico).

Under those systems, a prime minister is not the head of state, but rather the head of government, serving under either a monarch in a democratic constitutional monarchy or under a president in a republican form of government.

Presidential system

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A presidential system, or single executive system, is a form of government in which a head of government, typically with the title of president, leads an executive branch that is separate from the legislative branch in systems that use separation of powers.

The Cabinet table in the United Kingdom.

Cabinet (government)

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Body of high-ranking state officials, typically consisting of the executive branch's top leaders.

Body of high-ranking state officials, typically consisting of the executive branch's top leaders.

The Cabinet table in the United Kingdom.
Episcopal Summer Palace, the seat of the government of Slovakia in Bratislava.
Vanhanen II Cabinet in a session of Finnish Parliament in 2007.
Queen Victoria convened her first Privy Council on the day of her accession in 1837.
Countries with prime ministers (blue) and those that formerly had that position (dark red).
Former President Barack Obama's Cabinet, 2009

The function of a cabinet varies: in some countries, it is a collegiate decision-making body with collective responsibility, while in others it may function either as a purely advisory body or an assisting institution to a decision-making head of state or head of government.

The Palace of Westminster in London, United Kingdom. The Westminster system originates from the British Houses of Parliament.

Parliamentary system

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System of democratic governance of a state where the executive derives its democratic legitimacy from its ability to command the support ("confidence") of the legislature, typically a parliament, to which it is accountable.

System of democratic governance of a state where the executive derives its democratic legitimacy from its ability to command the support ("confidence") of the legislature, typically a parliament, to which it is accountable.

The Palace of Westminster in London, United Kingdom. The Westminster system originates from the British Houses of Parliament.
The Reichstag Building in Berlin, Germany. The Consensus system is used in most Western European countries.
Parliament of Canada
Jatiya Sangsad Bhaban, parliament building of Bangladesh
Sansad Bhavan, parliament building of India
Council of Representatives of Iraq
Knesset of Israel in Jerusalem
Parliament of Malaysia
National Assembly of Armenia
The administrative building of the Albanian Parliament
The Congress of Deputies, the lower chamber of Spanish Parliament
Parliament of Australia
Parliament of New Zealand

In a parliamentary system, the head of state is usually a person distinct from the head of government.

Minister-president

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A minister-president or minister president is the head of government in a number of European countries or subnational governments with a parliamentary or semi-presidential system of government where they preside over the council of ministers.

A literal "figurehead", a wood-carved decoration in the prow of a ship. Much like a literal figurehead aesthetically represents the ship while being irrelevant to its actual seafaring, a political figurehead is someone who appears to hold a high-profile office while having little actual power.

Figurehead

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Person who de jure appears to hold an important and often supremely powerful title or office, yet de facto (in reality) exercises little to no actual power.

Person who de jure appears to hold an important and often supremely powerful title or office, yet de facto (in reality) exercises little to no actual power.

A literal "figurehead", a wood-carved decoration in the prow of a ship. Much like a literal figurehead aesthetically represents the ship while being irrelevant to its actual seafaring, a political figurehead is someone who appears to hold a high-profile office while having little actual power.

This usually means that they are head of state, but not head of government.

Chief minister

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A chief minister is an elected or appointed head of government of – in most instances – a sub-national entity, for instance an administrative subdivision or federal constituent entity.

President of the People's Republic of China

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The

The

Mao Zedong
Liu Shaoqi
Dong Biwu
Song Qingling
Li Xiannian President (18 June 1983 – 8 April 1988)
Yang Shangkun
Jiang Zemin President
Hu Jintao
Xi Jinping
Zhu De
Ye Jianying

When the current Constitution was adopted in 1982, the presidency was largely ceremonial, with the premier serving as the head of government and the general secretary of the Chinese Communist Party serving as the political leader of the party; three posts were held by different individuals in the 1980s.

Vanhanen II Cabinet in a session of Finnish Parliament in 2007.

Executive (government)

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Part of government that enforces law, and has responsibility for the governance of a state.

Part of government that enforces law, and has responsibility for the governance of a state.

Vanhanen II Cabinet in a session of Finnish Parliament in 2007.

head of government – often the prime minister, overseeing the administration of all affairs of state.