Head of state

heads of statechief of stateheads of statessovereignstatehead-of-stateheadhead of the statecollective head of stateHead of Nation
A head of state (or chief of state) is the public persona who officially represents the national unity and legitimacy of a sovereign state.wikipedia
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Head of government

heads of governmentgovernmentchief executive
Depending on the country's form of government and separation of powers, the head of state may be a ceremonial figurehead or concurrently the head of government. Another complication exists with South Africa, in which the President is in fact elected by the National Assembly (legislature) and is thus similar, in principle, to a head of government in a parliamentary system but is also, in addition, recognized as the head of state. In reality, however, following a process of constitutional evolution, powers are usually only exercised by direction of a cabinet, presided over by a head of government who is answerable to the legislature.
The term "head of government" is often differentiated from the term "head of state" (as in article 7 of the Vienna Convention on the Law of Treaties, article 1 of the Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of Crimes against Internationally Protected Persons, including Diplomatic Agents and the United Nations protocol list), as they may be separate positions, individuals, or roles depending on the country.

President of Brazil

PresidentBrazilian PresidentPresident of the Republic
In countries where the head of state is also the head of government, the head of state serves as both a public figurehead and the highest-ranking political leader who oversees the executive branch (e.g. the President of Brazil). Presidential systems are a notable feature of constitutions in the Americas, including those of Argentina, Brazil, Colombia, El Salvador, Mexico and Venezuela; this is generally attributed to the strong influence of the United States in the region, and as the United States Constitution served as an inspiration and model for the Latin American wars of independence of the early 19th century.
The President of Brazil (Presidente do Brasil), officially the President of the Federative Republic of Brazil (Presidente da República Federativa do Brasil) or simply the President of the Republic, is both the head of state and the head of government of Brazil.

Parliamentary system

parliamentaryparliamentarismparliamentary democracy
In a parliamentary system the head of state is the de jure leader of the nation, and there is a separate de facto leader, often with the title of prime minister. Another complication exists with South Africa, in which the President is in fact elected by the National Assembly (legislature) and is thus similar, in principle, to a head of government in a parliamentary system but is also, in addition, recognized as the head of state.
In a parliamentary system, the head of state is usually a person distinct from the head of government.

President of the United States

PresidentU.S. Presidentpresidential
The executive Power shall be vested in a President of the United States of America.
The President of the United States (POTUS) is the head of state and head of government of the United States of America.

President of Italy

PresidentPresident of the RepublicPresident of the Italian Republic
The President of the Republic is the Head of the State and represents national unity.
The President of the Italian Republic (Presidente della Repubblica Italiana) is the head of state of Italy and in that role represents national unity and guarantees that Italian politics comply with the Constitution.

Monarchy of the United Kingdom

MonarchBritish monarchQueen
The last time the prime minister of the United Kingdom was unilaterally selected by the monarch was in 1963, when Queen Elizabeth II appointed Alec Douglas-Home on the advice of outgoing Prime Minister Harold Macmillan.
The current monarch and head of state is Queen Elizabeth II, who ascended the throne in 1952.

President of Mexico

PresidentMexican PresidentPresident of the Republic
Presidential systems are a notable feature of constitutions in the Americas, including those of Argentina, Brazil, Colombia, El Salvador, Mexico and Venezuela; this is generally attributed to the strong influence of the United States in the region, and as the United States Constitution served as an inspiration and model for the Latin American wars of independence of the early 19th century.
(Presidente de México), officially known as the President of the United Mexican States (Presidente de los Estados Unidos Mexicanos), is the head of state and government of Mexico.

President of India

PresidentPresidentialIndian President
The executive power of the union shall be vested in the President and shall be exercised by him either directly or indirectly through the officers subordinate to him in accordance to the Constitution.
The President of India is the ceremonial head of state of India and the commander-in-chief of the Indian Armed Forces.

President of Germany

PresidentGerman PresidentFederal President
The Federal President shall represent the Federation in its international relations. He shall conclude treaties with foreign states on behalf of the Federation. He shall accredit and receive envoys..
The President of Germany, officially the Federal President of the Federal Republic of Germany (Bundespräsident der Bundesrepublik Deutschland), is the head of state of Germany.

President of France

PresidentFrench PresidentPresident of the Republic
In France, while the president cannot force the prime minister to tender the resignation of the government, he can, in practice, request it if the prime minister is from his own majority.
The President of the French Republic (Président de la République française, ) is the executive head of state of France in the French Fifth Republic.

Emperor of Japan

EmperorMonarchJapanese Emperor
The emperor is defined in the constitution as "the symbol of the State and of the unity of the people" (article 1), and is generally recognized throughout the world as the Japanese head of state.
The Emperor of Japan is the head of the Imperial Family and the head of state of Japan.

Monarch

kingSovereignkings
In protocolary terms, the head of a sovereign, independent state is usually identified as the person who, according to that state's constitution, is the reigning monarch, in the case of a monarchy, or the president, in the case of a republic.
A monarch is a sovereign head of state in a monarchy.

President of South Africa

PresidentSouth African PresidentPresidential
Another complication exists with South Africa, in which the President is in fact elected by the National Assembly (legislature) and is thus similar, in principle, to a head of government in a parliamentary system but is also, in addition, recognized as the head of state.
The President of the Republic of South Africa is the head of state and head of government under the Constitution of South Africa.

Republic

constitutional republicrepublicsrepublican form of government
In protocolary terms, the head of a sovereign, independent state is usually identified as the person who, according to that state's constitution, is the reigning monarch, in the case of a monarchy, or the president, in the case of a republic.
It is a form of government under which the head of state is not a monarch.

Semi-presidential system

semi-presidentialsemi-presidential republicsemi-presidentialism
In contrast, a semi-presidential system has both heads of state and government as the leaders de facto of the nation (in practice they divide the leadership of the nation among themselves).
It differs from a parliamentary republic in that it has a popularly elected head of state, who is more than a mostly ceremonial/non-executive (the powers, limitations differ in different parliamentary republics, that this type of president would have tended to be 'reserve'/emergency and non-partisan in nature), figurehead (a president in a dual executive system also has political powers), and from the presidential system in that the cabinet, although named by the president, is responsible to the legislature, which may force the cabinet to resign through a motion of no confidence.

British Overseas Territories

British Overseas Territoryoverseas territoryoverseas territories
For example, in each Canadian province the role is fulfilled by the Lieutenant Governor, whereas in most British Overseas Territories the powers and duties are performed by the Governor.
They all share the British monarch (Elizabeth II) as head of state.

Elizabeth II

Queen Elizabeth IIthe QueenQueen
The last time the prime minister of the United Kingdom was unilaterally selected by the monarch was in 1963, when Queen Elizabeth II appointed Alec Douglas-Home on the advice of outgoing Prime Minister Harold Macmillan.
She is the longest-lived and longest-reigning British monarch as well as the world's longest-reigning queen regnant and female head of state, the oldest and longest-reigning current monarch and the longest-serving current head of state.

Sweden

🇸🇪SwedishSWE
3) The non-executive model, in which the head of state has either none or very limited executive powers, and mainly has a ceremonial and symbolic role (e.g. Sweden, Japan, Israel). Since the passage in Sweden of the 1974 Instrument of Government, the Swedish monarch no longer has many of the standard parliamentary system head of state functions that had previously belonged to him or her, as was the case in the preceding 1809 Instrument of Government.
Today, the sovereign state of Sweden is a constitutional monarchy and parliamentary democracy, with a monarch as head of state, like its neighbour Norway.

President

presidentialpresidentspresidency
In republics with a parliamentary system (such as India, Germany, Austria, Italy and Israel) the head of state is usually titled president and the principal functions of such presidents are mainly ceremonial and symbolic, as opposed to the presidents in a presidential or semi-presidential system.
The president is a common title for the head of state in most republics.

Presidential system

presidentialpresidential republicpresidentialism
Presidential systems are a notable feature of constitutions in the Americas, including those of Argentina, Brazil, Colombia, El Salvador, Mexico and Venezuela; this is generally attributed to the strong influence of the United States in the region, and as the United States Constitution served as an inspiration and model for the Latin American wars of independence of the early 19th century. 5) The presidential system, in which the head of state is also the head of government and has all executive powers (e.g. United States, Indonesia).
This head of government is in most cases also the head of state, which is called president.

Constitutional monarchy

constitutional monarchconstitutional monarchiesconstitutional
In parliamentary constitutional monarchies, the legitimacy of the unelected head of state typically derives from the tacit approval of the people via the elected representatives.
Constitutional monarchy may refer to a system in which the monarch acts as a non-party political head of state under the constitution, whether written or unwritten.

Monarchy of Sweden

King of SwedenKingMonarch
Since the passage in Sweden of the 1974 Instrument of Government, the Swedish monarch no longer has many of the standard parliamentary system head of state functions that had previously belonged to him or her, as was the case in the preceding 1809 Instrument of Government.
The Monarchy of Sweden concerns the monarchical head of state of Sweden, which is a constitutional and hereditary monarchy with a parliamentary system.

President of Ireland

PresidentIrish PresidentIreland
In contrast, the only contact the President of Ireland has with the Irish government is through a formal briefing session given by the Taoiseach (head of government) to the president.
The President of Ireland (Uachtarán na hÉireann) is the head of state of Ireland and the Supreme Commander of the Irish Defence Forces.

Cabinet (government)

cabinetcabinetscouncil of ministers
In reality, however, following a process of constitutional evolution, powers are usually only exercised by direction of a cabinet, presided over by a head of government who is answerable to the legislature.
The function of a Cabinet varies: in some countries it is a collegiate decision-making body with collective responsibility, while in others it may function either as a purely advisory body or an assisting institution to a decision making head of state or head of government.

Motion of no confidence

vote of no confidencevote of confidenceno confidence
Today, the Speaker of the Riksdag appoints (following a vote in the Riksdag) the prime minister and terminates his or her commission following a vote of no confidence or voluntary resignation.
As a parliamentary motion, it demonstrates to the head of state that the elected parliament no longer has confidence in (one or more members of) the appointed government.