Head of state

heads of stateChief of Stateheads of statessovereigncollective head of statehead of the statehead-of-statestateheadpresident
A head of state (or chief of state) is the public persona who officially embodies a state in its unity and legitimacy.wikipedia
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Head of government

heads of governmentgovernmentchief executive
Depending on the country's form of government and separation of powers, the head of state may be a ceremonial figurehead or concurrently the head of government and more. In reality, however, following a process of constitutional evolution, powers are usually only exercised by direction of a cabinet, presided over by a head of government who is answerable to the legislature.
"Head of government" is often differentiated from "head of state" (as in article 7 of the Vienna Convention on the Law of Treaties, article 1 of the Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of Crimes against Internationally Protected Persons, including Diplomatic Agents and the United Nations protocol list), as they may be separate positions, individuals, or roles depending on the country.

Parliamentary system

parliamentaryparliamentarismparliamentary democracy
In a parliamentary system, such as India, the head of state usually has mostly ceremonial powers, with a separate head of government. The Constitution of Japan was drawn up under the Allied occupation that followed World War II and was intended to replace the previous militaristic and quasi-absolute monarchy system with a form of liberal democracy parliamentary system.
In a parliamentary system, the head of state is usually a person distinct from the head of government.

Monarch

kingSovereignkings
In terms of protocol: the head of a sovereign, independent state is usually identified as the person who, according to that state's constitution, is the reigning monarch, in the case of a monarchy; or the president, in the case of a republic.
A monarch is a sovereign head of state in a monarchy.

Monarchy

kingdommonarchieskingdoms
In terms of protocol: the head of a sovereign, independent state is usually identified as the person who, according to that state's constitution, is the reigning monarch, in the case of a monarchy; or the president, in the case of a republic.
A monarchy is a form of government in which a natural person, the monarch, is head of state until death or abdication.

Politics of India

Indian politicianIndian politicspolitics
In a parliamentary system, such as India, the head of state usually has mostly ceremonial powers, with a separate head of government.
India is a federal parliamentary democratic republic in which the President of India is the head of state and the Prime Minister of India is the head of government.

Republic

constitutional republicrepublicsrepublican form of government
In terms of protocol: the head of a sovereign, independent state is usually identified as the person who, according to that state's constitution, is the reigning monarch, in the case of a monarchy; or the president, in the case of a republic.
As such it has become the opposing form of government to a monarchy and has therefore no monarch as head of state.

Figurehead

ceremonialceremonial officein name only
Depending on the country's form of government and separation of powers, the head of state may be a ceremonial figurehead or concurrently the head of government and more.
This usually means that they are head of state, but not head of government.

British Overseas Territories

British Overseas Territoryoverseas territoryoverseas territories
For example, in each Canadian province the role is fulfilled by the lieutenant governor, whereas in most British Overseas Territories the powers and duties are performed by the governor.
They all share the British monarch (Elizabeth II) as head of state.

Politics of South Africa

Politics in South AfricaSouth African politicsSouth Africa
However in some parliamentary systems, like South Africa, there is an executive president that is both head of state and head of government.
The President of South Africa serves both as head of state and as head of government.

Semi-presidential system

semi-presidentialsemi-presidential republicsemi-presidential systems
In contrast, a semi-presidential system, such as France, has both heads of state and government as the de facto leaders of the nation (in practice they divide the leadership of the nation among themselves).
It differs from a parliamentary republic in that it has a popularly elected head of state, who is more than a mostly ceremonial figurehead, and from the presidential system in that the cabinet, although named by the president, is responsible to the legislature, which may force the cabinet to resign through a motion of no confidence.

President (government title)

PresidentpresidentialPresidents
In republics with a parliamentary system (such as India, Germany, Austria, Italy and Israel) the head of state is usually titled president and the principal functions of such presidents are mainly ceremonial and symbolic, as opposed to the presidents in a presidential or semi-presidential system.
The president is a common title for the head of state in most republics.

Presidential system

presidentialpresidential republicpresidentialism
Meanwhile, in presidential systems such as the United States, the head of state is also the head of government. Presidential systems are a notable feature of constitutions in the Americas, including those of Argentina, Brazil, Colombia, El Salvador, Mexico and Venezuela; this is generally attributed to the strong influence of the United States in the region, and as the United States Constitution served as an inspiration and model for the Latin American wars of independence of the early 19th century.
This head of government is in most cases also the head of state, which is called president.

Monarchy of Sweden

King of SwedenKingmonarch
Since the passage in Sweden of the 1974 Instrument of Government, the Swedish monarch no longer has many of the standard parliamentary system head of state functions that had previously belonged to him or her, as was the case in the preceding 1809 Instrument of Government.
The Monarchy of Sweden concerns the monarchical head of state of Sweden, which is a constitutional and hereditary monarchy with a parliamentary system.

Emperor of Japan

EmperorMonarchJapanese Emperor
The emperor is defined in the constitution as "the symbol of the State and of the unity of the people" (article 1), and is generally recognised throughout the world as the Japanese head of state.
The Emperor of Japan is the head of the Imperial Family and the head of state of Japan.

Constitutional monarchy

constitutional monarchiesconstitutional monarchconstitutional
In parliamentary constitutional monarchies, the legitimacy of the unelected head of state typically derives from the tacit approval of the people via the elected representatives.
Constitutional monarchy may refer to a system in which the monarch acts as a non-party political head of state under the constitution, whether written or unwritten.

Cabinet (government)

cabinetcouncil of ministerscabinets
In reality, however, following a process of constitutional evolution, powers are usually only exercised by direction of a cabinet, presided over by a head of government who is answerable to the legislature.
The function of a cabinet varies: in some countries it is a collegiate decision-making body with collective responsibility, while in others it may function either as a purely advisory body or an assisting institution to a decision making head of state or head of government.

President of Ireland

PresidentIrish PresidentPresidents of Ireland
In contrast, the only contact the president of Ireland has with the Irish government is through a formal briefing session given by the taoiseach (head of government) to the president.
The president of Ireland (Uachtarán na hÉireann) is the head of state of Ireland and the supreme commander of the Irish Defence Forces.

Motion of no confidence

vote of no confidencevote of confidenceconfidence vote
Today, the speaker of the Riksdag appoints (following a vote in the Riksdag) the prime minister and terminates his or her commission following a vote of no confidence or voluntary resignation.
As a parliamentary motion, it demonstrates to the head of state that the elected parliament no longer has confidence in (one or more members of) the appointed government.

Absolute monarchy

absolutismabsolutistabsolute monarch
The Constitution of Japan was drawn up under the Allied occupation that followed World War II and was intended to replace the previous militaristic and quasi-absolute monarchy system with a form of liberal democracy parliamentary system.
In contrast, in constitutional monarchies, the head of state's authority derives from and is legally bounded or restricted by a constitution or legislature.

President of Israel

PresidentIsraeli PresidentPresident of the State of Israel
The most extreme non-executive republican head of state is the president of Israel, which holds no reserve powers whatsoever.
The President of the State of Israel (, Nesi Medinat Yisra'el, or, Nesi HaMedina; literally, President of the State) is the head of state of Israel.

Responsible government

responsibleresponsible self-governmentself-governing
The executive branch is thus said to be responsible (or answerable) to the legislature, with the head of government and cabinet in turn accepting constitutional responsibility for offering constitutional advice to the head of state.
Secondly, and most importantly, although ministers are officially appointed by the authority of the head of state and can theoretically be dismissed at the pleasure of the sovereign, they concurrently retain their office subject to their holding the confidence of the lower house of Parliament.

Advice (constitutional)

adviceConstitutional adviceadvice of
The executive branch is thus said to be responsible (or answerable) to the legislature, with the head of government and cabinet in turn accepting constitutional responsibility for offering constitutional advice to the head of state.
Especially in parliamentary systems of government, heads of state often act on the basis of advice issued by prime ministers or other government ministers.

Prime Minister of Sweden

Prime MinisterSwedish Prime MinisterPrime Minister for Justice
Today, the speaker of the Riksdag appoints (following a vote in the Riksdag) the prime minister and terminates his or her commission following a vote of no confidence or voluntary resignation.
Before the creation of the office of a Prime Minister in 1876, Sweden did not have a head of government separate from its head of state, namely the King, in whom the executive authority was vested.

President of Brazil

PresidentBrazilian PresidentPresidency of Brazil
Presidential systems are a notable feature of constitutions in the Americas, including those of Argentina, Brazil, Colombia, El Salvador, Mexico and Venezuela; this is generally attributed to the strong influence of the United States in the region, and as the United States Constitution served as an inspiration and model for the Latin American wars of independence of the early 19th century.
The president of Brazil (Presidente do Brasil), officially the president of the Federative Republic of Brazil (Presidente da República Federativa do Brasil) or simply the President of the Republic, is both the head of state and the head of government of Brazil.

President of El Salvador

PresidentHead of State of El SalvadorActing President of El Salvador
Presidential systems are a notable feature of constitutions in the Americas, including those of Argentina, Brazil, Colombia, El Salvador, Mexico and Venezuela; this is generally attributed to the strong influence of the United States in the region, and as the United States Constitution served as an inspiration and model for the Latin American wars of independence of the early 19th century.
The president of El Salvador (Presidente de El Salvador), officially known as the president of the Republic of El Salvador (Presidente de la República de El Salvador), is the head of state and head of government of El Salvador.