Heart

Human heart during an autopsy
Computer-generated animation of a beating human heart
The human heart is in the middle of the thorax, with its apex pointing to the left.
Heart being dissected showing right and left ventricles, from above
Frontal section showing papillary muscles attached to the tricuspid valve on the right and to the mitral valve on the left via chordae tendineae.
Layers of the heart wall, including visceral and parietal pericardium
The swirling pattern of myocardium helps the heart pump effectively
Arterial supply to the heart (red), with other areas labelled (blue).
Autonomic innervation of the heart
Development of the human heart during the first eight weeks (top) and the formation of the heart chambers (bottom). In this figure, the blue and red colors represent blood inflow and outflow (not venous and arterial blood). Initially, all venous blood flows from the tail/atria to the ventricles/head, a very different pattern from that of an adult.
Blood flow through the valves
The cardiac cycle as correlated to the ECG
The x-axis reflects time with a recording of the heart sounds. The y-axis represents pressure.
Transmission of a cardiac action potential through the heart's conduction system
Conduction system of the heart
The prepotential is due to a slow influx of sodium ions until the threshold is reached followed by a rapid depolarization and repolarization. The prepotential accounts for the membrane reaching threshold and initiates the spontaneous depolarization and contraction of the cell; there is no resting potential.
3D echocardiogram showing the mitral valve (right), tricuspid and mitral valves (top left) and aortic valve (top right).
The closure of the heart valves causes the heart sounds.
Cardiac cycle shown against ECG
Heart and its blood vessels, by Leonardo da Vinci, 15th century
Animated heart
Elize Ryd making a heart sign at a concert in 2018
The tube-like heart (green) of the mosquito Anopheles gambiae extends horizontally across the body, interlinked with the diamond-shaped wing muscles (also green) and surrounded by pericardial cells (red). Blue depicts cell nuclei.
Basic arthropod body structure – heart shown in red
The human heart viewed from the front
The human heart viewed from behind
The coronary circulation
The human heart viewed from the front and from behind
Frontal section of the human heart
An anatomical specimen of the heart
Heart illustration with circulatory system
Animated Heart 3d Model Rendered in Computer

Muscular organ in most animals that pumps blood through the blood vessels of the circulatory system.

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Valves of the heart in motion, the front wall of the heart is removed in this image.

Heart valve

Valves of the heart in motion, the front wall of the heart is removed in this image.
Structure of the heart valves
Blood flow through the valves
3D - loop of a heart viewed from the apex, with the apical part of the ventricles removed and the mitral valve clearly visible. Due to missing data, the leaflets of the tricuspid and aortic valves are not clearly visible, but the openings are; the pulmonary valve is not visible. On the left are two standard 2D views (taken from the 3D dataset) showing tricuspid and mitral valves (above) and aortal valve (below).
Wiggers diagram, showing various events during a cardiac cycle, with closures and openings of the aortic and mitral marked in the pressure curves.
This is further explanation of the echocardiogram above. MV: Mitral valve, TV: Tricuspid valve, AV: Aortic valve, Septum: Interventricular septum. Continuous lines demarcate septum and free wall seen in echocardiogram, dotted line is a suggestion of where the free wall of the right ventricle should be. The red line represents where the upper left loop in the echocardiogram transects the 3D-loop, the blue line represents the lower loop.
Illustration of the valves of the heart when the ventricles are contracting.

A heart valve is a one-way valve that allows blood to flow in one direction through the chambers of the heart.

Walls of the heart, showing pericardium at right.

Pericardium

Walls of the heart, showing pericardium at right.
A transverse section of the thorax, showing the contents of the middle and the posterior mediastinum. The pleural cavity and the pericardial cavity are exaggerated since normally there is no space between the pleurae or between the pericardium and heart. Pericardium is also known as cardiac epidermis.
The pericardial cavity in this image is labeled d and is part of the inferior mediastium. Here we can see its relation to the superior mediastinum a, the pleural cavities c, and the diaphragm e.
3D still showing the pericardium layer.
Fibrous pericardium

The pericardium, also called pericardial sac, is a double-walled sac containing the heart and the roots of the great vessels.

X-ray image of the chest showing the internal anatomy of the rib cage, lungs and heart as well as the inferior thoracic border–made up of the diaphragm.

Thorax

Part of the anatomy of humans, mammals, and other tetrapod animals located between the neck and the abdomen.

Part of the anatomy of humans, mammals, and other tetrapod animals located between the neck and the abdomen.

X-ray image of the chest showing the internal anatomy of the rib cage, lungs and heart as well as the inferior thoracic border–made up of the diaphragm.
An X-ray of a human chest area, with some structures labeled
High-resolution computed tomographs of a normal thorax, taken in the axial, coronal and sagittal planes, respectively. This type of investigation can be used for detecting both acute and chronic changes in the lung parenchyma.
Volume rendering of a high resolution computed tomography of the thorax. The anterior thoracic wall, the airways and the pulmonary vessels anterior to the root of the lung have been digitally removed in order to visualize the different levels of the pulmonary circulation.
Thorax. Anterior view.
Thorax. Anterior view.
Clearly visible thorax of an artistic gymnast.

It contains organs including the heart, lungs, and thymus gland, as well as muscles and various other internal structures.

Cardiac muscle

One of three types of vertebrate muscle tissue, with the other two being skeletal muscle and smooth muscle.

One of three types of vertebrate muscle tissue, with the other two being skeletal muscle and smooth muscle.

3D rendering showing thick myocardium within the heart wall.
The swirling musculature of the heart ensures effective pumping of blood.
Cardiac muscle
Illustration of a cardiac muscle cell.
Intercalated discs are part of the cardiac muscle cell sarcolemma and they contain gap junctions and desmosomes.
Dog cardiac muscle (400X)

It is involuntary, striated muscle that constitutes the main tissue of the wall of the heart.

Phonocardiogram of normal and abnormal heartbeats.

Valvular heart disease

Any cardiovascular disease process involving one or more of the four valves of the heart .

Any cardiovascular disease process involving one or more of the four valves of the heart .

Phonocardiogram of normal and abnormal heartbeats.
This diagram shows the valves of the heart. The aortic and mitral valves are shown in the left heart, and the tricuspid and pulmonic valves are shown in the right heart.
ECG showing left ventricular hypertrophy, these findings may be present in aortic stenosis.

Aortic and mitral valve disorders are left heart diseases that are more prevalent than diseases of the pulmonary or tricuspid valve in the right heart due to the higher pressures in the left heart.

Schematic view of the aorta and its segments

Aorta

Schematic view of the aorta and its segments
Course of the aorta in the thorax (anterior view), starting posterior to the main pulmonary artery, then anterior to the right pulmonary arteries, the trachea and the esophagus, then turning posteriorly to course dorsally to these structures.
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Major aorta anatomy displaying ascending aorta, brachiocephalic trunk, left common carotid artery, left subclavian artery, aortic isthmus, aortic arch, and descending thoracic aorta

The aorta is the main and largest artery in the human body, originating from the left ventricle of the heart and extending down to the abdomen, where it splits into two smaller arteries (the common iliac arteries).

Diagram of an artery

Artery

Diagram of an artery
Microscopic anatomy of an artery.
Cross-section of a human artery
Arteries form part of the human circulatory system
Diagram showing the effects of atherosclerosis on an artery.

An artery (plural arteries) is a blood vessel in humans and most other animals that takes blood away from the heart to one or more parts of the body (tissues, lungs, brain etc.).

Many of the internal organs of the human body

Organ (biology)

Organ is a collection of tissues joined in a structural unit to serve a common function.

Organ is a collection of tissues joined in a structural unit to serve a common function.

Many of the internal organs of the human body
The liver and gallbladder of a sheep
Relationship of major animal lineages with indication of how long ago these animals shared a common ancestor. On the left, important organs are shown, which allows us to determine how long ago these may have evolved.
The flower is the angiosperm's reproductive organ. This Hibiscus flower is hermaphroditic, and it contains stamen and pistils.
Strobilus of Equisetum telmateia
Human viscera

In the thoracic cavity the heart is a hollow, muscular organ.

Anterior (frontal) view of the opened heart. White arrows indicate valid blood flow.

Inferior vena cava

Anterior (frontal) view of the opened heart. White arrows indicate valid blood flow.
Branches of Inferior Vena Cava
Inferior vena cava
Inferior vena cava front view
Image of an inferior vena cava filter
Image showing an inferior vena cava filter in its position

The inferior vena cava is a large vein that carries the deoxygenated blood from the lower and middle body into the right atrium of the heart.

Sinoatrial node shown at 1. The rest of the conduction system of the heart is shown in blue.

Sinoatrial node

Sinoatrial node shown at 1. The rest of the conduction system of the heart is shown in blue.
Figure 2: Low magnification stained image of the SA node (center-right on image) and its surrounding tissue. The SA node surrounds the sinoatrial nodal artery, seen as the open lumen. Cardiac muscle cells of the right atrium can be seen to the left of the node, and fat tissue to the right.
Figure 3: Sinoatrial node action potential waveform, outlining major ion currents involved (downward deflection indicates ions moving into the cell, upwards deflection indicates ions flowing out of the cell).
Schematic representation of the atrioventricular bundle

The sinoatrial node (also known as the sinuatrial node, SA node or sinus node) is a group of cells known as pacemaker cells, located in the wall of the right atrium of the heart.