Heart failure

congestive heart failurecardiac failurechronic heart failureheartcongestive cardiac failurecardiac insufficiencycongestive heart diseaseacute heart failureright ventricular failuresystolic dysfunction
Heart failure (HF), also known as chronic heart failure (CHF), is when the heart is unable to pump sufficiently to maintain blood flow to meet the body's needs.wikipedia
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Myocardial infarction

heart attackheart attacksacute myocardial infarction
Common causes of heart failure include coronary artery disease including a previous myocardial infarction (heart attack), high blood pressure, atrial fibrillation, valvular heart disease, excess alcohol use, infection, and cardiomyopathy of an unknown cause.
An MI may cause heart failure, an irregular heartbeat, cardiogenic shock, or cardiac arrest.

Hypertension

high blood pressurehypertensivearterial hypertension
Common causes of heart failure include coronary artery disease including a previous myocardial infarction (heart attack), high blood pressure, atrial fibrillation, valvular heart disease, excess alcohol use, infection, and cardiomyopathy of an unknown cause.
Long-term high blood pressure, however, is a major risk factor for coronary artery disease, stroke, heart failure, atrial fibrillation, peripheral vascular disease, vision loss, chronic kidney disease, and dementia.

Atrial fibrillation

paroxysmal atrial fibrillationatrial fibrilationatrial arrhythmia
Common causes of heart failure include coronary artery disease including a previous myocardial infarction (heart attack), high blood pressure, atrial fibrillation, valvular heart disease, excess alcohol use, infection, and cardiomyopathy of an unknown cause.
The disease is associated with an increased risk of heart failure, dementia, and stroke.

Angina

angina pectorischest painstable angina
Chest pain, including angina, does not typically occur due to heart failure.
Other causes include anemia, abnormal heart rhythms and heart failure.

Cardiomyopathy

cardiomyopathiesarrhythmogenic cardiomyopathymyocardial degeneration
Common causes of heart failure include coronary artery disease including a previous myocardial infarction (heart attack), high blood pressure, atrial fibrillation, valvular heart disease, excess alcohol use, infection, and cardiomyopathy of an unknown cause.
Some people may have shortness of breath, feel tired, or have swelling of the legs due to heart failure.

Orthopnea

orthopnoealying downfluid redistribution
The shortness of breath is usually worse with exercise, while lying down, and may wake the person at night.
It is commonly seen as a late manifestation of heart failure, resulting from fluid redistribution into the central circulation, causing an increase in pulmonary capillary pressure.

Hydralazine

hydralazin
For those with severe disease, aldosterone antagonists, or hydralazine with a nitrate may be used.
Hydralazine, sold under the brand name Apresoline among others, is a medication used to treat high blood pressure and heart failure.

Angiotensin II receptor blocker

angiotensin II receptor antagonistangiotensin receptor blockersangiotensin receptor blocker
In those with heart failure due to left ventricular dysfunction, angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors, angiotensin receptor blockers, or valsartan/sacubitril along with beta blockers are recommended.
Their main uses are in the treatment of hypertension (high blood pressure), diabetic nephropathy (kidney damage due to diabetes) and congestive heart failure.

Valvular heart disease

heart valve diseasecardiac valve diseasevalve disease
Common causes of heart failure include coronary artery disease including a previous myocardial infarction (heart attack), high blood pressure, atrial fibrillation, valvular heart disease, excess alcohol use, infection, and cardiomyopathy of an unknown cause.
Mitral insufficiency can be caused by dilation of the left heart, often a consequence of heart failure.

Diuretic

diureticsdiuresisdiuretic use
Diuretics are useful for preventing fluid retention and the resulting shortness of breath.
In medicine, diuretics are used to treat heart failure, liver cirrhosis, hypertension, influenza, water poisoning, and certain kidney diseases.

Cardiac contractility modulation

therapeutic gap
In some moderate or severe cases, cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) or cardiac contractility modulation may be of benefit.
Cardiac contractility modulation is a therapy which is intended for the treatment of patients with moderate to severe heart failure (NYHA class II–IV) with symptoms despite optimal medical therapy who can benefit from an improvement in cardiac output.

Exercise intolerance

exerciseexercise toleranceexertional
The shortness of breath is usually worse with exercise, while lying down, and may wake the person at night.
Heart failure: Exercise intolerance is a primary symptom of chronic diastolic heart failure.

Anemia

anaemiaanemicanaemic
Other diseases that may have symptoms similar to heart failure include obesity, kidney failure, liver problems, anemia, and thyroid disease.
The patient may have symptoms related to this, such as palpitations, angina (if pre-existing heart disease is present), intermittent claudication of the legs, and symptoms of heart failure.

Acute decompensated heart failure

acute heart failureacute cardiac failureacute decompensated congestive heart failure
Acute decompensated heart failure is a worsening of chronic heart failure symptoms which can result in acute respiratory distress.
Acute decompensated heart failure (ADHF) is a sudden worsening of the signs and symptoms of heart failure, which typically includes difficulty breathing (dyspnea), leg or feet swelling, and fatigue.

Obesity

obesemorbidly obeseoverweight
Other diseases that may have symptoms similar to heart failure include obesity, kidney failure, liver problems, anemia, and thyroid disease.
The paradox was first described in 1999 in overweight and obese people undergoing hemodialysis, and has subsequently been found in those with heart failure and peripheral artery disease (PAD).

Congestion

The term "congestive heart failure" is often used, as one of the common symptoms is congestion, or build-up of fluid in a person's tissues and veins in the lungs or other parts of the body.
Congestive heart failure, heart failure resulting in the following forms of congestion:

Cardiovascular disease

heart diseasecardiac diseaseheart condition
This is a common problem in old age as a result of cardiovascular disease, but it can happen at any age, even in fetuses.
Other CVDs include stroke, heart failure, hypertensive heart disease, rheumatic heart disease, cardiomyopathy, heart arrhythmia, congenital heart disease, valvular heart disease, carditis, aortic aneurysms, peripheral artery disease, thromboembolic disease, and venous thrombosis.

Ventricular assist device

left ventricular assist deviceventricular assist devicesLVAD
A ventricular assist device or occasionally a heart transplant may be recommended in those with severe disease that persists despite all other measures.
The function of VADs is different from that of artificial cardiac pacemakers; some are for short-term use, typically for patients recovering from myocardial infarction (heart attack) and for patients recovering from cardiac surgery; some are for long-term use (months to years to perpetuity), typically for patients suffering from advanced heart failure.

Cardiac resynchronization therapy

implanted cardiac resynchronization deviceasynchronous heart ventricle contractionsbiventricular pacing
In some moderate or severe cases, cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) or cardiac contractility modulation may be of benefit.
Cardiac resynchronisation therapy (CRT) is the insertion of electrodes in the left and right ventricles of the heart, as well as on occasion the right atrium, to treat heart failure by coordinating the function of the left and right ventricles.

Cardiac output

cardiac inputoutputoutput of the heart
Heart failure is a pathophysiological state in which cardiac output is insufficient to meet the needs of the body and lungs.
For instance, physical exercise requires a higher than resting-level of oxygen to support increased muscle activity, where, in the case of heart failure, actual CO may be insufficient to support even simple activities of daily living; nor can it increase sufficiently to meet the higher metabolic demands stemming from even moderate exercise.

Ascites

ascitic fluidperitoneal effusionascitic
Specifically, congestion takes the form of water retention and swelling (edema), both as peripheral edema (causing swollen limbs and feet) and as pulmonary edema (causing breathing difficulty), as well as ascites (swollen abdomen).
Other causes include cancer, heart failure, tuberculosis, pancreatitis, and blockage of the hepatic vein.

Beta blocker

beta blockersbeta-blockersbeta-blocker
In those with heart failure due to left ventricular dysfunction, angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors, angiotensin receptor blockers, or valsartan/sacubitril along with beta blockers are recommended.
Congestive heart failure

Edema

dropsyoedemaswelling
Specifically, congestion takes the form of water retention and swelling (edema), both as peripheral edema (causing swollen limbs and feet) and as pulmonary edema (causing breathing difficulty), as well as ascites (swollen abdomen).
It can be caused by systemic diseases, pregnancy in some women, either directly or as a result of heart failure, or local conditions such as varicose veins, thrombophlebitis, insect bites, and dermatitis.

Artificial cardiac pacemaker

pacemakerpacemakersartificial pacemaker
Sometimes, depending on the cause, an implanted device such as a pacemaker or an implantable cardiac defibrillator (ICD) may be recommended.
Cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) is used for people with heart failure in whom the left and right ventricles do not contract simultaneously (ventricular dyssynchrony), which occurs in approximately 25–50% of heart failure patients.

Heart

cardiachuman heartapex of the heart
Heart failure (HF), also known as chronic heart failure (CHF), is when the heart is unable to pump sufficiently to maintain blood flow to meet the body's needs.
Heart failure is defined as a condition in which the heart is unable to pump enough blood to meet the demands of the body.