Heart valve

heart valvesvalvesatrioventricular valvescardiac valvesemilunar valvesvalveatrioventricular valvecardiac valvesvalves of the heartcusps
A heart valve normally allows blood to flow in only one direction through the heart.wikipedia
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Mitral valve

mitralbicuspid valvemitral annulus
The two atrioventricular (AV) valves, the mitral valve (bicuspid valve), and the tricuspid valve, which are between the upper chambers (atria) and the lower chambers (ventricles).
The mitral valve, also known as the bicuspid valve or left atrioventricular valve, is a valve with two flaps in the heart, that lies between the left atrium and the left ventricle.

Aortic valve

aorticaortic valvesaortic semilunar valve
The two semilunar (SL) valves, the aortic valve and the pulmonary valve, which are in the arteries leaving the heart. The aortic valve, which has three cusps, lies between the left ventricle and the aorta.
The aortic valve is a valve in the human heart between the left ventricle and the aorta.

Heart

cardiachuman heartapex of the heart
A heart valve normally allows blood to flow in only one direction through the heart. The heart valves and the chambers are lined with endocardium.
In a healthy heart blood flows one way through the heart due to heart valves, which prevent backflow.

Pulmonary valve

pulmonic valvepulmonarypulmonary (or pulmonic) valve
The two semilunar (SL) valves, the aortic valve and the pulmonary valve, which are in the arteries leaving the heart.
The pulmonary valve (sometimes referred to as the pulmonic valve) is the semilunar valve of the heart that lies between the right ventricle and the pulmonary artery and has three cusps.

Papillary muscle

papillary muscles
The chordae tendineae are attached to papillary muscles that cause tension to better hold the valve.
They attach to the cusps of the atrioventricular valves (also known as the mitral and tricuspid valves) via the chordae tendineae and contract to prevent inversion or prolapse of these valves on systole (or ventricular contraction).

Blood pressure

systolic blood pressurediastolic blood pressurearterial blood pressure
A heart valve opens or closes incumbent on differential blood pressure on each side.
For those with heart valve regurgitation, a change in its severity may be associated with a change in diastolic pressure.

Systole

systolicsystolic pressureventricular systole
These are the mitral and tricuspid valves, which are situated between the atria and the ventricles and prevent backflow from the ventricles into the atria during systole.
The sharp decrease in ventricular pressure that occurs during ventricular diastole allows the atrioventricular valves (or mitral and tricuspid valves) to open and causes the contents of the atria to empty into the ventricles.

Cardiac skeleton

annulusaortic annulusfibrous ring
Heart valves are situated around the fibrous rings of the cardiac skeleton.
The cardiac skeleton consists of four bands of dense connective tissue, as collagen, that encircle the bases of the pulmonary trunk, aorta, and heart valves.

Heart sounds

heartbeatheart soundsecond heart sound
The closure of the semilunar valves causes the second heart sound.
[[File:Gray1216 modern locations.svg|thumb|300px|Front of thorax, showing surface relations of bones, lungs (purple), pleura (blue), and heart (red outline). The locations of best auscultation for each heart valve are labeled with "M", "T", "A", and "P".

Aorta

aorticaortic archaortic root
The aortic valve, which has three cusps, lies between the left ventricle and the aorta.
At the root of the ascending aorta, the lumen has three small pockets between the cusps of the aortic valve and the wall of the aorta, which are called the aortic sinuses or the sinuses of Valsalva.

Valvular heart disease

heart valve diseasecardiac valve diseasevalve disease
Valvular heart disease is a general term referring to dysfunction of the valves, and is primarily in two forms, either regurgitation, where a dysfunctional valve lets blood flow in the wrong direction, or stenosis, when a valve is narrow.
Valvular heart disease is any disease process involving one or more of the four valves of the heart (the aortic and bicuspid valves on the left side of heart and the pulmonary and tricuspid valves on the right side of heart).

Atrioventricular canal

atrial canal
In the developing heart, the valves between the atria and ventricles, the bicuspid and the tricuspid valves, develop on either side of the atrioventricular canals.
The proper development of the atrioventricular canal into its prospective components (The heart septum and associated valves) to create a clear division between the four compartments of the heart and ensure proper blood movement through the heart, are essential for proper heart function.

Infective endocarditis

bacterial endocarditisinfectious endocarditisAcute infective endocarditis
Inflammation of the valves can be caused by infective endocarditis, usually a bacterial infection but can sometimes be caused by other organisms.
Infective endocarditis is an infection of the inner surface of the heart, usually the valves.

Chordae tendineae

chordae tendinaetendon of Todarochord
The chordae tendineae are attached to papillary muscles that cause tension to better hold the valve. They are anchored to the walls of the ventricles by chordae tendineae, which prevent the valves from inverting.
Along with the opening of the coronary sinus and the septal cusp of the tricuspid valve, it makes up the triangle of Koch.

Endocarditis

subacute bacterial endocarditisa bacterial infection of his heartendocarditis, bacterial
Another type of endocarditis which doesn't provoke an inflammatory response, is nonbacterial thrombotic endocarditis.
It usually involves the heart valves.

Truncus arteriosus

The semilunar valves (the pulmonary and aortic valves) are formed from four thickenings at the cardiac end of the truncus arteriosus.
2) Four endocardial cushions appear in the proximal part of the truncus arteriosus in the region of the future semilunar valves; the manner in which these are related to the aortic septum is described below.

Endocardium

endocardialendo-inner surface of the heart
The heart valves and the chambers are lined with endocardium.
In infective endocarditis, the endocardium (especially the endocardium lining the heart valves) is affected by bacteria.

Nonbacterial thrombotic endocarditis

marantic endocarditisnon-bacterial thrombotic endocarditis (NBTE)noninfective
Another type of endocarditis which doesn't provoke an inflammatory response, is nonbacterial thrombotic endocarditis.
Non-bacterial thrombotic endocarditis (NBTE) is a form of endocarditis in which small sterile vegetations are deposited on the valve leaflets.

Stenosis

stricturestricturesnarrowing
The other form of valvular heart disease is stenosis, a narrowing of the valve.
The types of stenoses in heart valves are:

Cardiovascular disease

heart diseasecardiac diseaseheart condition
Different forms are associated with cardiovascular disease, connective tissue disorders and hypertension.
Endocarditis – inflammation of the inner layer of the heart, the endocardium. The structures most commonly involved are the heart valves.

Heart valve repair

balloon valvuloplastyvalve repairvalvuloplasty
Damaged and defective heart valves can be repaired, or replaced with artificial heart valves.
Heart valve repair is a surgical technique used to fix defects in heart valves in valvular heart diseases, and provides an alternative to valve replacement.

Artificial heart valve

prosthetic heart valveartificial heart valvesmechanical heart valve
Damaged and defective heart valves can be repaired, or replaced with artificial heart valves.
When one of the four heart valves malfunctions, the medical choice may be to replace the natural valve with an artificial valve.

Valve replacement

heart valve replacementreplacementvalve replacement surgery
Damaged and defective heart valves can be repaired, or replaced with artificial heart valves.
Valve replacement surgery is the replacement of one or more of the heart valves with either an artificial heart valve or a bioprosthesis (homograft from human tissue or xenograft e.g. from pig).

Rheumatic fever

rheumatic heart diseaseacute rheumatic feverrheumatic
Stenosis of the mitral valve is a common complication of rheumatic fever.
Fibrosis and scarring of valve leaflets, commissures and cusps leads to abnormalities that can result in valve stenosis or regurgitation.

Congenital heart defect

congenital heart diseaseheart defectcongenital heart defects
The most common form of valvular anomaly is a congenital heart defect (CHD), called a bicuspid aortic valve.
The problems may involve the interior walls of the heart, the heart valves, or the large blood vessels that lead to and from the heart.