Heart valve

Valves of the heart in motion, the front wall of the heart is removed in this image.
Structure of the heart valves
Blood flow through the valves
3D - loop of a heart viewed from the apex, with the apical part of the ventricles removed and the mitral valve clearly visible. Due to missing data, the leaflets of the tricuspid and aortic valves are not clearly visible, but the openings are; the pulmonary valve is not visible. On the left are two standard 2D views (taken from the 3D dataset) showing tricuspid and mitral valves (above) and aortal valve (below).
Wiggers diagram, showing various events during a cardiac cycle, with closures and openings of the aortic and mitral marked in the pressure curves.
This is further explanation of the echocardiogram above. MV: Mitral valve, TV: Tricuspid valve, AV: Aortic valve, Septum: Interventricular septum. Continuous lines demarcate septum and free wall seen in echocardiogram, dotted line is a suggestion of where the free wall of the right ventricle should be. The red line represents where the upper left loop in the echocardiogram transects the 3D-loop, the blue line represents the lower loop.
Illustration of the valves of the heart when the ventricles are contracting.

One-way valve that allows blood to flow in one direction through the chambers of the heart.

- Heart valve

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Muscular organ in most animals that pumps blood through the blood vessels of the circulatory system.

Human heart during an autopsy
Computer-generated animation of a beating human heart
The human heart is in the middle of the thorax, with its apex pointing to the left.
Heart being dissected showing right and left ventricles, from above
Frontal section showing papillary muscles attached to the tricuspid valve on the right and to the mitral valve on the left via chordae tendineae.
Layers of the heart wall, including visceral and parietal pericardium
The swirling pattern of myocardium helps the heart pump effectively
Arterial supply to the heart (red), with other areas labelled (blue).
Autonomic innervation of the heart
Development of the human heart during the first eight weeks (top) and the formation of the heart chambers (bottom). In this figure, the blue and red colors represent blood inflow and outflow (not venous and arterial blood). Initially, all venous blood flows from the tail/atria to the ventricles/head, a very different pattern from that of an adult.
Blood flow through the valves
The cardiac cycle as correlated to the ECG
The x-axis reflects time with a recording of the heart sounds. The y-axis represents pressure.
Transmission of a cardiac action potential through the heart's conduction system
Conduction system of the heart
The prepotential is due to a slow influx of sodium ions until the threshold is reached followed by a rapid depolarization and repolarization. The prepotential accounts for the membrane reaching threshold and initiates the spontaneous depolarization and contraction of the cell; there is no resting potential.
3D echocardiogram showing the mitral valve (right), tricuspid and mitral valves (top left) and aortic valve (top right).
The closure of the heart valves causes the heart sounds.
Cardiac cycle shown against ECG
Heart and its blood vessels, by Leonardo da Vinci, 15th century
Animated heart
Elize Ryd making a heart sign at a concert in 2018
The tube-like heart (green) of the mosquito Anopheles gambiae extends horizontally across the body, interlinked with the diamond-shaped wing muscles (also green) and surrounded by pericardial cells (red). Blue depicts cell nuclei.
Basic arthropod body structure – heart shown in red
The human heart viewed from the front
The human heart viewed from behind
The coronary circulation
The human heart viewed from the front and from behind
Frontal section of the human heart
An anatomical specimen of the heart
Heart illustration with circulatory system
Animated Heart 3d Model Rendered in Computer

In a healthy heart blood flows one way through the heart due to heart valves, which prevent backflow.

Tricuspid valve

On the right dorsal side of the mammalian heart, at the superior portion of the right ventricle.

Anterior (frontal) view of the opened heart. White arrows indicate normal blood flow. (Tricuspid valve labeled at bottom left.)
Tricuspid valve. Deep dissection.
Tricuspid valve marked in yellow.
Diagram of tricuspid insufficiency/regurgitation. Marked in black arrow.

The tricuspid valve usually has three cusps or leaflets, named the anterior, posterior, and septal cusps.


Main and largest artery in the human body, originating from the left ventricle of the heart and extending down to the abdomen, where it splits into two smaller arteries .

Schematic view of the aorta and its segments
Course of the aorta in the thorax (anterior view), starting posterior to the main pulmonary artery, then anterior to the right pulmonary arteries, the trachea and the esophagus, then turning posteriorly to course dorsally to these structures.
Major aorta anatomy displaying ascending aorta, brachiocephalic trunk, left common carotid artery, left subclavian artery, aortic isthmus, aortic arch, and descending thoracic aorta

At the root of the ascending aorta, the lumen has three small pockets between the cusps of the aortic valve and the wall of the aorta, which are called the aortic sinuses or the sinuses of Valsalva.

Pulmonary valve

Valve of the heart that lies between the right ventricle and the pulmonary artery and has three cusps.

Anterior (frontal) view of the opened heart. White arrows indicate normal blood flow.
Interior of right side of heart.
Front of thorax, showing surface relations of bones, lungs (purple), pleura (blue), and heart (red outline). Heart valves are labeled with "B", "T", "A", and "P".
Pulmonary valves
Pulmonary valves

It is one of the four valves of the heart and one of the two semilunar valves, the other being the aortic valve.


Part of the cardiac cycle during which some chambers of the heart muscle contract after refilling with blood.

The cardiac cycle at the point of beginning a ventricular systole, or contraction: 1) newly oxygenated blood (red arrow) in the left ventricle begins pulsing through the aortic valve to supply all body systems; 2) oxygen-depleted blood (blue arrow) in the right ventricle begins pulsing through the pulmonic (pulmonary) valve en route to the lungs for reoxygenation.
Electrical waves track a systole (a contraction) of the heart. The end-point of the P wave depolarization is the start-point of the atrial stage of systole. The ventricular stage of systole begins at the R peak of the QRS wave complex; the T wave indicates the end of ventricular contraction, after which ventricular relaxation (ventricular diastole) begins.
The cardiac cycle at beginning of atrial systole: The left (red) and right (blue) ventricles begin to fill during ventricular diastole. Then, after tracing the P wave of the ECG, the two atria begin contracting (systole), pulsing blood under pressure into the ventricles.
A Wiggers diagram, showing various events during systole (here primarily displayed as ventricular systole, or ventricular contraction). The very short interval (about 0.03 second) of isovolumetric, or fixed-volume, contraction begins (see upper left) at the R peak of the QRS complex on the electrocardiogram graph-line. + Ejection phase begins immediately after isovolumetric contraction—ventricular volume (red graph-line) begins to decrease as ventricular pressure (light blue graph-line) continues to increase; then pressure drops as it enters diastole.

The sharp decrease in ventricular pressure that occurs during ventricular diastole allows the atrioventricular valves (or mitral and tricuspid valves) to open and causes the contents of the atria to empty into the ventricles.

Valvular heart disease

Phonocardiogram of normal and abnormal heartbeats.
This diagram shows the valves of the heart. The aortic and mitral valves are shown in the left heart, and the tricuspid and pulmonic valves are shown in the right heart.
ECG showing left ventricular hypertrophy, these findings may be present in aortic stenosis.

Valvular heart disease is any cardiovascular disease process involving one or more of the four valves of the heart (the aortic and mitral valves on the left side of heart and the pulmonic and tricuspid valves on the right side of heart).

Mitral valve

Anterior (frontal) view of the opened heart. White arrows indicate normal blood flow. (Mitral valve labeled at center right.)
Operative view of the mitral valve with a chordal rupture "fail" of the anterior leaflet
3D Medical Animation still shot of Mitral Valve Prolapse
The left side of the heart. The mitral valve, as well as the chordae tendinae are visible as white strings. These connect to the papillary muscles visible attaching to the muscular ventricle.
Mitral annulus
The human heart, viewed from the front. The mitral valve is visible on the right as the "bicuspid valve"
The chest, showing surface relations of bones, lungs (purple), pleura (blue), and heart (red). Heart valves are labeled with "B", "T", "A", and "P".
Mitral valve, viewed in a cadaver specimen from within the left atrium.

The mitral valve, also known as the bicuspid valve or left atrioventricular valve, is one of the four heart valves.


Inflammation of the inner layer of the heart, the endocardium.

Bartonella henselae bacilli in cardiac valve of a patient with blood culture-negative endocarditis. The bacilli appear as black granulations.

It usually involves the heart valves.

Blood pressure

Pressure of circulating blood against the walls of blood vessels.

A healthcare worker measuring blood pressure using a sphygmomanometer.
A digital sphygmomanometer used for measuring blood pressure
Overview of main complications of persistent high blood pressure
Cardiac systole and diastole
Blood flow velocity waveforms in the central retinal artery (red) and vein (blue), measured by laser Doppler imaging in the eye fundus of a healthy volunteer.
Schematic of pressures in the circulation
A schematic representation of the arterial pressure waveform over one cardiac cycle. The notch in the curve is associated with closing of the aortic valve.
Taking blood pressure with a sphygmomanometer

For those with heart valve regurgitation, a change in its severity may be associated with a change in diastolic pressure.


Innermost layer of tissue that lines the chambers of the heart.

Interior of right side of heart
Illustration depicting the layers of the heart wall including the innermost endocardium
Histology of the endocardium and subendocardium.

In infective endocarditis, the endocardium (especially the endocardium lining the heart valves) is affected by bacteria.