A report on Heartburn

Burning sensation in the central chest or upper central abdomen.

- Heartburn

20 related topics with Alpha

Overall

X-ray showing radiocontrast from the stomach (white material below diaphragm) entering the esophagus (three vertical collections of white material in the mid-line of the chest) due to severe reflux

Gastroesophageal reflux disease

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Chronic condition in which stomach contents and acid rise up into the esophagus, resulting in symptoms and/or complications.

Chronic condition in which stomach contents and acid rise up into the esophagus, resulting in symptoms and/or complications.

X-ray showing radiocontrast from the stomach (white material below diaphragm) entering the esophagus (three vertical collections of white material in the mid-line of the chest) due to severe reflux
Frontal view of severe tooth erosion in GERD.
Severe tooth erosion in GERD.
A comparison of a healthy condition to GERD
Endoscopic image of peptic stricture, or narrowing of the esophagus near the junction with the stomach: This is a complication of chronic gastroesophageal reflux disease and can be a cause of dysphagia or difficulty swallowing.

Symptoms include the taste of acid in the back of the mouth, heartburn, bad breath, chest pain, regurgitation, breathing problems, and wearing away of the teeth.

General structure of a proton-pump inhibitor

Proton-pump inhibitor

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Proton-pump inhibitors (PPIs) are a class of medications that cause a profound and prolonged reduction of stomach acid production.

Proton-pump inhibitors (PPIs) are a class of medications that cause a profound and prolonged reduction of stomach acid production.

General structure of a proton-pump inhibitor
The activation of PPIs

After four weeks, if symptoms have resolved, the PPI may be stopped in those who were using them for heartburn, gastroesophageal reflux disease, or inflammation of the esophagus if these last two were not severe.

Simplified diagram of how indigestion is diagnosed and treatment(s) determined

Indigestion

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Condition of impaired digestion.

Condition of impaired digestion.

Simplified diagram of how indigestion is diagnosed and treatment(s) determined

Symptoms may include upper abdominal fullness, heartburn, nausea, belching, or upper abdominal pain.

Calcium carbonate antacid tablets

Antacid

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Calcium carbonate antacid tablets
Structural depiction of tetracycline metal chelation, where 'M' is a metal such as those found in antacids

An antacid is a substance which neutralizes stomach acidity and is used to relieve heartburn, indigestion or an upset stomach.

The digestive tract, with the esophagus marked in red

Esophagus

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Organ in vertebrates through which food passes, aided by peristaltic contractions, from the pharynx to the stomach.

Organ in vertebrates through which food passes, aided by peristaltic contractions, from the pharynx to the stomach.

The digestive tract, with the esophagus marked in red
The esophagus is constricted in three places.
A mass seen during an endoscopy and an ultrasound of the mass conducted during the endoscopy session.

Dysfunction of the gastroesophageal sphincter causes gastroesophageal reflux, which causes heartburn, and, if it happens often enough, can lead to gastroesophageal reflux disease, with damage of the esophageal mucosa.

An esophageal ulcer visualized by esophagoscopy: the reddened area at 10 o'clock on the surface of the mucosa.

Esophagitis

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Disease characterized by inflammation of the esophagus.

Disease characterized by inflammation of the esophagus.

An esophageal ulcer visualized by esophagoscopy: the reddened area at 10 o'clock on the surface of the mucosa.
Microscopic Slide of Infectious Esophagitis
Microscopic Slide of Eosinophilic Esophagitis

Heartburn – a burning sensation in the lower mid-chest

Deep gastric ulcer

Peptic ulcer disease

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Break in the inner lining of the stomach, the first part of the small intestine, or sometimes the lower esophagus.

Break in the inner lining of the stomach, the first part of the small intestine, or sometimes the lower esophagus.

Deep gastric ulcer
Gastric ulcer
Duodenal ulcer A2 stage, acute duodenal mucosal lesion(ADML)
Endoscopic image of gastric ulcer, biopsy proven to be gastric cancer.
A benign gastric ulcer (from the antrum) of a gastrectomy specimen.
Micrograph showing erosive gastric ulcer. (H&E stain)
Peptic ulcer treatment: pharmacology of drugs
Deaths from peptic ulcer disease per million persons in 2012
Disability-adjusted life year for peptic ulcer disease per 100,000 inhabitants in 2004. 
no data
less than 20
20–40
40–60
60–80
80–100
100–120
120–140
140–160
160–180
180–200
200–220
more than 220

A history of heartburn or gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) and use of certain medications can raise the suspicion for peptic ulcer.

Endoscopic image of an esophageal adenocarcinoma

Esophageal cancer

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Cancer arising from the esophagus—the food pipe that runs between the throat and the stomach.

Cancer arising from the esophagus—the food pipe that runs between the throat and the stomach.

Endoscopic image of an esophageal adenocarcinoma
Esophageal cancer (lower part) as a result of Barrettʼs esophagus
Esophageal cancer as shown by a filling defect during an upper GI series
Esophageal stent for esophageal cancer
Esophageal stent for esophageal cancer
Before and after a total esophagectomy
Typical scar lines after the two main methods of surgery
Death from esophageal cancer per million persons in 2012
Endoscopic image of Barrett esophagus – a frequent precursor of esophageal adenocarcinoma
Endoscopy and radial endoscopic ultrasound images of a submucosal tumor in the central portion of the esophagus
Contrast CT scan showing an esophageal tumor (axial view)
Contrast CT scan showing an esophageal tumor (coronal view)
Esophageal cancer
Micrograph showing histopathological appearance of an esophageal adenocarcinoma (dark blue – upper-left of image) and normal squamous epithelium (upper-right of image) at H&E staining
T1, T2, and T3 stages of esophageal cancer
Stage T4 esophageal cancer
Esophageal cancer with spread to lymph nodes
Internal radiotherapy for esophageal cancer
Self-expandable metallic stents are sometimes used for palliative care

Pain behind the breastbone or in the region around the stomach often feels like heartburn.

Micrograph showing eosinophilic esophagitis. H&E stain.

Eosinophilic esophagitis

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Allergic inflammatory condition of the esophagus that involves eosinophils, a type of white blood cell.

Allergic inflammatory condition of the esophagus that involves eosinophils, a type of white blood cell.

Micrograph showing eosinophilic esophagitis. H&E stain.
Endoscopic image of esophagus in a case of eosinophilic esophagitis. Concentric rings are termed trachealization of the esophagus.
The barium swallow of the esophagus on the left side shows multiple rings associated with eosinophilic esophagitis.

Symptoms include swallowing difficulty, food impaction, vomiting, and heartburn.

Endoscopic image of a benign peptic stricture

Esophageal stricture

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Narrowing or tightening of the esophagus that causes swallowing difficulties.

Narrowing or tightening of the esophagus that causes swallowing difficulties.

Endoscopic image of a benign peptic stricture

Symptoms of esophageal strictures include heartburn, bitter or acid taste in the mouth, choking, coughing, shortness of breath, frequent burping or hiccups, pain or trouble swallowing, throwing up blood, or weight loss.