Hebrew calendar

Jewish calendar, showing Adar II between 1927 and 1948
The Trumpeting Place inscription, a stone (2.43×1 m) with Hebrew inscription "To the Trumpeting Place" is believed to be a part of the Second Temple.
A bronze Shabbat candlestick holder made in Mandatory Palestine in the 1940s.
The Jewish calendar's reference point is traditionally held to be about one year before the Creation of the world.
A shofar made from a ram's horn is traditionally blown in observance of Rosh Hashanah, the beginning of the Jewish civic year.

Lunisolar calendar used today for Jewish religious observance, and as an official calendar of the state of Israel.

- Hebrew calendar

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Lunisolar calendar

Calendar in many cultures, combining lunar calendars and solar calendars.

Record of the Chinese lunisolar calendar for 1834, 1835, and 1836 during the Qing Dynasty under the Daoguang Emperor's Reign (道光十四年,道光十五年,道光十六年)
The Five Phases and Four Seasons of the traditional Chinese lunisolar calendar, with English translation.
1729 Japanese calendar, which used the Jōkyō calendar procedure, published by Ise Grand Shrine

Hebrew, Hindu, Jain and Kurdish as well as the traditional Chinese, Japanese, Korean, Mongolian, Tibetan, and Vietnamese calendars (in the East Asian Chinese cultural sphere), plus the ancient Hellenic, Coligny, and Babylonian calendars are all lunisolar.

Lunar month

Time between two successive syzygies of the same type: new moons or full moons.

Animation of the Moon as it cycles through its phases, as seen from the Northern Hemisphere. The apparent wobbling of the Moon is known as libration.

Yet others use calculation, of varying degrees of sophistication, for example, the Hebrew calendar or the ecclesiastical lunar calendar.

Geonim

Geonim (גאונים; ; also transliterated Gaonim, singular Gaon) were the presidents of the two great Babylonian Talmudic Academies of Sura and Pumbedita, in the Abbasid Caliphate, and were the generally accepted spiritual leaders of the Jewish community worldwide in the early medieval era, in contrast to the Resh Galuta (exilarch) who wielded secular authority over the Jews in Islamic lands.

Title of the romanized Hebrew newspaper ha Savuja ha Palestini, shows part of the romanization method of Itamar Ben-Avi. 1929.

The period of the Geonim began in 589 CE (Hebrew date: 4349), after the period of the Sevora'im, and ended in 1038 (Hebrew date: 4798).

Lunar calendar

Calendar based on the monthly cycles of the Moon's phases , in contrast to solar calendars, whose annual cycles are based only directly on the solar year.

Iranian Islamic calendar dedicated to Qajar ruler Naser al-Din Shah in 1280, Linden Museum, Stuttgart, Germany

Such holidays include Rosh Hashanah (Hebrew calendar); Easter (the Computus); the Chinese, Korean, Vietnamese, and Mongolian New Year (Chinese, Korean, Vietnamese, and Mongolian calendars, respectively); the Nepali New Year (Nepali calendar); the Mid-Autumn Festival and Chuseok (Chinese and Korean calendars); Loi Krathong (Thai calendar); Sunuwar calendar; Vesak/Buddha's Birthday (Buddhist calendar); Diwali (Hindu calendars); Ramadan, Eid al-Fitr and Eid al-Adha (Islamic calendar).

Epoch

Epoch or reference epoch is an instant in time chosen as the origin of a particular calendar era.

Joseph Scaliger's De emendatione temporum (1583) began the modern science of chronology

Anno Mundi (years since the creation of the world) as used in the Hebrew calendar (3761 BC).

Common Era

Common Era (CE) and Before the Common Era (BCE) are year notations for the Gregorian calendar (and its predecessor, the Julian calendar), the world's most widely used calendar era.

Johannes Kepler first used "Vulgar Era" to distinguish dates on the Christian calendar from the regnal year typically used in national law.

Although Jews have their own Hebrew calendar, they often use the Gregorian calendar, without the AD prefix.

Metonic cycle

Period of almost exactly 19 years after which the lunar phases recur at the same time of the year.

Depiction of the 19 years of the Metonic cycle as a wheel, with the Julian date of the Easter New Moon, from a 9th-century computistic manuscript made in St. Emmeram's Abbey (Clm 14456, fol. 71r)
For example, by the 19-year Metonic cycle, the full moon repeats on or near Christmas day between 1711 and 2300. A small horizontal libration is visible comparing their appearances. A red color shows full moons that are also lunar eclipses.

In the Babylonian and Hebrew lunisolar calendars, the years 3, 6, 8, 11, 14, 17, and 19 are the long (13-month) years of the Metonic cycle.

Intercalation (timekeeping)

Insertion of a leap day, week, or month into some calendar years to make the calendar follow the seasons or moon phases.

An image showing which century years are leap years in the Gregorian calendar

Whether to insert an intercalary month in a given year may be determined using regular cycles such as the 19-year Metonic cycle (Hebrew calendar and in the determination of Easter) or using calculations of lunar phases (Hindu lunisolar and Chinese calendars).

Babylonian calendar

Lunisolar calendar with years consisting of 12 lunar months, each beginning when a new crescent moon was first sighted low on the western horizon at sunset, plus an intercalary month inserted as needed by decree.

Calendar of Nippur, Third Dynasty of Ur

During the 6th century BC Babylonian captivity of the Jews, the Babylonian month names were adopted into the Hebrew calendar.

Jewish holidays

Candles are lit on the eve of the Jewish Sabbath ("Shabbat") and on Jewish holidays.
Shabbat candles and kiddush cup
Rosh Hashana symbols: shofar, apples and honey, pomegranates, kiddush wine
A man in a tallit blows the shofar
A sukkah booth
Dancing with the Torah
Hanukkiah
Nuts and dried fruits, traditionally eaten on Tu Bishvat
The opening chapter of a hand-written scroll of the Book of Esther, with reader's pointer
Mishloah manot
Traditional arrangement of symbolic foods on a Passover Seder Plate
Table set for Passover seder
Lag Ba'Omer bonfire
Cheese blintzes, a traditional food on Shavuot
Worshipers seated on the floor of the synagogue before the reading of Lamentations on Tisha B'Av
A lit Yom HaShoah Yellow Candle
A moment of silence as the siren is sounded in Tel Aviv, Yom Hazikaron 2007
The final round of the International Bible Contest (here in 1985) is held on Yom Ha'atzmaut
Jerusalem Day celebrations
Joshua passing the River Jordan with the Ark of the Covenant by Benjamin West

Jewish holidays, also known as Jewish festivals or Yamim Tovim (ימים טובים, or singular יום טוב Yom Tov, in transliterated Hebrew []), are holidays observed in Judaism and by Jews throughout the Hebrew calendar.