Hebrew language

HebrewHeb.Hebrew-languageModern HebrewStandardHebHebrew:HebraicJewishlanguage
Hebrew (עִבְרִית or ) is a Northwest Semitic language native to Israel, the modern version of which is spoken by over 9 million people worldwide.wikipedia
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Modern Hebrew

HebrewIsraeliModern
Hebrew (עִבְרִית or ) is a Northwest Semitic language native to Israel, the modern version of which is spoken by over 9 million people worldwide.
Modern Hebrew or Israeli Hebrew (, ʿivrít ḥadašá[h], – "Modern Hebrew" or "New Hebrew"), generally referred to by speakers simply as Hebrew ( Ivrit), is the standard form of the Hebrew language spoken today.

Aramaic language

AramaicChaldeeAram.
Aramaic and to a lesser extent Greek were already in use as international languages, especially among elites and immigrants.
More specifically, it is part of the Northwest Semitic group, which also includes the Canaanite languages such as Hebrew and Phoenician.

Paleo-Hebrew alphabet

Paleo-HebrewPaleo-Hebrew scriptancient Hebrew
The earliest examples of written Paleo-Hebrew date from the 10th century BCE.
Archeological evidence of the use of the script by the Israelites for writing the Hebrew language dates to around the 10th century BCE.

Rabbinic literature

rabbinical literatureclassical rabbinical literaturerabbinic
Hebrew survived into the medieval period as the language of Jewish liturgy, rabbinic literature, intra-Jewish commerce, and poetry.
However, the term often refers specifically to literature from the Talmudic era, as opposed to medieval and modern rabbinic writing, and thus corresponds with the Hebrew term Sifrut Hazal (ספרות חז"ל "Literature [of our] sages," where Hazal normally refers only to the sages of the Talmudic era). This more specific sense of "Rabbinic literature"—referring to the Talmudim, Midrash, and related writings, but hardly ever to later texts—is how the term is generally intended when used in contemporary academic writing. On the other hand, the terms meforshim and parshanim (commentaries/commentators) almost always refer to later, post-Talmudic writers of rabbinic glosses on Biblical and Talmudic texts.

Palestinian Jews

Jews of PalestineJews in PalestinePalestinian
It became the lingua franca of Palestine's Jews, and subsequently of the State of Israel.
Palestinian Jews were Jewish inhabitants of Palestine (known in Hebrew as Eretz Israel, the "Land of Israel") prior to the establishment of the modern state of Israel.

Language

languageslinguisticlinguistic diversity
Hebrew (עִבְרִית or ) is a Northwest Semitic language native to Israel, the modern version of which is spoken by over 9 million people worldwide.
The Indo-European family is the most widely spoken and includes languages as diverse as English, Russian and Hindi; the Sino-Tibetan family includes Mandarin, Bodo and the other Chinese languages, and Tibetan; the Afro-Asiatic family includes Arabic, Somali, and Hebrew; the Bantu languages include Swahili, and Zulu, and hundreds of other languages spoken throughout Africa; and the Malayo-Polynesian languages include Indonesian, Malay, Tagalog, and hundreds of other languages spoken throughout the Pacific.

Northwest Semitic languages

Northwest SemiticNorthwest Semitic languageNorthwest Semitic group
Hebrew (עִבְרִית or ) is a Northwest Semitic language native to Israel, the modern version of which is spoken by over 9 million people worldwide.
The oldest coherent texts are in Ugaritic, dating to the Late Bronze Age, which by the time of the Bronze Age collapse are joined by Old Aramaic, and by the Iron Age by the Canaanite languages (Phoenician and Hebrew).

Canaan

Canaaniteland of CanaanCanaanites
The name is believed to be based on the Semitic root ʕ-b-r meaning "beyond", "other side", "across"; interpretations of the term "Hebrew" generally render its meaning as roughly "from the other side [of the river/desert]"—i.e., an exonym for the inhabitants of the land of Israel/Judah, perhaps from the perspective of Mesopotamia, Phoenicia, or the Transjordan (with the river referenced perhaps the Euphrates, Jordan, or Litani; or maybe the northern Arabian Desert between Babylonia and Canaan).
Canaan (Northwest Semitic: ; Phoenician: 𐤊𐤍𐤏𐤍 Kenā‘an; Hebrew: ) was a Semitic-speaking region in the Ancient Near East during the late 2nd millennium BC.

Eber

HeberAberAbir
It is traditionally understood to be an adjective based on the name of Abraham's ancestor, Eber, mentioned in.
Eber (, ISO 259-3 ʕeber, Standard Hebrew Éver, Tiberian Hebrew ʻĒḇer, Arabic ʿĀbir) is an ancestor of the Israelites and the Ishmaelites according to the "Table of Nations" in and.

Jewish prayer

servicesprayerprayer service
Hebrew survived into the medieval period as the language of Jewish liturgy, rabbinic literature, intra-Jewish commerce, and poetry.
1) Morning prayer: Shacharit or Shaharit, from the Hebrew shachar or shahar "morning light",

Samaritans

SamaritanCutheanIsraelite Samaritans
The Samaritan dialect is also the liturgical tongue of the Samaritans, while modern Hebrew or Arabic is their vernacular.
Most Samaritans in Holon and Qiryat Luza today speak Hebrew and Arabic.

Afroasiatic languages

Afro-AsiaticAfroasiaticAfroasiatic language family
Hebrew belongs to the West Semitic branch of the Afroasiatic language family.
Hebrew (Semitic), spoken by around 5 million people native speakers and 4 million second language speakers in Israel and worldwide; also the liturgical language of Jewish people.

Hebrew Bible

biblicalBibleHebrew
Historically, it is regarded as the language of the Israelites and their ancestors, although the language was not referred to by the name Hebrew in the Tanakh. The Torah (the first five books), and most of the rest of the Hebrew Bible, is written in Biblical Hebrew, with much of its present form specifically in the dialect that scholars believe flourished around the 6th century BCE, around the time of the Babylonian captivity.
In modern spoken Hebrew, they are interchangeable.

Jewish literature

HebrewHebrew poetryliterature
Hebrew survived into the medieval period as the language of Jewish liturgy, rabbinic literature, intra-Jewish commerce, and poetry.
It was with Moses Hayyim Luzzatto (1707–1746) that Hebrew poetry shook off the medieval fetters which hindered its free development.

Medieval Hebrew

HebrewMedieval
Hebrew was extinct as a colloquial language by Late Antiquity, but it continued to be used as a literary language and as the liturgical language of Judaism, evolving various dialects of literary Medieval Hebrew, until its revival as a spoken language in the late 19th century.
Medieval Hebrew had many features that distinguished it from older forms of Hebrew.

Yosef Garfinkel

Yossi GarfinkelY. Garfinkel
In July 2008 Israeli archaeologist Yossi Garfinkel discovered a ceramic shard at Khirbet Qeiyafa which he claimed may be the earliest Hebrew writing yet discovered, dating around 3,000 years ago.
Yosef Garfinkel (hebrew: יוסף גרפינקל; born 1956) is a professor of Prehistoric Archaeology and of Archaeology of the Biblical Period at the Hebrew University of Jerusalem.

Israelites

IsraeliteIsraelchildren of Israel
Historically, it is regarded as the language of the Israelites and their ancestors, although the language was not referred to by the name Hebrew in the Tanakh.
It is used synonymously with "Israelites", or as an ethnolinguistic term for historical speakers of the Hebrew language in general.

Ben Sira

EcclesiasticusJesus, the Son of SirachThe Wisdom of Ben Sira
One of the earliest references to the language's name as "Hebrew" is found in the prologue to the Book of Ben Sira, from the 2nd century BCE.
He wrote his work in Hebrew, possibly in Alexandria, Egypt ca. 180–175 BCE, where he is thought to have established a school.

Phoenicia

PhoenicianPhoeniciansPhoenicio
The name is believed to be based on the Semitic root ʕ-b-r meaning "beyond", "other side", "across"; interpretations of the term "Hebrew" generally render its meaning as roughly "from the other side [of the river/desert]"—i.e., an exonym for the inhabitants of the land of Israel/Judah, perhaps from the perspective of Mesopotamia, Phoenicia, or the Transjordan (with the river referenced perhaps the Euphrates, Jordan, or Litani; or maybe the northern Arabian Desert between Babylonia and Canaan).
The name "Phoenician" is by convention given to inscriptions beginning around 1050 BC, because Phoenician, Hebrew, and other Canaanite dialects were largely indistinguishable before that time.

Biblical Hebrew

HebrewAncient HebrewBiblical
The Torah (the first five books), and most of the rest of the Hebrew Bible, is written in Biblical Hebrew, with much of its present form specifically in the dialect that scholars believe flourished around the 6th century BCE, around the time of the Babylonian captivity.
Biblical Hebrew ( Ivrit Miqra'it or Leshon ha-Miqra), also called Classical Hebrew, is an archaic form of Hebrew, a Canaanite Semitic language spoken by the Israelites in the area known as Israel, roughly west of the Jordan River and east of the Mediterranean Sea.

Extinct language

extinctdead languageextinct languages
Hebrew is the only living Canaanite language left, and the only truly successful example of a revived dead language.
Hebrew is an example of a liturgical language that has successfully been revived for everyday use.

Dead Sea Scrolls

Dead Sea scrollQumranthe Dead Sea Scrolls
Dead Sea Scroll Hebrew from the 3rd century BCE to the 1st century CE, corresponding to the Hellenistic and Roman Periods before the destruction of the Temple in Jerusalem and represented by the Qumran Scrolls that form most (but not all) of the Dead Sea Scrolls. Commonly abbreviated as DSS Hebrew, also called Qumran Hebrew. The Imperial Aramaic script of the earlier scrolls in the 3rd century BCE evolved into the Hebrew square script of the later scrolls in the 1st century CE, also known as ketav Ashuri (Assyrian script), still in use today.
Dead Sea Scrolls (also Qumran Caves Scrolls) are ancient Jewish religious, mostly Hebrew, manuscripts found in the Qumran Caves in the West Bank near the Dead Sea.

Talmud

Babylonian TalmudtalmudistTalmudic
Mishnaic Hebrew from the 1st to the 3rd or 4th century CE, corresponding to the Roman Period after the destruction of the Temple in Jerusalem and represented by the bulk of the Mishnah and Tosefta within the Talmud and by the Dead Sea Scrolls, notably the Bar Kokhba letters and the Copper Scroll. Also called Tannaitic Hebrew or Early Rabbinic Hebrew.
The Talmud (Hebrew: תַּלְמוּד talmūd) is the central text of Rabbinic Judaism and the primary source of Jewish religious law (halakha) and Jewish theology.

Jordan River

JordanRiver JordanJordan Valley
The name is believed to be based on the Semitic root ʕ-b-r meaning "beyond", "other side", "across"; interpretations of the term "Hebrew" generally render its meaning as roughly "from the other side [of the river/desert]"—i.e., an exonym for the inhabitants of the land of Israel/Judah, perhaps from the perspective of Mesopotamia, Phoenicia, or the Transjordan (with the river referenced perhaps the Euphrates, Jordan, or Litani; or maybe the northern Arabian Desert between Babylonia and Canaan).
Cognates of the word are found in Aramaic, Hebrew, and other Semitic languages.

Gezer calendar

Gezer agricultural calendar
The Gezer calendar also dates back to the 10th century BCE at the beginning of the Monarchic Period, the traditional time of the reign of David and Solomon.
Scholars are divided as to whether the language is Phoenician or Hebrew and whether the script is Phoenician (or Proto-Canaanite) or paleo-Hebrew.