A report on Israel and Hebrew language

The Merneptah Stele (13th century BCE). The majority of biblical archeologists translate a set of hieroglyphs as "Israel," the first instance of the name in the record.
The word HEBREW written in modern Hebrew language (top) and in Paleo-Hebrew alphabet (bottom)
The Shebna Inscription, from the tomb of a royal steward found in Siloam, dates to the 7th century BCE.
The Large Stone Structure, an archaeological site in Jerusalem
Hebrew script used in writing a Torah scroll. Note ornamental "crowns" on tops of certain letters.
Rashi script
Map of Israel and Judah in the 9th century BCE
A silver matchbox holder with inscription in Hebrew
Portion of the Temple Scroll, one of the Dead Sea Scrolls, written during the Second Temple period
Aleppo Codex: 10th century Hebrew Bible with Masoretic pointing (Joshua 1:1).
Kfar Bar'am, an ancient Jewish village, abandoned some time between the 7th–13th centuries CE.
Kochangadi Synagogue in Kochi, India dated to 1344.
The 13th-century Ramban Synagogue in Jerusalem
Eliezer Ben-Yehuda
Jews at the Western Wall in the 1870s
Hebrew, Arabic and English multilingual signs on an Israeli highway
The First Zionist Congress (1897) in Basel, Switzerland
Dual language Hebrew and English keyboard
UN Map, "Palestine plan of partition with economic union"
Academy of the Hebrew Language
Territory held by Israel: The Sinai Peninsula was returned to Egypt in 1982.
Hebrew alphabet
Israel's 1980 law declared that "Jerusalem, complete and united, is the capital of Israel."
Shimon Peres (left) with Yitzhak Rabin (center) and King Hussein of Jordan (right), prior to signing the Israel–Jordan peace treaty in 1994.
The site of the 2001 Tel Aviv Dolphinarium discotheque massacre, in which 21 Israelis were killed.
Köppen climate classification map of Israel and the Golan Heights
Population pyramid of Israel
Immigration to Israel in the years 1948–2015. The two peaks were in 1949 and 1990.
Road sign in Hebrew, Arabic, and English
The Dome of the Rock and the Western Wall, Jerusalem.
Multidisciplinary Brain Research Center at Bar-Ilan University
Mount Scopus Campus of the Hebrew University of Jerusalem
The Knesset chamber, home to the Israeli parliament
Political system of state of Israel
Supreme Court of Israel, Givat Ram, Jerusalem
Map of Israel showing the West Bank, the Gaza Strip, and the Golan Heights
Israeli West Bank barrier separating Israel and the West Bank
Area C of the West Bank, controlled by Israel under Oslo Accords, in blue and red, in December 2011
Yitzhak Rabin and Yasser Arafat at the signing ceremony of the Oslo Accords with then US President Bill Clinton
Squad commanders exercise at Eliakim training base in 2012
Iron Dome is the world's first operational anti-artillery rocket defense system.
Change in per capita GDP of Israel since 1950. Figures are inflation-adjusted to 2011 International dollars.
The Diamond Exchange District in Ramat Gan
Tel Aviv Stock Exchange. Its building is optimized for computer trading, with systems located in an underground bunker to keep the exchange active during emergencies.
Matam high-tech park in Haifa
The world's largest solar parabolic dish at the Ben-Gurion National Solar Energy Center.
Ben Gurion International Airport
Ein Bokek resort on the shore of the Dead Sea
Shmuel Yosef Agnon, laureate of the Nobel Prize in Literature
Israel Philharmonic Orchestra conducted by Zubin Mehta
Shrine of the Book, repository of the Dead Sea Scrolls in Jerusalem
A meal including falafel, hummus, French fries and Israeli salad
Teddy Stadium of Jerusalem
Boris Gelfand, chess Grandmaster

With the rise of Zionism in the 19th century, the Hebrew language experienced a full-scale revival as a spoken and literary language, after which it became the main language of the Yishuv in Palestine and subsequently the lingua franca of the State of Israel with official status.

- Hebrew language

Israel has one official language, Hebrew.

- Israel

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Jerusalem

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City in Western Asia.

City in Western Asia.

Close up of the Khirbet Beit Lei inscription, showing the earliest extra-biblical Hebrew writing of the word Jerusalem, dated to the seventh or sixth century BCE
Stepped Stone Structure in the City of David, the ancient core of Jerusalem during the Bronze Age and Iron Age
The Siloam Inscription, written in Biblical Hebrew, commemorates the construction of the Siloam tunnel (c. 700 BCE)
Modern-day reconstruction of Jerusalem during the reign of Solomon (10th century BCE). Solomon's Temple appears on top.
Holyland Model of Jerusalem, depicting the city during the late Second Temple period. First created in 1966, it is continuously updated according to advancing archaeological knowledge
A coin issued by the Jewish rebels in 68 CE. Obverse: "Shekel, Israel. Year 3". Reverse: "Jerusalem the Holy", in the Paleo-Hebrew alphabet
Stones from the Western Wall of the Temple Mount thrown during the Roman Siege of Jerusalem in 70 CE
The Siege and Destruction of Jerusalem by the Romans (David Roberts, 1850)
Jerusalem mural depicting the Cardo during the Byzantine period.
1455 painting of the Holy Land. Jerusalem is viewed from the west; the octagonal Dome of the Rock stands left of Al-Aqsa, shown as a church, and the Church of the Holy Sepulchre stands on the left side of the picture.
Medieval illustration of capture of Jerusalem during the First Crusade, 1099.
Jerusalem, from 'Peregrinatio in Terram Sanctam' by Bernhard von Breydenbach (1486)
Topographic map of the city, c. 1600.
1844 daguerreotype by Joseph-Philibert Girault de Prangey (the earliest photograph of the city).
William McLean's 1918 plan was the first urban planning scheme for Jerusalem. It laid the foundations for what became West Jerusalem and East Jerusalem.
Jerusalem on VE Day, 8 May 1945.
Map of East Jerusalem (2010)
The Knesset houses the legislature of Israel
Supreme Court of Israel
Israeli Foreign Ministry building
Orient House in East Jerusalem that served as the headquarters of the PLO in the 1980s and 1990s. It was closed by Israel in 2001, two days after the Sbarro restaurant suicide bombing.
Snow visible on roofs in the Old City of Jerusalem.
Rehavia and Kiryat Wolfson, two Jewish neighborhoods, as seen from Givat Ram
Sheikh Jarrah, a predominantly Arab neighborhood on the road to Mount Scopus.
Sign in Armenian in the Armenian Quarter.
The Old City is home to many sites of seminal religious importance for the three major Abrahamic religions—Judaism, Christianity, and Islam
Bank of Israel
Har Hotzvim high-tech park
Mamilla Mall adorned with upscale shops stands just outside the Old City Walls.
Holyland Tower, Jerusalem's tallest building
Jerusalem Chords Bridge
Light Rail tram on Jaffa Road
Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Mount Scopus campus
Hand in Hand, a bilingual Jewish-Arab school in Jerusalem
Hebron Yeshiva in Givat Mordechai neighborhood
The Shrine of the Book, housing the Dead Sea Scrolls, at the Israel Museum
Jerusalem Biblical Zoo
National Library of Israel
Teddy Stadium, Malha
Pais Arena
Tower of David citadel and the Ottoman walls
Ben-Zakai synagogue, photo taken in 1893
Guesthouse in Mishkenot Sha'ananim, the first Jewish neighborhood built outside the walls of the Old City of Jerusalem (1860), on a hill directly across from Mount Zion.
Israeli policemen meet a Jordanian Legionnaire near the Mandelbaum Gate ({{Circa|1950}}).
King Hussein of Jordan flying over the Temple Mount in East Jerusalem when it was under Jordanian control, 1965.
Astronauts' view of Jerusalem.
Sunset aerial photograph of the Mount of Olives.
The Temple Mount, the site of the two former Jewish Temples, is the holiest spot in Judaism
The Western Wall, also known as the Wailing Wall and the Kotel, is a remnant of the Second Temple and the holiest place where Jews are permitted to pray
The Church of the Holy Sepulchre contains the two holiest sites in Christianity: the site where Jesus was crucified, and Jesus's empty tomb, where he is believed by Christians to have been buried and resurrected.
Al-Aqsa Mosque, the third holiest site in Sunni Islam. Muslims believe that Muhammad was transported from the Great Mosque of Mecca to this location during the Night Journey.
The Garden Tomb – a new holy site established by British Protestants in the 19th century
Demographic history of Jerusalem by religion based on available data
Teddy Stadium, Malha

The city straddles the Green Line between Israel and the West Bank; both Israelis and Palestinians claim Jerusalem as their capital.

Shalim or Shalem was the name of the god of dusk in the Canaanite religion, whose name is based on the same root S-L-M from which the Hebrew word for "peace" is derived (Shalom in Hebrew, cognate with Arabic Salam).

Judaica (clockwise from top): Shabbat candlesticks, handwashing cup, Chumash and Tanakh, Torah pointer, shofar and etrog box

Judaism

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Abrahamic, monotheistic, and ethnic religion comprising the collective religious, cultural, and legal tradition and civilization of the Jewish people.

Abrahamic, monotheistic, and ethnic religion comprising the collective religious, cultural, and legal tradition and civilization of the Jewish people.

Judaica (clockwise from top): Shabbat candlesticks, handwashing cup, Chumash and Tanakh, Torah pointer, shofar and etrog box
Maccabees by Wojciech Stattler (1842)
A painting of Moses decorates the Dura-Europos synagogue dating from 244 CE
The Western Wall in Jerusalem is a remnant of the wall encircling the Second Temple. The Temple Mount is the holiest site in Judaism.
Kennicott Bible, a 1476 Spanish Tanakh
Aleppo Codex, a Tanakh produced in Tiberias in the 10th century
A man holds up a Sephardi-style torah at the Western Wall, Jerusalem
Statue of Maimonides in Córdoba, Spain
Conservative women rabbis, Israel
El Ghriba synagogue in Djerba, Tunisia
Beta Israeli Kahen at the Western Wall
A Yemenite Jew at morning prayers, wearing a kippah skullcap, prayer shawl and tefillin
An Israeli female soldier prays at the Western Wall
Jewish boys wearing tzitzit and kippot play soccer in Jerusalem
Men wearing tallitot pray at the Western Wall
Two braided Shabbat challahs placed under an embroidered challah cover at the start of the Shabbat meal
Jews in Mumbai break the Yom Kippur fast with roti and samosas
Purim street scene in Jerusalem
Jewish personnel of the US Navy light candles on Hanukkah
A man reads a torah using a yad
The Sarajevo Synagogue in Sarajevo, Bosnia and Herzegovina
Great Synagogue (Jerusalem)
Congregation Emanu-El of New York
18th-century circumcision chair Museum of Jewish Art and History
Two boys wearing tallit at a bar mitzvah. The torah is visible in the foreground.
The Bereavement (Yahrtzeit) Hasidic tish, Bnei Brak, Israel
Jewish students with their teacher in Samarkand, Uzbekistan c. 1910.
Magen David Synagogue in Kolkata, India
A Yemeni sofer writing a torah in the 1930s
Judaism is practiced around the world. This is an 1889 siddur published in Hebrew and Marathi for use by the Bene Israel community
The 12th century Synagogue of Santa María la Blanca in Toledo, Spain was converted to a church shortly after anti-Jewish pogroms in 1391
Muslim women in the mellah of Essaouira
The bimah of the Ben Ezra Synagogue in Cairo, Egypt

Major sources of difference between these groups are their approaches to halakha (Jewish law), the authority of the rabbinic tradition, and the significance of the State of Israel.

Its ultimate source was the Hebrew יהודה, Yehudah, "Judah", which is also the source of the Hebrew term for Judaism: יַהֲדוּת, Yahadut.

Map of Canaan

Jews

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Ethnoreligious group and nation originating from the Israelites and Hebrews of historical Israel and Judah.

Ethnoreligious group and nation originating from the Israelites and Hebrews of historical Israel and Judah.

Map of Canaan
Egyptian depiction of the visit of Western Asiatics in colorful garments, labeled as Aamu. The painting is from the tomb of a 12th dynasty official Khnumhotep II at Beni Hasan, and dated to c. 1900 BCE. Their nearest Biblical contemporaries were the earliest of Hebrews, such as Abraham and Joseph.
Depiction of King Jehu, tenth king of the northern Kingdom of Israel, on the Black Obelisk of Shalmaneser III, 841–840 BCE. This is "the only portrayal we have in ancient Near Eastern art of an Israelite or Judaean monarch".
Tombstone of the Maharal in the Old Jewish Cemetery, Prague. The tombstones are inscribed in Hebrew.
Bible manuscript in Hebrew, 14th century. Hebrew language and alphabet were the cornerstones of the Jewish national identity in antiquity.
Ashkenazi Jews of late-19th-century Eastern Europe portrayed in Jews Praying in the Synagogue on Yom Kippur (1878), by Maurycy Gottlieb
Sephardi Jewish couple from Sarajevo in traditional clothing. Photo taken in 1900.
Yemenite Jew blows shofar, 1947
New York City is home to 1.1 million Jews, making it the largest Jewish community outside of Israel.
Jewish people in Jerusalem, Israel
In this Rosh Hashana greeting card from the early 1900s, Russian Jews, packs in hand, gaze at the American relatives beckoning them to the United States. Over two million Jews fled the pogroms of the Russian Empire to the safety of the U.S. between 1881 and 1924.
A menorah dominating the main square in Birobidzhan. An estimated 70,000 Jews live in Siberia.
The Jewish Zionist Youth Movement in Tallinn, Estonia on 1 September 1933.
The Roman Emperor Nero sends Vespasian with an army to destroy the Jews, 69 CE.
World War I poster showing a soldier cutting the bonds from a Jewish man, who says, "You have cut my bonds and set me free—now let me help you set others free!"
Jews in Minsk, 1941. Before World War II some 40 percent of the population was Jewish. By the time the Red Army retook the city on 3 July 1944, there were only a few Jewish survivors.
Expulsions of Jews in Europe from 1100 to 1600
Etching of the expulsion of the Jews from Frankfurt in 1614. The text says: "1380 persons old and young were counted at the exit of the gate".
Jews fleeing pogroms, 1882
Praying at the Western Wall
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The modern State of Israel is the only country where Jews form a majority of the population.

Hebrew is the liturgical language of Judaism (termed lashon ha-kodesh, "the holy tongue"), the language in which most of the Hebrew scriptures (Tanakh) were composed, and the daily speech of the Jewish people for centuries.

The Merneptah Stele, widely believed to comprise the earliest known appearance of the name Israel

Israelites

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The Israelites were a confederation of Semitic-speaking tribes in the ancient Near East who, during the Iron Age, inhabited a part of Canaan.

The Israelites were a confederation of Semitic-speaking tribes in the ancient Near East who, during the Iron Age, inhabited a part of Canaan.

The Merneptah Stele, widely believed to comprise the earliest known appearance of the name Israel
Mid-20th century mosaic of the 12 Tribes of Israel, from the Etz Yosef synagogue wall in Givat Mordechai, 
Jerusalem
Map of the Holy Land, Pietro Vesconte, 1321, showing the allotments of the tribes of Israel. Described by Adolf Erik Nordenskiöld as "the first non-Ptolemaic map of a definite country"
Map of the twelve tribes of Israel (before the move of Dan to the north), based on the Book of Joshua
Model of the Tabernacle constructed under the auspices of Moses, in Timna Park, Israel
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The Mount Ebal structure, seen by many archeologists as an early Israelite cultic site
Series of depictions of the historical Israelites between the 13th and 7th century BCE
Part of the gift-bearing Israelite delegation of King Jehu, Black Obelisk, 841-840 BCE.
"To Hezekiah, son of Ahaz, king of Judah" - royal seal found at the Ophel excavations in Jerusalem
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They spoke an archaic form of the Hebrew Language, known as Ancient Hebrew.

According to the Hebrew Bible, the Israelites are the descendants of Jacob, who was later renamed Israel.

Theodor Herzl was the founder of the Modern Zionist movement. In his 1896 pamphlet Der Judenstaat, he envisioned the founding of a future independent Jewish state during the 20th century.

Zionism

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Nationalist movement that espouses the establishment of, and support for a homeland for the Jewish people centered in the area roughly corresponding to the Land of Israel, the region of Palestine, Canaan, or the Holy Land, on the basis of a long Jewish connection and attachment to that land.

Nationalist movement that espouses the establishment of, and support for a homeland for the Jewish people centered in the area roughly corresponding to the Land of Israel, the region of Palestine, Canaan, or the Holy Land, on the basis of a long Jewish connection and attachment to that land.

Theodor Herzl was the founder of the Modern Zionist movement. In his 1896 pamphlet Der Judenstaat, he envisioned the founding of a future independent Jewish state during the 20th century.
Flag of the State of Israel, established in 1948. A similar version was designed for the Zionist Movement in 1891.
"Hezekiah [..] king of Judah" - Royal seal written in the Paleo-Hebrew alphabet, unearthed in Jerusalem
Coin of the Bar-Kokhba revolt (132-135 CE). Front shows trumpets surrounded by "To the freedom of Jerusalem". Back shows a lyre surrounded by "Year two to the freedom of Israel"
The 15th-century Abuhav synagogue, established by Sephardic Jews in Safed, Northern Israel.
"Memorandum to Protestant Monarchs of Europe for the restoration of the Jews to Palestine", published in the Colonial Times, in 1841
The Great Synagogue of Rishon LeZion was founded in 1885.
Front page of The Jewish Chronicle, January 17, 1896, showing an article by Theodor Herzl (the father of political Zionism) a month prior to the publication of his pamphlet Der Judenstaat
The delegates at the First Zionist Congress, held in Basel, Switzerland (1897)
The Jewish Zionist Youth Movement in Tallinn, Estonia in 1933
Palestine as claimed by the World Zionist Organization in 1919 at the Paris Peace Conference
During the 1919 Paris Peace Conference, an Inter-Allied Commission was sent to Palestine to assess the views of the local population; the report summarized the arguments received from petitioners for and against Zionism.
David Ben-Gurion proclaiming Israel's independence beneath a large portrait of Theodor Herzl
Arab offensive at the beginning of the 1948 Arab-Israeli war
Yemenite Jews on their way to Israel during Operation Magic Carpet
Israeli author Amos Oz, who today is described as the 'aristocrat' of Labor Zionism
Israeli Jewish youth from the Socialist Zionist youth movement No'al, meeting with Jewish resistance fighter Simcha Rotem. Founded in 1924, No'al is one of the largest Zionist Youth movements.
Kibbutznikiyot (female Kibbutz members) in Mishmar HaEmek, during the 1948 Arab–Israeli War. The Kibbutz is the historical heartland of Labor Zionism.
Ze'ev Jabotinsky, founder of Revisionist Zionism
Israeli Jews praying at the Western Wall, a remnant of the Second Jewish Temple, expanded by Herod the Great
Martin Luther King Jr. was a notable Christian supporter of Israel and Zionism.
Israeli Druze Scouts march to Jethro's tomb. Today, thousands of Israeli Druze belong to 'Druze Zionist' movements.
The Palestinian Arab Christian-owned Falastin newspaper featuring a caricature on its June 18, 1936, edition showing Zionism as a crocodile under the protection of a British officer telling Palestinian Arabs: "Don't be afraid!!! I will swallow you peacefully...".
Two Neturei Karta members join in a large anti-Israel demonstration in Berlin, alongside Iranian and Hezbollah flags.
Theodor Herzl was the founder of the Modern Zionist movement. In his 1896 pamphlet Der Judenstaat, he envisioned the founding of a future independent Jewish state during the 20th century.

Since the establishment of the State of Israel in 1948, Zionism has continued primarily to advocate on behalf of Israel and to address threats to its continued existence and security.

Throughout eastern Europe in the late 19th century, numerous grassroots groups promoted the national resettlement of the Jews in their homeland, as well as the revitalization and cultivation of the Hebrew language.

The Samaritans on Mount Gerizim

Jewish religious movements

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Jewish religious movements, sometimes called "denominations", include different groups within Judaism which have developed among Jews from ancient times.

Jewish religious movements, sometimes called "denominations", include different groups within Judaism which have developed among Jews from ancient times.

The Samaritans on Mount Gerizim
In central Karaite synagogue, Ramla
Torah reading Sephardic custom
A Yemenite Jew in traditional vestments under the tallit gadol, reading from a Torah scroll
Hasidim
Orthodox men during morning Torah reading at the Western Wall
Birkat Hachama of Conservative Jews, Encino, Los Angeles
Reform Jewish service with mixed sitting
IDF soldier, Asael Lubotzky prays with tefillin
Naturei Karta protest, USA
Beta Israel celebrating Sigd, Jerusalem
Igbo Jews, Nigeria, presented with a plaque
Inside Reconstructionist synagogue, Montreal
Purim of Messianic Jews, Saint-Petersburg

One such community is located in the Israeli city of Holon, while the other is located near Nablus on Mount Gerizim, in the West Bank.

Most streams of modern Judaism developed from the Pharisaic movement, which became known as Rabbinic Judaism (in Hebrew Yahadut Rabanit – יהדות רבנית) with the compilation of the Oral Torah into the Mishna.

Canaanite languages

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The Canaanite languages, or Canaanite dialects, are one of the three subgroups of the Northwest Semitic languages, the others being Aramaic and Ugaritic, all originating in the Levant and Mesopotamia.

The Canaanite languages, or Canaanite dialects, are one of the three subgroups of the Northwest Semitic languages, the others being Aramaic and Ugaritic, all originating in the Levant and Mesopotamia.

Dialects have been labelled primarily with reference to Biblical geography: Hebrew (Israelian, Judean/Biblical, Samaritan), Phoenician/Punic, Amorite, Ammonite, Philistine, Moabite, Sutean and Edomite; the dialects were all mutually intelligible, being no more differentiated than geographical varieties of Modern English.

These extremely closely related tongues were spoken by the ancient Semitic people of the Canaan and Levant regions, an area encompassing what is today Israel, Jordan, Sinai, Lebanon, Syria, the Palestinian territories and also some areas of southwestern Turkey (Anatolia), western and southern Iraq (Mesopotamia) and the north western corner of Saudi Arabia.

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Hasidic Judaism

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Jewish religious group that arose as a spiritual revival movement in the territory of contemporary Western Ukraine during the 18th century, and spread rapidly throughout Eastern Europe.

Jewish religious group that arose as a spiritual revival movement in the territory of contemporary Western Ukraine during the 18th century, and spread rapidly throughout Eastern Europe.

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The Kaliver Rebbe, Holocaust survivor, inspiring his court on the festival of Sukkot
Kvitel requests for blessing piled on the graves of the last Lubavitcher Rebbes
Hasidic family in Borough Park, Brooklyn. The man is wearing a shtreimel, and either a bekishe or a rekel. The woman is wearing a wig, called a sheitel, as she is forbidden to show her hair in public.
Rabbi Moshe Leib Rabinovich, Munkacser Rebbe, wearing a kolpik
The Dorohoi Rebbe in his traditional rabbinical Sabbath garb
Sculpture of the Hasidic movement's celebration of spirituality on the Knesset Menorah
Israel ben Eliezer's autograph
Shivchei HaBesht (Praises of the Baal Shem Tov), the first compilation of Hasidic hagiographic storytelling, was printed from manuscripts in 1815
Palace of the Ruzhin dynasty, known for its "royal" mannerism, in Sadhora.
Belzer Rebbe Aharon Rokeach (depicted 1934), who was hidden from the Nazis and smuggled out of Europe.

Today, most affiliates reside in Israel and the United States.

Hasidim use the Ashkenazi pronunciation of Hebrew and Aramaic for liturgical purposes, reflecting their Eastern European background.

Statue of the Sephardic philosopher Maimonides, in Córdoba, Spain

Sephardi Jews

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Sepharadi Jews (יהדות ספרד, ; Djudíos Sefardíes), also known as Sephardic Jews or Sepharadim, and sometimes referred to by modern scholars as Hispanic Jews,

Sepharadi Jews (יהדות ספרד, ; Djudíos Sefardíes), also known as Sephardic Jews or Sepharadim, and sometimes referred to by modern scholars as Hispanic Jews,

Statue of the Sephardic philosopher Maimonides, in Córdoba, Spain
Jewish Festival in Tetuan, Alfred Dehodencq, 1865, Paris Museum of Jewish Art and History
Sephardi Jewish couple from Sarajevo in traditional clothing (1900)
A 1902 Issue of La Epoca, a Ladino newspaper from Salonica (Thessaloniki)
19th-century Moroccan Sephardic wedding dress.
First Cemetery of the Spanish and Portuguese Synagogue, Shearith Israel (1656–1833) in Manhattan, New York City
Emma Lazarus, American poet. Born into a large New York Sephardi family.
Sephardi family from Misiones Province, Argentina, circa 1900.
The Expulsion of the Jews from Spain (in the year 1492) by Emilio Sala Francés
Dedication at Yad Vashem in Jerusalem written in Hebrew, English, Yiddish, and Judeo-Spanish
13th-century depiction of a Jew and Muslim playing chess in Al-Andalus
Observing the Havdalah ritual, 14th-century Spain
A representation of the 1506 Jewish Massacre in Lisbon.
Interior of the Portuguese synagogue in Amsterdam, c. 1680
Execution of Mariana de Carabajal in Mexico City, daughter of Francisca Nuñez de Carabajal, in 1601 by the Santo Oficio.
A young woman weeps during the deportation of Jews of Ioannina (Greece) on 25 March 1944.

The modern Israeli Hebrew definition of Sephardi is a much broader, religious based, definition that generally excludes ethnic considerations.

As a result of the more recent Jewish exodus from Arab lands, many of the Sephardim Tehorim from Western Asia and North Africa relocated to either Israel or France, where they form a significant portion of the Jewish communities today.

Ben-Gurion in 1960

David Ben-Gurion

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Ben-Gurion in 1960
Poalei Zion's "Ezra" group in Plonsk, 1905. David Grün (David Ben-Gurion) in the first row, third on the right.
Ben Gurion with Rachel Nelkin and members of Ezra on eve of their departure to Palestine, August 1906; His father and step-mother sitting in the windows
Ben Gurion working at Rishon Lezion winery (front row, 6th from right), 1908.
Ben-Gurion in his Jewish Legion uniform, 1918
David and Paula Ben-Gurion, 1 June 1918.
The Histadrut committee in 1920. Ben Gurion is in the 2nd row, 4th from the right.
From left: David Ben-Gurion and Paula with youngest daughter Renana on BG's lap, daughter Geula, father Avigdor Grün and son Amos, 1929
David Ben-Gurion with Yigal Allon and Yitzhak Rabin in the Negev, during the 1948 Arab–Israeli War.
David Ben-Gurion visits 101 Squadron, the "First Fighter Squadron".
David Ben-Gurion proclaiming independence beneath a large portrait of Theodor Herzl, founder of modern Zionism.
U.S. President Harry S. Truman in the Oval Office, receiving a Menorah as a gift from the Prime Minister of Israel, David Ben-Gurion (center). To the right is Abba Eban, the Ambassador of Israel to the United States.
David Ben-Gurion speaking at the Knesset, 1957
Kennedy and Ben-Gurion in 1961.
Ben-Gurion on the cover of Time (16 August 1948)
thumb|Graves of Paula and David Ben-Gurion, Midreshet Ben-Gurion
thumb|Sculpture of David Ben-Gurion at Ben Gurion Airport, named in his honor
thumb|Esplanade Ben Gourion, Paris, near the Seine, in front of the Musée du Quai Branly
thumb|David Ben-Gurion Square—site of the house where Ben-Gurion was born, Płońsk, Wspólna Street.
thumb|House at town square in Płońsk, Poland, where David Ben-Gurion grew up
thumb|English Heritage blue plaque where Ben-Gurion lived in London
Portrait of Ben-Gurion

David Ben-Gurion (דָּוִד בֶּן-גּוּרִיּוֹן ; born David Grün; 16 October 1886 – 1 December 1973) was the primary national founder of the State of Israel and the first Prime Minister of Israel.

Two of the heders were 'modern' and taught in Hebrew rather than Yiddish.