Hebrides

HebrideanHebridean islandsWestern IslesIslesHebridean islandthe Islesthe HebridesWestern IslandsbelowSouthern Hebrides
The Hebrides (Innse Gall, ; ) compose a widespread and diverse archipelago off the west coast of mainland Scotland.wikipedia
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Scotland

Scottish🏴󠁧󠁢󠁳󠁣󠁴󠁿Scots
The Hebrides (Innse Gall, ; ) compose a widespread and diverse archipelago off the west coast of mainland Scotland.
In addition to the mainland, the country has more than 790 islands, including the Northern Isles and the Hebrides.

Inner Hebrides

Inner HebrideanInnerHebridean
There are two main groups: the Inner and Outer Hebrides. The Inner Hebrides lie closer to mainland Scotland and include Islay, Jura, Skye, Mull, Raasay, Staffa and the Small Isles.
Together these two island chains form the Hebrides, which experience a mild oceanic climate.

Outer Hebrides

Western IslesNa h-Eileanan SiarOuter Hebridean
There are two main groups: the Inner and Outer Hebrides.
They form part of the archipelago of the Hebrides, separated from the Scottish mainland and from the Inner Hebrides by the waters of the Minch, the Little Minch, and the Sea of the Hebrides.

Donald Monro (priest)

Dean MonroDonald MonroDonald Munro
The earliest comprehensive written list of Hebridean island names was undertaken by Donald Monro in 1549, which in some cases also provides the earliest written form of the island name.
Donald Monro (or Munro) (fl. 1526–1574) was a Scottish clergyman, who wrote an early and historically valuable description of the Hebrides and other Scottish islands and enjoyed the honorific title of "Dean of the Isles".

Islay

Isle of IslayIsland of IslayIsla'''y
The Inner Hebrides lie closer to mainland Scotland and include Islay, Jura, Skye, Mull, Raasay, Staffa and the Small Isles.
Known as "The Queen of the Hebrides", it lies in Argyll just south west of Jura and around 40 km north of the Northern Irish coast.

Isle of Lewis

LewisLèodhasIsles of Lewis
The main islands include Barra, Benbecula, Berneray, Harris, Lewis, North Uist, South Uist, and St Kilda.
The Lords of the Isles were based on Islay, but controlled all of the Hebrides.

Iona

Isle of IonaÍIsland of Iona
The figure of Columba looms large in any history of Dál Riata, and his founding of a monastery on Iona ensured that the kingdom would be of great importance in the spread of Christianity in northern Britain.
The Hebrides have been occupied by the speakers of several languages since the Iron Age, and as a result many of the names of these islands have more than one possible meaning.

Benbecula

Isle of Benbecula
The main islands include Barra, Benbecula, Berneray, Harris, Lewis, North Uist, South Uist, and St Kilda.
Travel to any of the other Hebridean islands, or to the British mainland, is by air or sea.

Gigha

Isle of GighaThe Isle of GighaThe Island of Gigha
The Hebrides have been occupied by the speakers of at least four languages since the Iron Age, and many of the names of these islands have more than one possible meaning as a result.

Celtic Britons

BritonsBritishBrythonic
Islay is Ptolemy's Epidion, the use of the "p" hinting at a Brythonic or Pictish tribal name, Epidii, although the root is not Gaelic.
Brittonic was spoken throughout the island of Britain (in modern terms, England, Wales and Scotland), as well as offshore islands such as the Isle of Man, Scilly Isles, Orkney, Hebrides, Isle of Wight and Shetland.

Kingdom of the Isles

IslesKing of the IslesMann and the Isles
The Hebrides were now part of the Kingdom of the Isles, whose rulers were themselves vassals of the Kings of Norway.
The Kingdom of the Isles comprised the Hebrides, the islands of the Firth of Clyde and the Isle of Man from the 9th to the 13th centuries AD. The islands were known to the Norse as the Suðreyjar, or "Southern Isles" as distinct from the Norðreyjar or Northern Isles of Orkney and Shetland.

British Isles

BritainBritishBritain and Ireland
Lewis and Harris is the largest island in Scotland and the third largest in the British Isles, after Great Britain and Ireland.
The largest of the other islands are to be found in the Hebrides, Orkney and Shetland to the north, Anglesey and the Isle of Man between Great Britain and Ireland, and the Channel Islands near the coast of France.

Scottish–Norwegian War

1263 expeditiondispute with the Scottish kingNorwegian expedition against Scotland
Following the ill-fated 1263 expedition of Haakon IV of Norway, the Outer Hebrides and the Isle of Man were yielded to the Kingdom of Scotland as a result of the 1266 Treaty of Perth.
The conflict arose because of disagreement over the ownership of the Hebrides.

Magnus Barefoot

Magnús Óláfsson, King of NorwayMagnus BarelegsMagnus II
Norse control of the Hebrides was formalised in 1098 when Edgar of Scotland formally signed the islands over to Magnus III of Norway.
He raided through Orkney, the Hebrides and Mann (the Northern and Southern Isles), and ensured Norwegian control by a treaty with the Scottish king.

Somerled

SomhairleSomerled, Lord of ArgyllSomairle mac Gilla Brigte
This situation lasted until the partitioning of the Western Isles in 1156, at which time the Outer Hebrides remained under Norwegian control while the Inner Hebrides broke out under Somerled, the Norse-Gael kinsman of the Manx royal house.
On his death, Somerled's vast kingdom disintegrated, although his sons retained much of the southern Hebridean portion.

Norse–Gaels

Norse-GaelicHiberno-NorseNorse–Gael
This situation lasted until the partitioning of the Western Isles in 1156, at which time the Outer Hebrides remained under Norwegian control while the Inner Hebrides broke out under Somerled, the Norse-Gael kinsman of the Manx royal house.
They founded the Kingdom of the Isles (which included the Hebrides and the Isle of Man), the Kingdom of Dublin, the Lordship of Galloway (which is named after them), and ruled the Kingdom of York for a time.

Lord of the Isles

Lordship of the IslesLords of the IslesCouncil of the Isles
This transition did little to relieve the islands of internecine strife although by the early 14th century the MacDonald Lords of the Isles, based on Islay, were in theory these chiefs' feudal superiors and managed to exert some control.
Their territory included the Hebrides (Skye and Ross from 1438), Knoydart, Ardnamurchan, and the Kintyre peninsula.

Treaty of Perth

its transfer from Norwaytreaty
Following the ill-fated 1263 expedition of Haakon IV of Norway, the Outer Hebrides and the Isle of Man were yielded to the Kingdom of Scotland as a result of the 1266 Treaty of Perth.
The Treaty of Perth, signed 2 July 1266, ended military conflict between Magnus VI of Norway and Alexander III of Scotland over the sovereignty of the Hebrides and the Isle of Man.

St Kilda, Scotland

St KildaSt. KildaSt Kilda archipelago
The main islands include Barra, Benbecula, Berneray, Harris, Lewis, North Uist, South Uist, and St Kilda. The etymology of St Kilda, a small archipelago west of the Outer Hebrides, and its main island Hirta, is very complex.
Martin noted in 1697 that the citizens seemed "happier than the generality of mankind as being almost the only people in the world who feel the sweetness of true liberty", and in the 19th century their health and well being was contrasted favourably with conditions elsewhere in the Hebrides.

Mingulay

In historic times the Hebrides have been heavily influenced by Celtic, Norse and Scots culture and this is evident in the variety of names the isle possesses.

Scots language

ScotsLowland ScotsScottish
Due to Scots and English being favoured in government and the educational system, the Hebrides have been in a state of diglossia since at least the 17th century.
It is sometimes called Lowland Scots to distinguish it from Scottish Gaelic, the Celtic language which was historically restricted to most of the Highlands, the Hebrides and Galloway after the 16th century.

Harris, Scotland

HarrisIsle of HarrisNorth Harris
The main islands include Barra, Benbecula, Berneray, Harris, Lewis, North Uist, South Uist, and St Kilda.
Its main settlements are Rodel (Roghadal), known for its medieval kirk of St. Clement (Eaglais Chliamhain), the most elaborate surviving medieval church in the Hebrides after Iona Abbey, and Leverburgh (An Tòb na Hearadh or An t-Òb na Hearadh). A ferry sails from the latter to Berneray (Beàrnaraigh na Hearadh), an island off the coast of North Uist (Uibhist a Tuath), to which it is joined by a causeway.

Raasay

ArnishIsle of RaasayCalum's Road
The Inner Hebrides lie closer to mainland Scotland and include Islay, Jura, Skye, Mull, Raasay, Staffa and the Small Isles.
Murray (1973) states that a single specimen of a pine marten, otherwise missing from the Hebrides, was found on the island in 1971.

Ketill Flatnose

Ketil ''flatnefrKetil of ManKetil Flatnose
In the Western Isles Ketill Flatnose may have been the dominant figure of the mid 9th century, by which time he had amassed a substantial island realm and made a variety of alliances with other Norse leaders.
He defeated them and also took possession of the Hebrides and the Isle of Man.

Blackhouse

black houses
There were, however, continuing gradual economic improvements, among the most visible of which was the replacement of the traditional thatched blackhouse with accommodation of a more modern design and with the assistance of Highlands and Islands Enterprise many of the islands' populations have begun to increase after decades of decline.
A blackhouse (t(a)igh-dubh ; teach dubh) is a traditional type of house which used to be common in the Scottish Highlands, the Hebrides, and Ireland.