Hedge

hedgerowshedgeshedginghedgerowliving fenceHedgerow removalhedging plantlive fencinghedge fencequickset hedges
A hedge or hedgerow is a line of closely spaced shrubs and sometimes trees, planted and trained to form a barrier or to mark the boundary of an area, such as between neighbouring properties.wikipedia
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Windbreak

shelterbeltsshelterbeltshelter belt
Often they serve as windbreaks to improve conditions for the adjacent crops, as in bocage country.
They are commonly planted in hedgerows around the edges of fields on farms.

Topiary

topiariestopiaristclipped in green hedges
When clipped and maintained, hedges are also a simple form of topiary.
The hedge is a simple form of topiary used to create boundaries, walls or screens.

Ilex aquifolium

hollyEuropean hollycommon holly
Other shrubs and trees used include holly, beech, oak, ash, and willow; the last three can become very tall.
It is an evergreen tree or shrub found, for example, in shady areas of forests of oak and in beech hedges.

Rhino tank

Rhinoarmored vehiclesCulin Cutter
Allied armed forces modified their armored vehicles to facilitate breaking out of their beachheads into the Normandy bocage.
This landscape contained large earth dikes averaging 4 ft high that were covered with tangled hedges, bushes, and trees that surrounded small raised irregular-sized fields, which were generally no more than 300 ft across on a side.

Buxus sempervirens

boxwoodboxBuxus hyrcana
Box remains a very popular ornamental plant in gardens, being particularly valued for topiary and hedges because of its small leaves, evergreen nature, tolerance of close shearing, and scented foliage.

Willow

Salixwillowssallow
Other shrubs and trees used include holly, beech, oak, ash, and willow; the last three can become very tall.

Veteran tree

ancient treesecological and social needsRemarkable Tree
Many hedgerow trees are veteran trees and therefore of great wildlife interest.
Veteran trees occur in many situations, occasionally in dense woodland, but more commonly as hedgerow trees, on village greens, and in ancient parks and other wood pasture.

Prunus spinosa

blackthornsloesloes
In many newly planted British hedges, at least 60 per cent of the shrubs are hawthorn, blackthorn, and (in the southwest) hazel, alone or in combination.
The shrub, with its savage thorns, is traditionally used in Britain and other parts of northern Europe to make a cattle-proof hedge.

Crataegus monogyna

hawthorncommon hawthornhawthorns
In many newly planted British hedges, at least 60 per cent of the shrubs are hawthorn, blackthorn, and (in the southwest) hazel, alone or in combination. Charles the Bald is recorded as complaining in 864, at a time when most official fortifications were constructed of wooden palisades, that some unauthorized men were constructing haies et fertés – tightly interwoven hedges of hawthorns.
Common hawthorn is extensively planted as a hedge plant, especially for agricultural use.

Pleaching

pleachedpleachestablished hedges
In essence, hedgelaying consists of cutting most of the way through the stem of each plant near the base, bending it over and interweaving or pleaching it between wooden stakes.
Pleaching or plashing is a technique of interweaving living and dead branches through a hedge for stock control.

Bocage

hedgerow country
Often they serve as windbreaks to improve conditions for the adjacent crops, as in bocage country. Allied armed forces modified their armored vehicles to facilitate breaking out of their beachheads into the Normandy bocage.
American personnel usually referred to bocage as hedgerows.

Ligustrum ovalifolium

California privetgarden privetL. ovalifolium
The species is widely cultivated as an ornamental plant in many countries, as a shrub, and grouped for an informal or formal hedge.

Prunus laurocerasus

cherry laurelLaurocerasus officinalislaurel
It is often used for hedges, as a screening plant, and as a massed landscape plant.

Berberis thunbergii

Japanese barberry
Numerous cultivars have been selected, including plants selected for yellow, dark red to violet, or variegated foliage, erect growth (for hedge use), and dwarf size.

Thuja plicata

western red cedarwestern redcedarred cedar
Like its relative Thuja occidentalis and many other conifer species, Thuja plicata is grown as an ornamental tree, and for screens and hedges, throughout the world in gardens and parks.

Prunus lusitanica

Portugal laurelPortuguese laurelLaurocerasus lusitanica
Prunus lusitanica is grown as an ornamental shrub and is widely planted as a hedge and for screening in gardens and parks.

Wildlife corridor

corridorbiological corridorcoastal strip
Hedgerows serve as important wildlife corridors, especially in the United Kingdom where they link the country's fractured ancient woodland.
However, they can also be as simple as a line of shrubs along a sidewalk (Fleury 1997).

Carpinus betulus

hornbeamEuropean hornbeamcommon hornbeam
Because it stands up well to cutting back and has dense foliage, it has been much used in landscape gardening, mainly as tall hedges and for topiary.

Hedge trimmer

hedge clipperselectric hedge clippersHedge clipper
An alternative to hedge laying is trimming using a tractor-mounted flail cutter or circular saw, or a hedge trimmer.
A hedge trimmer, shrub trimmer, or bush trimmer is a gardening tool or machine used for trimming (cutting, pruning) hedges or solitary shrubs (bushes).

Cornish hedge

The Guild of Cornish HedgersCornish granite hedges
A Cornish hedge is an earth bank with stones.
A Cornish hedge is a style of hedge built of stone and earth found in Cornwall, south-west England.

Hedgelaying

hedge layinghedgelaid
Hedge laying in Devon is usually referred to as steeping and involves cutting and laying steepers (the stems) along the top of the bank and securing them with crooks (forked sticks).
Creating and maintaining hedges provides:

Privet

Ligustrumprivetsquickset
Typical woody plants for clipped hedges include privet, hawthorn, beech, yew, leyland cypress, hemlock, arborvitae, barberry, box, holly, oleander, lavender, among others.
Privet was originally the name for the European semi-evergreen shrub Ligustrum vulgare, and later also for the more reliably evergreen Ligustrum ovalifolium used extensively for privacy hedging, though now the name is applied to all members of the genus.

Quercus ilex

holm oakholly oakholm oaks
Q. ilex can be clipped to form a tall hedge, and it is suitable for coastal windbreaks, in any well drained soil.

Eriogaster lanestris

small eggar mothE. lanestrissmall eggar
Additionally, hedge trimming causes habitat destruction to species like the small eggar moth which spend nearly their entire life cycle in blackthorn and hawthorn hedgerow.
Larval colonies, egg masses, and cocoons are all found on small trees, bushes, and hedgerows.

Parterre

parterresparterre gardenparterres en broderie
Elaborately shaped and interlaced borders forming knot gardens or parterres were fashionable in Europe during the 16th and early 17th centuries.
The borders of the plant beds may be formed with stone or tightly pruned hedging, and their interiors may be planted with flowers or other plants or filled with mulch or gravel.