Heligoland–Zanzibar Treaty

Heligoland-Zanzibar TreatyAnglo-German Agreement of 18901 July 1890 treatyAnglo-German AgreementAnglo-German ConventionAnglo-German treaty of 1890HeligolandHeligoland Treaty of 1890the exchangetreaty
The Heligoland–Zanzibar Treaty (Helgoland-Sansibar-Vertrag; also known as the Anglo-German Agreement of 1890) was an agreement signed on 1 July 1890 between the German Empire and the United Kingdom.wikipedia
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Heligoland

HelgolandHeligoland islandsa German archipelago
Under terms of this treaty, Germany gained the small but strategic Heligoland archipelago, which its new navy needed to control the new Kiel Canal and the approaches to Germany's North Sea ports. Germany gained the islands of Heligoland (Helgoland) in the North Sea, originally part of Danish Holstein-Gottorp but since 1814 a British possession, the so-called Caprivi Strip in what is now Namibia, and a free hand to control and acquire the coast of Dar es Salaam that would form the core of German East Africa (later Tanganyika, now the mainland component of Tanzania).
Britain gave up the islands to Germany in 1890 in the Heligoland–Zanzibar Treaty.

Zanzibar

ZanzibariZanzibar, TanzaniaCommittee of Six
In exchange, Germany gave up its rights in the Zanzibar region in Africa, allowing Zanzibar to provide a key link in the British control of East Africa.
The relationship between Britain and the German Empire, at that time the nearest relevant colonial power, was formalized by the 1890 Heligoland-Zanzibar Treaty, in which Germany agreed to "recognize the British protectorate over ... the islands of Zanzibar and Pemba".

German East Africa

East AfricaGerman colonial ruleGerman
Germany gained the islands of Heligoland (Helgoland) in the North Sea, originally part of Danish Holstein-Gottorp but since 1814 a British possession, the so-called Caprivi Strip in what is now Namibia, and a free hand to control and acquire the coast of Dar es Salaam that would form the core of German East Africa (later Tanganyika, now the mainland component of Tanzania).
In 1890, London and Berlin concluded the Heligoland-Zanzibar Treaty, which returned Heligoland to Germany and decided the border between GEA and the East Africa Protectorate controlled by Britain, although the exact boundaries remained unsurveyed until 1910.

Caprivi Strip

CapriviCaprivi areaCaprivi region
Germany gained the islands of Heligoland (Helgoland) in the North Sea, originally part of Danish Holstein-Gottorp but since 1814 a British possession, the so-called Caprivi Strip in what is now Namibia, and a free hand to control and acquire the coast of Dar es Salaam that would form the core of German East Africa (later Tanganyika, now the mainland component of Tanzania).
The transfer of territory was a part of the Heligoland-Zanzibar Treaty of 1890, in which Germany gave up its interest in Zanzibar in return for the Caprivi Strip and the island of Heligoland in the North Sea.

Sultanate of Zanzibar

ZanzibarZanzibar SultanateSultan of Zanzibar
In exchange, Germany handed over to Britain the protectorate over the small sultanate of Wituland (Deutsch-Witu, on the Kenyan coast) and parts of East Africa vital for the British to build a railway to Lake Victoria, and pledged not to interfere with British actions vis-à-vis the independent Sultanate of Zanzibar (i.e. the islands of Unguja and Pemba).
With the signing of the Heligoland-Zanzibar Treaty between the United Kingdom and the German Empire in 1890, Zanzibar itself became a British protectorate.

German South West Africa

German South-West AfricaGerman Southwest AfricaSouth-West Africa
In addition, the treaty established the German sphere of interest in German South West Africa (most of present-day Namibia) and settled the borders between German Togoland and the British Gold Coast (now Ghana), as well as between German Kamerun and British Nigeria.
In July of the same year, as part of the Heligoland–Zanzibar Treaty between Britain and Germany, the colony grew in size through the acquisition of the Caprivi Strip in the northeast, promising new trade routes into the interior.

Wituland

WituWitu SultanateVitu
In exchange, Germany handed over to Britain the protectorate over the small sultanate of Wituland (Deutsch-Witu, on the Kenyan coast) and parts of East Africa vital for the British to build a railway to Lake Victoria, and pledged not to interfere with British actions vis-à-vis the independent Sultanate of Zanzibar (i.e. the islands of Unguja and Pemba).
In accord with the 1890 Heligoland–Zanzibar Treaty, on 18 June 1890 a British protectorate was declared, and on 1 July 1890 imperial Germany renounced its protectorate, ceding the Wituland to Great Britain to become part of British East Africa.

Anglo-Zanzibar War

Anglo–Zanzibar War38-minute warcapitulation of Zanzibar
It immediately declared a protectorate over Zanzibar and, in the subsequent 1896 Anglo-Zanzibar War, gained full control of the sultanate.
The year of Ali's ascension also saw the signing of the Heligoland-Zanzibar Treaty between Britain and Germany.

Leo von Caprivi

CapriviCount Leo von Caprivivon Caprivi
The treaty served German chancellor Leo von Caprivi's aims for settlement with the British.
Caprivi's administration was marked by what is known to historians as the Neuer Kurs ("New Course") in both foreign and domestic policy, with moves towards conciliation of the Social Democrats on the domestic front, and towards a pro-British foreign policy, exemplified by the Anglo-German Agreement of July 1890, in which the British ceded the island of Heligoland to Germany in exchange for control of Zanzibar.

Carl Peters

Karl PetersPetersalleetitular German colonial leader
After the 1884 Berlin Conference, Germany had already lost the "Scramble for Africa": the German East Africa Company under Carl Peters had acquired a strip of land on the Tanganyikan coast (leading to the 1888 Abushiri Revolt), but had never had any control over the islands of the Zanzibar sultanate; the Germans gave away no vital interest.
On reaching Zanzibar he learned that his efforts were useless, as on 1 July 1890 the Heligoland–Zanzibar Treaty between Germany and the UK had been signed, whereby Uganda was left as an area of British influence and Peters' agreement with Mwanga became null and void.

German Empire

GermanyGermanImperial Germany
The Heligoland–Zanzibar Treaty (Helgoland-Sansibar-Vertrag; also known as the Anglo-German Agreement of 1890) was an agreement signed on 1 July 1890 between the German Empire and the United Kingdom.

United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland

United KingdomBritishUK
The Heligoland–Zanzibar Treaty (Helgoland-Sansibar-Vertrag; also known as the Anglo-German Agreement of 1890) was an agreement signed on 1 July 1890 between the German Empire and the United Kingdom.

Kiel Canal

Kaiser Wilhelm CanalNord-Ostsee-KanalKaiser Wilhelm Kanal
Under terms of this treaty, Germany gained the small but strategic Heligoland archipelago, which its new navy needed to control the new Kiel Canal and the approaches to Germany's North Sea ports.

North Sea

Norththe North SeaNorthern Sea
Under terms of this treaty, Germany gained the small but strategic Heligoland archipelago, which its new navy needed to control the new Kiel Canal and the approaches to Germany's North Sea ports. Germany gained the islands of Heligoland (Helgoland) in the North Sea, originally part of Danish Holstein-Gottorp but since 1814 a British possession, the so-called Caprivi Strip in what is now Namibia, and a free hand to control and acquire the coast of Dar es Salaam that would form the core of German East Africa (later Tanganyika, now the mainland component of Tanzania).

Duke of Holstein-Gottorp

Holstein-GottorpDuchy of Holstein-GottorpHouse of Holstein-Gottorp
Germany gained the islands of Heligoland (Helgoland) in the North Sea, originally part of Danish Holstein-Gottorp but since 1814 a British possession, the so-called Caprivi Strip in what is now Namibia, and a free hand to control and acquire the coast of Dar es Salaam that would form the core of German East Africa (later Tanganyika, now the mainland component of Tanzania).

Namibia

NamibianRepublic of NamibiaSouth West Africa
Germany gained the islands of Heligoland (Helgoland) in the North Sea, originally part of Danish Holstein-Gottorp but since 1814 a British possession, the so-called Caprivi Strip in what is now Namibia, and a free hand to control and acquire the coast of Dar es Salaam that would form the core of German East Africa (later Tanganyika, now the mainland component of Tanzania).

Dar es Salaam

Dar-es-SalaamDar es Salaam RegionDar es Salaam, Tanzania
Germany gained the islands of Heligoland (Helgoland) in the North Sea, originally part of Danish Holstein-Gottorp but since 1814 a British possession, the so-called Caprivi Strip in what is now Namibia, and a free hand to control and acquire the coast of Dar es Salaam that would form the core of German East Africa (later Tanganyika, now the mainland component of Tanzania).

Tanganyika

Republic of TanganyikamainlandTanzania Mainland
Germany gained the islands of Heligoland (Helgoland) in the North Sea, originally part of Danish Holstein-Gottorp but since 1814 a British possession, the so-called Caprivi Strip in what is now Namibia, and a free hand to control and acquire the coast of Dar es Salaam that would form the core of German East Africa (later Tanganyika, now the mainland component of Tanzania). After the 1884 Berlin Conference, Germany had already lost the "Scramble for Africa": the German East Africa Company under Carl Peters had acquired a strip of land on the Tanganyikan coast (leading to the 1888 Abushiri Revolt), but had never had any control over the islands of the Zanzibar sultanate; the Germans gave away no vital interest.

Tanzania

TanzanianUnited Republic of TanzaniaRepublic of Tanzania
Germany gained the islands of Heligoland (Helgoland) in the North Sea, originally part of Danish Holstein-Gottorp but since 1814 a British possession, the so-called Caprivi Strip in what is now Namibia, and a free hand to control and acquire the coast of Dar es Salaam that would form the core of German East Africa (later Tanganyika, now the mainland component of Tanzania).

Kenya

KenyanRepublic of KenyaKEN
In exchange, Germany handed over to Britain the protectorate over the small sultanate of Wituland (Deutsch-Witu, on the Kenyan coast) and parts of East Africa vital for the British to build a railway to Lake Victoria, and pledged not to interfere with British actions vis-à-vis the independent Sultanate of Zanzibar (i.e. the islands of Unguja and Pemba).

Lake Victoria

VictoriaVictoria NyanzaLake Nalubaale
In exchange, Germany handed over to Britain the protectorate over the small sultanate of Wituland (Deutsch-Witu, on the Kenyan coast) and parts of East Africa vital for the British to build a railway to Lake Victoria, and pledged not to interfere with British actions vis-à-vis the independent Sultanate of Zanzibar (i.e. the islands of Unguja and Pemba).

Unguja

Unguja IslandZanzibar IslandZanzibar
In exchange, Germany handed over to Britain the protectorate over the small sultanate of Wituland (Deutsch-Witu, on the Kenyan coast) and parts of East Africa vital for the British to build a railway to Lake Victoria, and pledged not to interfere with British actions vis-à-vis the independent Sultanate of Zanzibar (i.e. the islands of Unguja and Pemba).

Pemba Island

PembaPemba, Tanzaniaisland of Pemba
In exchange, Germany handed over to Britain the protectorate over the small sultanate of Wituland (Deutsch-Witu, on the Kenyan coast) and parts of East Africa vital for the British to build a railway to Lake Victoria, and pledged not to interfere with British actions vis-à-vis the independent Sultanate of Zanzibar (i.e. the islands of Unguja and Pemba).

Togoland

German TogolandGerman Togo1914 invasion of Togoland
In addition, the treaty established the German sphere of interest in German South West Africa (most of present-day Namibia) and settled the borders between German Togoland and the British Gold Coast (now Ghana), as well as between German Kamerun and British Nigeria.

Gold Coast (British colony)

Gold CoastGold Coast ColonyBritish Gold Coast
In addition, the treaty established the German sphere of interest in German South West Africa (most of present-day Namibia) and settled the borders between German Togoland and the British Gold Coast (now Ghana), as well as between German Kamerun and British Nigeria.