Heliodorus pillar

The fan-palm pinnacle Cunningham assumed belonged to the Heliodorus pillar.
a second pillar capital
a third pillar capital of similar style
Heliodorus pillar, 1913-15 excavation.
A cross-section of the Heliodorus pillar sketched during the 1913 CE archaeological excavation.
Structure and decorative elements of the Heliodorus pillar. The pillar originally supported a statue of Garuda, now lost, or possibly located in the Gujari Mahal Museum in Gwalior.
Main inscription of the Heliodorus pillar, circa 110 BCE.
Relief depicting a portable Garuda pillar, one of the oldest images of Garuda, Bharhut, 100 BCE. This may have been similar to the Garuda capital of the Heliodorus pillar.
a portable Garuda standard illustrated
Images of the deities were probably present in shrines adjoining the pillars, in a style rather similar with their depiction on the coinage of Agathocles of Bactria (190-180 BCE). Here Saṃkarṣaṇa and Vāsudeva are shown with their attributes.
The deity to whom the Heliodorus pillar was dedicated: Vāsudeva, as depicted on a coin of Agathocles of Bactria, 190-180 BCE.
The fan-palm capital, found next to the Heliodorus pillar, is associated with Saṃkarṣaṇa.
The Makara capital, found at the site of the Heliodorus pillar, is associated with Pradyumna. <ref>{{cite book|last1=Ayyar|first1=Sulochana|title=Costumes and Ornaments as Depicted in the Sculptures of Gwalior Museum|date=1987|publisher=Mittal Publications|isbn=978-81-7099-002-4|page=13|url=https://books.google.com/books?id=G9eHPXL6UE0C&pg=PA13|language=en}}</ref> 2nd century BCE.<ref>{{cite journal|last1=VIENNOT|first1=Odette|title=Le Makara dans la Décoration des Monuments de l'Inde Ancienne : Positions et Fonctions|journal=Arts Asiatiques|volume=5|issue=3|date=1958|page=184|jstor=43484068 }}</ref> Gwalior Museum.<ref>Visible in the back of the image entitled "Lion capital – Udayagiri – 5th century": {{cite web|title=Gujari Mahal State Archaeological Museum – Gwalior|url=https://kevinstandagephotography.wordpress.com/2019/04/15/gujari-mahal-state-archaeological-museum-gwalior/#jp-carousel-16148|website=Kevin Standage|language=en|date=15 April 2019}}</ref><ref>{{cite book|last1=Ayyar|first1=Sulochana|title=Costumes and Ornaments as Depicted in the Sculptures of Gwalior Museum|date=1987|publisher=Mittal Publications|isbn=978-81-7099-002-4|page=13|url=https://books.google.com/books?id=G9eHPXL6UE0C&pg=PA13|language=en}}</ref>
A pillar capital shaped as a Kalpadruma tree, also found nearby at Besnagar, probably associated with Lakshmi. Indian Museum, Kolkata.<ref>{{cite book|last1=Ayyar|first1=Sulochana|title=Costumes and Ornaments as Depicted in the Sculptures of Gwalior Museum|date=1987|publisher=Mittal Publications|isbn=978-81-7099-002-4|page=13|url=https://books.google.com/books?id=G9eHPXL6UE0C&pg=PA13|language=en}}</ref>
Possible statue of the goddess Lakshmi, also associated with the Bhagavat cult.
Location of the Heliodorus pillar in relation to Besnagar, Vidisha, Sanchi and the Udayagiri Caves.
Heliodorus was the ambassador of king Antialcidas (here depicted on one of his coins).
The contemporary pillar in nearby Sanchi.

Stone column that was erected around 113 BCE in central India in Besnagar .

- Heliodorus pillar

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City in central Madhya Pradesh, India.

Relative locations of the Heliodorus pillar, Besnagar, Vidisha, Sanchi and the Udayagiri Caves.
The inscription 𑀯𑁂𑀤𑀺𑀲 Vedisa (for the city of Vidisha) at Sanchi, Brahmi script, 1st century BCE.
Pataria Jain temples
Pillar in the Bijamaṇḍal with an inscription of Naravarman
Maladevi temple
Capital of one of the pillars of Ashoka, from Udayagiri near Vidisha.
Jain sculpture inside Bajramath temple
Vidisha District Museum.
View of platform No.1
Archaeological plan of the old city of Besnagar
Archaeological layers at Besnagar: the Temple of Vāsudeva in the forefront, and the Heliodorus pillar in the back
Besnagar pottery Period V
Besnagar silver punch-marked coins.
Besnagar Yakshini
Besnagar Kalpadruma
Besnagar Buddhist railings
Besnagar Buddhist railings
Besnagar pillar capitals
View of Heliodorus pillar
Besnagar Ganga statue

The Heliodorus Pillar is a stone column, which was constructed in about 150 BCE.

Madhya Pradesh

State in central India.

Physical map of Madhya Pradesh village Tumen Ashoknagar
Matang was completely developed and manufactured by Vehicle Factory Jabalpur
Woman harvesting wheat, Raisen district
Performing Mallakhamba
Holkar Stadium in Indore.
Mesolithic rock painting, Bhimbetka rock shelters, a UNESCO World Heritage Site
Kandariya Mahadeva Temple, Khajuraho
Bateshwar temple complex, Padavli, Morena
Chausath Yogini Temple, Mitavli, Morena
Sahastra Bahu Temples, Gwalior Fort
Teli ka Mandir, Gwalior Fort
Shiva Temple in Bhojpur
Lakshmi Temple, Orchha
Brahma statue with various deities at Amarkantak.
Gwalior Fort, Gwalior
Gwalior Fort
Langur monkey (Semnopithecus dussumieri), Orchha
Tigress with cubs in Kanha Tiger Reserve
Tickell's blue flycatcher, Bandhavgarh National Park
Vultures in the nest, Orchha
Male nilgais fighting, Lakeshwari, Gwalior district
Narmada River
Son River, Umaria district, MP, India
The River Narmada flows through a gorge of marble rocks in Bhedaghat, Jabalpur
The Shri Ram Ghat on the Shipra River in Ujjain
Betwa in the Ashoknagar District of Madhya Pradesh
Children in Raisen district, Bhil tribe
Shepherds in Chambal
A young farmer in Umaria district
Young Baiga women
Bagh Print Traditional hand block print craft in Bagh.
A man playing flute in Orchha, with a white tilak on his forehead, and holy saffron-coloured clothes.
Sand sculpture by Sudarshan Pattnaik at Bandrabhan near Hoshangabad
Rajiv Gandhi Technical University's main gate
IIM Indore's aerial panoramic view
St. Aloysius Senior Secondary School, Jabalpur, established in the year 1868 is among the oldest schools in India

Heliodorus, the Greek Ambassador to the court of the Shunga King Bhagabhadra erected the Heliodorus pillar near Vidisha.


The son of Vasudeva Anakadundubhi, king of the Vrishnis in the region of Mathura.

Vāsudeva on a coin of Agathocles of Bactria, circa 190–180 BCE. This is "the earliest unambiguous image" of the deity.
Samkarshana, Vāsudeva and the female Goddess Ekanamsha shown in a rock painting at Tikla, 3rd-2nd century BCE.
Coin of Agathocles of Bactria (190-180 BCE), with Samkarsana on the obverse and Vāsudeva on the reverse.
The name Vāsudevā ( 𑀯𑀸𑀲𑀼𑀤𑁂𑀯𑀸 ) in the Brahmi script, in the Ghosundi inscription, 1st century BCE.
The Heliodorus pillar established in Vidisha in the name of Vāsudeva.
Samkasana ( 𑀲𑀁𑀓𑀲𑀦 ) and Vāsudevā ( 𑀯𑀸𑀲𑀼𑀤𑁂𑀯𑀸 ) in the Naneghat cave inscription
(Bala)rama and Krishna with their attributes at Chilas. The Kharoshthi inscription nearby reads Rama [kri]ṣa. 1st century CE.
The Vasu doorjamb, dedicated to Vāsudeva, "in the reign of Sodasa", Mathura, circa 15 CE. Mathura Museum, GMM 13.367
Type of statuette now reattributed to Vāsudeva, with three attributes, hand in abhaya mudra and without an aureole, 3rd-4th century.
A depiction of Vāsudeva at Deogarh. He holds the wheel, the conch and salutes in Abhaya Mudra.
'Vasudev' are people believed to be incarnation of Lord Krishna. Bedecked in the distinctive headgear of peacock feathers, performers sing Vasudev songs and with nimble, delicate dance steps, whirl around presenting anecdotes from Lord Krishna's life in exchange for alms. They sing soothing, melodious notes through the villages in the morning time.
Vāsudeva with four attributes and without an aureole, terracotta.
The Vishnu Nicolo Seal may depict Vāsudeva, holding the attributes of the gada club, the chakra discus, the wheel and the lotus, rather than Vishnu.<ref>"A much better known «syncretistic» image is the one depicted on a well-known «nicolo» seal (....) Ghirshman thought of a composite deity (Mihira-Visnu-Siva, Ibidem: 55-58), although an identification with the god Vāsudeva is perhaps more likely (Mitterwallner 1986: 10)" {{cite journal|title=Silk Road Art and Archaeology: Journal of the Institute of Silk Road Studies, Kamakura|date=1996|page=170|url=https://books.google.com/books?id=XU3rAAAAMAAJ|publisher=The Institute|language=en}}</ref>
A statue of Vishnu Caturanana ("Four-Armed"), using the attributes of Vāsudeva, with the addition of an aureole around the head (5th century CE).
Four-faced four-armed Vishnu Vaikuntha Chaturmurti, still showing Vāsudeva Krishna as the central human figure, 4th-5th century, Mathura
Four-armed Seated Vishnu (with the aureole) in meditation, Medieval Period

By the end of the 2nd century BCE, Vāsudeva was considered as Devadeva, the "God of Gods", the Supreme Deity, whose emblem was the mythical bird Garuda, as known from the Heliodorus pillar inscription.


Portrait of Antialcidas
Silver tetradrachm of King Antialcidas. Obv: Bust of Antialcidas wearing aegis and holding a spear, with Greek legend ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΝΙΚΗΦΟΡΟΥ ΑΝΤΙΑΛΚΙΔΟΥ "Of Victorious King Antialcidas". Rev: Zeus with lotus-tipped sceptre, in front of an elephant with a bell (symbol of Taxila), surmouted by Nike holding a wreath, crowning the elephant. Kharoshti legend: MAHARAJASA JAYADHARASA ANTIALIKITASA "Victorious King Antialcidas". Pushkalavati mint.
Inscription on the Heliodorus pillar made by Antialcidas' Ambassador Heliodorus in 110 BCE.
Silver drachm of King Antialcidas. 
Obv: Bust of Antialcidas wearing a helmet, with Greek legend ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΝΙΚΗΦΟΡΟΥ ΑΝΤΙΑΛΚΙΔΟΥ "Of Victorious King Antialcidas". 
Rev: Seated Zeus holding sceptre, with Nike on his extended arm, holding out a wreath to a baby elephant with bell. Kharoshti legend: MAHARAJASA JAYADHARASA ANTIALIKITASA "Victorious King Antialcidas".
Antialcidas wearing the kausia, with Greek legend ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΝΙΚΗΦΟΡΟΥ ΑΝΤΙΑΛΚΙΔΟΥ "Of Victorious King Antialcidas" Japan Currency Museum.
Lysias was a contemporary of Antialcidas.
Gandhara seal of king on elephant receiving wreath of victory, a motif with some similarity to the coins of Antialcidas.
Antialkidas with Zeus directly giving wreath of victory to the elephant. With Greek legend ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΝΙΚΗΦΟΡΟΥ ΑΝΤΙΑΛΚΙΔΟΥ "Of Victorious King Antialcidas"

Antialcidas Nikephoros (epithet means "the Victorious", Brahmi: 𑀅𑀁𑀢𑀮𑀺𑀓𑀺𑀢𑀲 Aṃtalikitasa, in the Heliodorus Pillar) was a king of the Indo-Greek Kingdom, who reigned from his capital at Taxila.


Buddhist complex, famous for its Great Stupa, on a hilltop at Sanchi Town in Raisen District of the State of Madhya Pradesh, India.

Plan of the monuments of the hill of Sanchi, numbered 1 to 50.
The Ashoka pillar at Sanchi.
The capital of the Sanchi pillar of Ashoka, as discovered (left), and simulation of original appearance (right). It is very similar to the Lion Capital of Ashoka at Sarnath, except for the abacus, here adorned with flame palmettes and facing geese, 250 BCE. Sanchi Archaeological Museum.
by later illustrations among the Sanchi reliefs
The Great Stupa under the Sungas. The Sungas nearly doubled the diameter of the initial stupa, encasing it in stone, and built a balustrade and a railing around it.
Foreigner on a horse, circa 115 BCE, Stupa No2.
Sunga period railings were initially blank (left: Great Stupa), and only started to be decorated circa 115 BCE with Stupa No.2 (right).
Sunga pillar No25 with own capital on the side.
Siri-Satakani inscription
Cave No.19
The Worship of the Bodhisattva's hair
Vedisakehi damtakārehi rupakammam katam
The Great Stupa at the time of the Satavahanas.
Temptation of the Buddha, with the Buddha on the left (symbolized by his throne only) surrounded by rejoicing devotees, Mara and his daughters (center), and the demons of Mara fleeing (right).
War over the Buddha's Relics, kept by the city of Kushinagar, South Gate, Stupa no.1, Sanchi.
King Ashoka visits Ramagrama, to take relics of the Buddha from the Nagas, but he failed, the Nagas being too powerful. Southern gateway, Stupa 1, Southern Gateway, Sanchi.
Ashoka in grief, supported by his two queens, in a relief at Sanchi. Stupa 1, Southern gateway. The identification with Ashoka is confirm by a similar relief from Kanaganahalli inscribed "Raya Asoko".
Bodhi tree temple depicted in Sanchi, Stupa 1, Southern gateway.
Temple for the Bodhi Tree (Eastern Gateway).
foreigners illustrated at Sanchi worshiping the Great Stupa
Foreigners worshiping Stupa
Greek travelling costume
Another one
Miracle at Kapilavastu
Miracle of the Buddha walking on the river Nairanjana
Procession of king Suddhodana from Kapilavastu
"The promenade of the Buddha", or Chankrama, used to depict the Buddha in motion in Buddhist aniconism.
Bimbisara with his royal cortege issuing from the city of Rajagriha to visit the Buddha
Foreigners making a dedication at the Southern Gateway of Stupa No 1
Stupas and monasteries at Sanchi in the early centuries of the current era. Reconstruction, 1900
Sanchi inscription of Chandragupta II.
Temple 17: a Gupta period tetrastyle prostyle temple of Classical appearance. 5th century CE
Statue of Padmapani (5th c.or 9th c.) Victoria and Albert Museum.
Pillar 26: one of the two four-lions stambha capitals at Sanchi, with lions, central flame palmette and Wheel of Law (axis, stubs of the spokes and part of the circumference only), initially located at the Northern Gateway of the Great Stupa. Sanchi Archaeological Museum.
Pillar 26: lion pillar capital at time of discovery, with Dharmachakra wheel (reconstitution). Northern Gateway.
this image
Pillar 35 column stump (right), and bell capital with abacus, positioned upside down.
Vajrapani statue of pillar 35, 5th c. CE. Sanchi Archaeological Museum.
Temple 18 at Sanchi, an apsidal hall with Maurya foundations, rebuilt at the time of Harsha (7th century CE).
Temple 45
The Great Stupa as breached by Sir Herbert Maddock in 1822. Watercolor by Frederick Charles Maisey, in 1851.
Ruins of the Southern Gateway, Sanchi in 1875.
A Gate to the Stupa of Sanchi 1932
Chetiyagiri Vihara
Inscribed panel from Sanchi in Brahmi script in the British Museum
The last two letters to the right of this inscription in Brahmi form the word "dǎnam" (donation). This hypothesis permitted the decipherment of the Brahmi script by James Prinsep in 1837.
General view of the Stupas at Sanchi by F.C. Maisey, 1851 (The Great Stupa on top of the hill, and Stupa 2 at the forefront)
The Great Stupa (Stupa No.1), started in the 3rd century BCE
Stupa No.2
Stupa No.3
Buddhist Temple, No.17
Remains of the Ashokan Pillar in polished stone (right of the Southern Gateway), with its Edict.
Sanchi Minor Pillar Edict of Ashoka, in-situ (detail of the previous image).
Remains of the shaft of the pillar of Ashoka, under a shed near the Southern Gateway.
Side view of the capital. Sanchi Archaeological Museum.<ref name="p.25-28 Ashoka pillar"/>
Shunga balustrade and staircase.
Shunga stonework.
Shunga vedika (railing) with inscriptions.
Deambulatory pathway.
Summit railing and umbrellas.
Flame palmette.
Flame palmette and lotus.
Woman riding a Centaur.
Half lotus.
Elephant with branch.
Floral motif.
Lakshmi with lotus and two child attendants, probably derived from [[:File:Venus with two cupids 2.jpg|similar images of Venus]]<ref>An Indian Statuette From Pompeii, Mirella Levi D'Ancona, in Artibus Asiae, Vol. 13, No. 3 (1950) p. 171</ref>
Griffin with Brahmi script inscription.
Female riding a Centaur.
Lotus within beads and reels motif.
Stairway and railing.
Lotus medallions.
Floral designs.
Post relief.<ref>Marshall p. 82</ref>
Relics of Sariputra and Mahamoggallana.
Detail of the foreigners, in Greek dress and playing carnyxes and aolus flute. Northern Gateway of Stupa I (detail).
Foreigners holding grapes and riding winged lions, Sanchi Stupa 1, Eastern Gateway.<ref>"The Diffusion of Classical Art in Antiquity, John Boardman, 1993, p. 112 Note 91</ref>
Foreigners riding horses.
Foreign heroe fighting a Makara
Foreigners on horses, wearing headbands, caps and boots. Western gate of Stupa 1.
Hero with headband wrestling a Makara.
Indians riding horses.
Indians riding bulls.
Indians riding bulls.
Queen Maya lustrated by Elephants.
The Buddha represented by the Dharmacakra.
Bodhi Tree.
Winged lion.
Winged lions.
The Buddha represented by the Dharmacakra.
Men and Women on Elephants.
Men and Women on Elephants.
Stupa representing a Buddha.
Lakshmi lustrated by Elephants.
Men on lions.
Men on lions.
2nd panel
3rd panel
Second panel
Bottom panel Dvarapala guardian deity or devotee.
Second panel
Possibly demons, or the attack of Mara.
Second panel
Bottom panel Dvarapala guardian deity or devotee.
2nd panel
3rd panel
A Seated Buddha statue (Gupta temple).
Buddha Statue (Great Stupa).
Seated Buddha (Great Stupa).
Pillar 34 with lion.<ref>Marshall p. 52 Pillar 34</ref>
The winged lion capital of pillar 34 (lost).
Great Stupa, Eastern Gateway, in 1875.
West Gateway in 1882.
South Gateway in 1882.
Great Stupa, Northern Gateway in 1861.
Temple 18 in 1861.
A vision of ancient Indian court life, using motifs from Sanchi (wood engraving, 1878).

Foreigners from Gandhara are otherwise known to have visited the region around the same time: in 115 BCE, the embassy of Heliodorus from Indo-Greek king Antialkidas to the court of the Sungas king Bhagabhadra in nearby Vidisha is recorded, in which Heliodorus established the Heliodorus pillar in a dedication to Vāsudeva.


Legendary sea-creature in Hindu mythology.

Makara Sculpture at Jain Museum, Khajuraho
Makara as the Vahana (vehicle) of the goddess Ganga
A crocodile-like Makara as Varuna's animal vehicle
Celadon green-blue glazed Pottery Ewer, Molded as Makara Dragon-Fish
The Makara, as the one found on a pillar capital at the site of the Heliodorus pillar, is associated with Pradyumna.  2nd century BCE. Gwalior Museum.
Row of Makara in base of Hoysaleswara Temple, Halebidu, Karnataka. Note Makara standing vertical at corner.
Row of Makara in base of Hoysaleswara Temple, Halebidu, Karnataka
The Makara Thoranam above the door of the Garbhagriha of Hoysaleswara Temple, Halebidu. Two makaras are shown on either end of the arch.
Makara disgorging a lion-like creature on corner of a lintel on one of the towers) surrounding the central pyramid at Bakong, Roluos, Cambodia
Dragon Balustrade at the entrance to Jaya Sri Maha Bodhi in Anuradhapura, Sri Lanka
Karava Makara flag from Sri Lanka with elephant/fish head and peacock tail.
Kaushambi Makara pillar capital, 2nd century BCE
Makara at Nanpaya Temple, Bagan, Burma
Makara on lintel from Sambor Prei Kuk temple, Kampong Thom City, Cambodia
Makara from Northern Qi Dynasty (CE 550-577), China
Makara and Kirtimukha protecting portal of Chennakesava Temple at Belur, India
Makara stairs adornment from Bubrah temple, Central Java, Indonesia
Makara sculptures at the Candi Kalasan Temple, Indonesia
Nagas emerging from Makara mouths at Wat ThatPhun, Vientiane, Laos
Makara from the 7th century CE at National Museum Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
Makara and Kirtimukha at Hindu temple in Kathmandu, Nepal
Hiti Manga in the Balaju Water Garden. Almost all stone taps in Nepal depict this Makara
Hiti Manga in Bhaktapur, Nepal
Makara with Nagas, Wat Suthat, Bangkok, Thailand
Cham god Nāga emerging from mouth of Makara at the National Museum of Vietnamese History
Makara pandol over the image of Buddha in Dambulla cave temple, Sri Lanka.
Sasashima ware square bowl, makara design. Edo period, 19th century
One of the ribs of a vajra, Ashok Stupa, Patan, Nepal

A pillar capital with the effigy of a Makara crocodile found at Besnagar near the Heliodorus pillar dedicated to Vasudeva, is also attributed to Pradyumna.


Devotee, worshipper or follower of Bhagavant namely Vishnu in his personal aspect as Lord Krishna.

The Heliodorus pillar, dedicated by a Greek ambassador from the court of Indo-Greek king Antialcidas circa 100 BCE, contains the first known inscription related to the Bhagavata cult in India.

The association of the Sun-bird Garuda with the "Devadeva" ("God of Gods") Vāsudeva in the Heliodorus pillar (113 BCE) suggests that the Bhagavat cult of human deities had already absorbed the Sun-god Vishnu, an ancient Vedic deity.


One of the kings of the Indian Shunga dynasty.

The Indo-Greek king Antialcidas was the one who sent an embassy to Bhagabhadra.
Some of the expansion work at the Great Stupa at Sanchi may have been sponsored by Bhagabhadra.

He is best known from an inscription at the site of Vidisha in central India, the Heliodorus pillar, in which contacts with an embassy from the Indo-Greek king Antialcidas is recorded, and where he is named "Kasiputra Bhagabhadra, the Saviour, son of the princess from Benares":

Pillars of Ashoka

The pillars of Ashoka are a series of monolithic columns dispersed throughout the Indian subcontinent, erected or at least inscribed with edicts by the Mauryan Emperor Ashoka during his reign from c.

The "Lion Capital of Ashoka", from Sarnath.
were used as funerary steles
Ashoka called his own pillars Silā Thabhe (𑀲𑀺𑀮𑀸𑀣𑀪𑁂, Stone Stambha, i.e. stone pillars). Lumbini inscription, Brahmi script.
Geographical spread of known pillar capitals.
Abacus of the Allahabad pillar of Ashoka, the only remaining portion of the capital of the Allahabad pillar.
The horse motif on the Sarnath Lion Capital of Ashoka, is often described as an example of Hellenistic realism.
The elephant-crowned pillar of Ashoka at the Mahabodhi Temple, Gaya. Bharhut relief, 100 BCE.
Ashoka also called his pillars "Dhaṃma thaṃbhā" (𑀥𑀁𑀫𑀣𑀁𑀪𑀸, Dharma stambha), i.e. "pillars of the Dharma". 7th Major Pillar Edict. Brahmi script.
Fragment of the 6th Major Pillar Edict, from the Delhi-Meerut Pillar of Ashoka, British Museum.
Vaishali lion
Depiction of the four lions capital surmounted by a Wheel of Law at Sanchi, Satavahana period, South gateway of stupa 3.
Rediscovery of the Ashoka pillar in Sarnath, 1905.
Delhi-Meerut (originally from Meerut, broken in pieces during transportation).
Delhi-Topra (originally from Topra Kalan).
Allahabad (originally from Kosambi)
Lumbini (broken in half). Capped for protection in the 20th century.
Nigali Sagar
Fragment of pillar with inscription, Amaravati.<ref>{{cite book |last1=Sircar |first1=D. C. |title=Asokan studies |date=1979 |page=118 |url=https://archive.org/stream/in.gov.ignca.67068/67068#page/n129/mode/2up}}</ref>
Gotihawa, possible base of the Nigali Sagar pillar
Bodh Gaya (originally near Sujata Stupa, brought from Gaya in 1956).<ref>{{cite book |last1=Geary |first1=David |title=The Rebirth of Bodh Gaya: Buddhism and the Making of a World Heritage Site |date=2017 |publisher=University of Washington Press |isbn=9780295742380 |page=209 Note 1 |url=https://books.google.com/books?id=meA5DwAAQBAJ&pg=PA209 |language=en}}</ref>
Portion of an Ashokan pillar, found in Pataliputra.
Bhawanipur Rupandehi.
Sankissa elephant.
Rampurva zebu bull original (now in Rashtrapati Bhavan, New Delhi).
Lauria Nandangarh lion.
Rampurva lion.
Four lions, once possibly crowned by a wheel, from Sanchi.
Kosambi-Allahabad Schism Edict.
Sanchi Schism Edict.
Sarnath Schism Edit.
Rummindei, in Lumbini.
Nigali Sagar.
Major Pillar Edicts I, II, III (Delhi-Topra)
Major Pillar Edicts IV (Delhi-Topra)
Major Pillar Edicts V-VII (Delhi-Topra)
Major Pillar Edicts VII, second part (Delhi-Topra)

A relief of Bharhut stupa railing portrays a queenly personage on horseback carrying a Garudadhvaja. Heliodorus pillar has been called Garudadhvaja, literally Garuda-standard, the pillar dated to 2nd century BC is perhaps the earliest recorded stone pillar which has been declared a dhvaja.

Shunga Empire

Ancient Indian dynasty from Magadha that controlled areas of the central and eastern Indian subcontinent from around 185 to 73 BCE.

Man on a relief, Bharhut, Shunga period.
Royal family, Shunga, West Bengal 1st century BCE.
Shunga horseman, Bharhut.
Shunga period stupa at Sanchi.
East Gateway and Railings, Red Sandstone, Bharhut Stupa, 2nd century BCE. Indian Museum, Kolkata.
The Great Stupa under the Shungas. The Shungas nearly doubled the diameter of the initial stupa, encasing it in stone, and built a balustrade and a railing around it.
Extent of the Shunga Empire
Vedika pillar with "Yavana" Greek warrior. Bharhut, Madhya Pradesh, Shunga Period, c. 100-80 BC. Reddish brown sandstone. Indian Museum, Calcutta.
The Yavanarajya inscription, dated to "year 116 of Yavana hegemony", probably 70 or 69 BCE, was discovered in Mathura. Mathura Museum.
The Heliodorus pillar was built in Vidisha under the Shungas, at the instigation of Heliodorus, ambassador of the Indo-Greek king Antialcidas. The pillar originally supported a statue of Garuda. Established circa 100 BCE.
The Sunga territory circa 100 BCE, greatly reduced to the region of Magadha only, with many independent, petty kingdoms such as such as Mathura and Panchala
Shunga balustrade and staircase.
Shunga stonework.
Shunga vedika (railing) with inscriptions.
Deambulatory pathway.
Summit railing and umbrellas.
Elephant and Riders.
Balustrade post with Lakshmi.
Balustrade post with Yaksha.
Pillar with elephants supporting a wheel.
Floral motif.
Foreigner on a horse, circa 115 BCE.
Ashoka supported by his two wives. Similar to [[:File:Sanchi King Ashoka with his Queens, South Gate, Stupa no. 1.jpg|the later relief at Gateway 1]].
Relic boxes found inside the stupa.
Stairway and railing.
Lotus medallions.
Floral designs.
Post relief.<ref>Marshall p.82</ref>
Relics of Sariputra and Mahamoggallana.
Chandraketugarth, goddess of fecundity.
Shunga Yakshi, 2nd–1st century BCE.
Shunga masculine figurine (molded plate). 2nd–1st century BCE.
Shunga woman with child. 2nd–1st century BCE.
Shunga Yaksha. 2nd–1st century BCE.
Shunga mother figure, with attendant. 2nd–1st century BCE.
Shunga fecundity deity. 2nd–1st century BCE.
Baluster-holding yakṣa, Madhya Pradesh, Shunga period (2nd–1st century BCE). Guimet Museum.
Amorous royal couple. Shunga, 1st century BCE, West Bengal.
Sunga Love Scene.
Bronze coin of the Shunga period, Eastern India. 2nd–1st century BCE.
Another Shunga coin
A copper coin of 1/4 karshapana of Ujjain in Malwa.
Shunga coin.

The Indo-Greeks and the Shungas seem to have reconciled and exchanged diplomatic missions around 110 BCE, as indicated by the Heliodorus pillar, which records the dispatch of a Greek ambassador named Heliodorus, from the court of the Indo-Greek king Antialcidas, to the court of the Shunga emperor Bhagabhadra at the site of Vidisha in central India.