A report on Vaud and Helvetic Republic

Logo of the canton of Vaud
The Helvetic Republic, with borders according to the first Helvetic constitution of 12 April 1798
Roman column in Nyon
Strategic situation of Europe in 1796
Bailiwicks of Bern in Vaud in the 18th century
Alois von Reding led Central Swiss troops against the French.
Built by the Bishop of Lausanne during the 15th century, Château Saint-Maire has been the seat of the cantonal government since 1803
William Tell fights the revolution (1798), by Dunker, praises the struggle of the Old Confederation against the Helvetic revolution supported by French invasion. It depicts the Swiss folk hero William Tell, carrying a shield with the Rütlischwur, and his son fighting the revolution, represented as a chimera wearing a phrygian cap
Vevey, Lake Geneva, and the Swiss Alps
The awakening of the Swiss (1798), by Midart, celebrates the transformation of the Old Confederation into the Helvetic Republic. It shows a Swiss who wakes up from his sleep (the ancien régime) and is handed his weapons by Liberty. In the background, the rising sun and the Gallic rooster herald the new era
Vallée de Joux, Jura
The provisional constitution of 15 January 1798
Montreux and Lake Geneva
The constitution of 12 April 1798
The room of the Grand Council of Vaud, the parliament of the canton of Vaud
The constitution of 25 May 1802
Districts of canton of Vaud
Lausanne, capital and largest city in Vaud
Lavaux vineyards above Lake Geneva

The Swiss Confederacy, which until then had consisted of self-governing cantons united by a loose military alliance (and ruling over subject territories such as Vaud), was invaded by the French Revolutionary Army and turned into an ally known as the "Helvetic Republic".

- Helvetic Republic

Vaud nationalists like Frédéric-César de La Harpe had called for French intervention in liberating the area, and French Revolutionary troops moved in, taking over the whole of Switzerland itself in the process and setting up the Helvetic Republic.

- Vaud

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Overall

The "Thirteen-Canton Confederation" of the Old Swiss Confederacy (1513–1798)

Cantons of Switzerland

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The 26 cantons of Switzerland (Kanton; canton ; cantone; Sursilvan and Surmiran: cantun; Vallader and Puter: Chantun; Sutsilvan: cantùn; Rumantsch Grischun: chantun) are the member states of the Swiss Confederation.

The 26 cantons of Switzerland (Kanton; canton ; cantone; Sursilvan and Surmiran: cantun; Vallader and Puter: Chantun; Sutsilvan: cantùn; Rumantsch Grischun: chantun) are the member states of the Swiss Confederation.

The "Thirteen-Canton Confederation" of the Old Swiss Confederacy (1513–1798)
The 22 cantonal coats of arms (all but Jura, with the half-cantons represented jointly) in stained glass set in the dome of the Federal Palace of Switzerland (c. 1900)
Caricature of the division of Basel, 1833

Each canton of the Old Swiss Confederacy, formerly also Ort ('location', from before 1450), or Stand ('estate', from c. 1550), was a fully sovereign state with its own border controls, army, and currency from at least the Treaty of Westphalia (1648) until the establishment of the Swiss federal state in 1848, with a brief period of centralised government during the Helvetic Republic (1798–1803).

Geneva (formally République et canton de Genève, 'Republic and canton of Geneva'), Jura, Neuchâtel, Valais, Vaud and Ticino.

Valais

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One of the 26 cantons forming the Swiss Confederation.

One of the 26 cantons forming the Swiss Confederation.

Valère Basilica dominating the Rhône Valley. By the 12th century, the bishops of Sion began building churches and castles in Sion to represent their power and administer their estates.
Valais in 1300
The Rhône Valley near Pfynwald. Note the vineyards, pines, and steppic vegetation that are typical of dry Central Valais
The Aletsch Glacier, largest in the Alps
The Weisshorn, one of the highest peaks of Valais
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Predominantly Catholic, the canton includes numerous churches and Alpine chapels (here Maria zum Schnee in Bettmeralp)
Terraced vineyards in the Rhône Valley
The Grande Dixence is one of the world's largest dams
St. Gingolph is one of the only two ports on Lake Geneva, and the terminus of the Tonkin Railway
BLS train descending the summit line of the Lötschberg Railway
A postbus waiting on the summit of the Simplon Pass
People gathering at the national cow fighting final
The Stockalper Palace in Brig
A Brisolée served with local products and wine

It borders the cantons of Vaud and Bern to the north, the cantons of Uri and Ticino to the east, as well as Italy to the south and France to the west.

During the French invasion of the Swiss Confederacy in the same year, Valais was incorporated into the Helvetic Republic until 1802 when it became the separate Rhodanic Republic.

Switzerland

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Landlocked country located at the confluence of Western, Central and Southern Europe.

Landlocked country located at the confluence of Western, Central and Southern Europe.

Founded in 44 BC by Lucius Munatius Plancus, Augusta Raurica (near Basel) was the first Roman settlement on the Rhine and is now among the most important archaeological sites in Switzerland.
The Old Swiss Confederacy from 1291 (dark green) to the sixteenth century (light green) and its associates (blue). In the other colours shown are the subject territories.
The 1291 Bundesbrief (federal charter)
The Act of Mediation was Napoleon's attempt at a compromise between the Ancien Régime and a Republic.
The first Federal Palace in Bern (1857). One of the three cantons presiding over the Tagsatzung (former legislative and executive council), Bern was chosen as the permanent seat of federal legislative and executive institutions in 1848, in part because of its closeness to the French-speaking area.
Inauguration in 1882 of the Gotthard Rail Tunnel connecting the southern canton of Ticino, the longest in the world at the time
General Ulrich Wille, appointed commander-in-chief of the Swiss Army for the duration of World War I
In 2003, by granting the Swiss People's Party a second seat in the governing cabinet, the Parliament altered the coalition that had dominated Swiss politics since 1959.
Physical map of Switzerland (in German)
Köppen–Geiger climate classification map for Switzerland
The Swiss Federal Council in 2022 with President Ignazio Cassis (bottom) standing on an abstract, reduced railway lines map and positioned at their respective political origins
The Federal Palace, seat of the Federal Assembly and the Federal Council
The Landsgemeinde is an old form of direct democracy, still in practice in two cantons.
The colour-reversed Swiss flag became the symbol of the Red Cross Movement, founded in 1863 by Henry Dunant.
A Swiss Air Force F/A-18 Hornet at Axalp Air Show
Swiss-built Mowag Eagles of the Land Forces
The Old City of Bern
A proportional representation of Switzerland exports, 2019
The city of Basel (Roche Tower) is the capital of the country's pharmaceutical industry, which accounts for around 38% of Swiss exports worldwide.
The Greater Zürich area, home to 1.5 million inhabitants and 150,000 companies, is one of the most important economic centres in the world.
The University of Basel is Switzerland's oldest university (1460).
Some Swiss scientists who played a key role in their discipline (clockwise):
Leonhard Euler (mathematics)
Louis Agassiz (glaciology)
Auguste Piccard (aeronautics)
Albert Einstein (physics)
The LHC tunnel. CERN is the world's largest laboratory and also the birthplace of the World Wide Web.
Members of the European Free Trade Association (green) participate in the European Single Market and are part of the Schengen Area.
Switzerland has the tallest dams in Europe, among which the Mauvoisin Dam, in the Alps. Hydroelectricity is the most important domestic source of energy in the country.
Entrance of the new Lötschberg Base Tunnel, the third-longest railway tunnel in the world, under the old Lötschberg railway line. It was the first completed tunnel of the greater project NRLA.
Population density in Switzerland (2019)
Percentage of foreigners in Switzerland (2019)
Urbanisation in the Rhone Valley (outskirts of Sion)
Alphorn concert in Vals
Jean-Jacques Rousseau was not only a writer but also an influential philosopher of the eighteenth century.
Ski area over the glaciers of Saas-Fee
Roger Federer has won 20 Grand Slam singles titles, making him among the most successful men's tennis players ever.
Fondue is melted cheese, into which bread is dipped
National languages in Switzerland (2016): 
German (62.8%)
French (22.9%)
Italian (8.2%)
Romansh (0.5%)

The Latin name Confoederatio Helvetica was neologised and introduced gradually after the formation of the federal state in 1848, harking back to the Napoleonic Helvetic Republic, appearing on coins from 1879, inscribed on the Federal Palace in 1902 and after 1948 used in the official seal (e.g., the ISO banking code "CHF" for the Swiss franc, and the country top-level domain ".ch", are both taken from the state's Latin name).

Swiss wine is produced mainly in Valais, Vaud (Lavaux), Geneva and Ticino, with a small majority of white wines.

Canton of Bern

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One of the 26 cantons forming the Swiss Confederation.

One of the 26 cantons forming the Swiss Confederation.

Helveto-Roman settlement Bern-Engehalbinsel
Baths at Engehalbinsel near Bern
Burgundian and Allamanni lands between 534 and 843
Lands held by the main noble families around 1200
The Swiss Confederacy before the Battle of Sempach (1387)
The Swiss Confederacy in 1416
The Swiss Confederacy in the 18th century
The districts of the Bernese Aargau before the creation of the Canton of Aargau
Districts of the Canton of Bern in the 18th Century
Map of the modern Canton of Vaud, which was annexed by Bern from 1536 until 1798
Siege and execution of the garrison at Grandson
The Helvetic Republic from 1798 to 1801
View from the Chasseral across the Mittelland to the Bernese Alps
Staubbachfall
Wetterhorn, painting by Joseph Anton Koch, 1824
The Grand Council, the cantonal parliament
Districts of the canton of Bern
Capital city of Bern with the Aare, Gothic Nydeggkirche on left
Emmentaler cheese

To the west lie the canton of Neuchâtel, the canton of Fribourg and canton of Vaud.

Vaud nationalists like Frédéric-César de La Harpe had called for French intervention in liberating the area and French Revolutionary troops moved in, taking over the whole of Switzerland itself in the process and setting up the Helvetic Republic.

Canton of Geneva

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One of the 26 cantons forming the Swiss Confederation.

One of the 26 cantons forming the Swiss Confederation.

The cantons and allies of the Old Swiss Confederacy in the 18th century. Geneva is a group of small territories in the southwest.
The County of Geneva and surrounding territories in around 1200.
Territories acquired by Berne from Geneva, 1339-1798
L'Escalade, the last attempt by Savoy to take Geneva by force, 1602
Place du Temple in Carouge
Charles Pictet de Rochemont, the Geneva envoy to the Congress of Vienna who negotiated the canton’s borders
Borders after the Congress of Vienna: in yellow, the previous lands of Geneva; in blue, towns ceded by France; in pink, towns ceded by Savoy.
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View from Reculet mountain towards Geneva. The canton occupies most of the Geneva basin, the valley between the Reculet (France) and Mount Salève (France). The Alps are visible in the background, covered by clouds
Municipalities of the canton of Geneva
Village square in Meyrin
The headquarters of the local cantonal bank, the BCGE
Geneva has the densest vineyards of Switzerland. Here, the largest wine-making municipality of Switzerland, Satigny.
The Léman Express network
A tram in Carouge
Map of the French département of Léman established in 1798
Map of the canton of Geneva after the first peace of Paris May 1814
Map of the canton of Geneva after the treaty of Paris 1815
Map of the canton of Geneva after the treaty of Turin 1816

Within the country, the canton shares borders with Vaud to the east, the only adjacent canton.

Following these events that transformed Switzerland under the Helvetic Republic, Geneva joined the Swiss Confederation in 1815 as the 22nd canton.

Portrait by Pajou, November 1803

Frédéric-César de La Harpe

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Portrait by Pajou, November 1803
Portrait by Pajou, November 1803
La Harpe's "Essai sur la Constitution du Pays de Vaud"
A map of the Helvetic Republic, of which La Harpe was a founder and leader, specifically in the Canton of Léman.

Frédéric-César de La Harpe (6 April 1754 – 30 March 1838) was a Swiss political leader, writer and journalist, best known for his pivotal role in the independence of the canton of Vaud from Bern and in the formation of the Helvetic Republic, in which he served as a member of its Directory.

The Helvetic Republic, as of the constitution of 12 April 1798, showing the canton of Léman in yellow, leftmost, to the north and west of Lake Geneva

Canton of Léman

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The Helvetic Republic, as of the constitution of 12 April 1798, showing the canton of Léman in yellow, leftmost, to the north and west of Lake Geneva
Frédéric-César de La Harpe
Louis Reymond, who took over the leadership of the Bourla-Papey, by Benjamin Bolomey, 1798
"Répub. helvétique Canton Léman", seal of the district courthouse of Lausanne

Léman was the name of a canton of the Helvetic Republic from 1798 to 1803, corresponding to the territory of modern Vaud.

Échallens Castle

Échallens

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Échallens Castle
A church in Échallens
A train of the Lausanne-Échallens-Bercher (LEB) line

Échallens is a municipality in the district of Gros-de-Vaud in the canton of Vaud in Switzerland.

Échallens belonged from 1798 to 1803 to the canton of Léman in the Helvetic Republic, and was brought into the canton of Vaud by the mediation of Napoleon.

Plan of Orbe Castle

Orbe

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Plan of Orbe Castle
Aerial view of Orbe, showing the tree-covered Orbe river and the hill of the old town
Aerial view (1949)
Casino Orbe
Part of the old city of Orbe
Newer buildings in Orbe
Aerial view of Orbe with the Nestlé factory complex (foreground) and the Jura Mountains (background)
The Church of Notre Dame in Orbe
Orbe Castle
Swiss Reformed Church of Notre-Dame
alt=Orbe-Bosceaz: mosaic of the Divinities|Gallo-Roman villa: Mosaic of the divinities
Gallo-Roman villa: mosaic of the "Cortège rustique"

Orbe (Urba; older Orbach, ; Orba) is a municipality in the Swiss canton of Vaud.

It remained a subject territory until the 1798 French invasion and the creation of the French-backed Helvetic Republic.