Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation

bone marrow transplantbone marrow transplantationstem cell transplantstem cell transplantationbone marrow transplantsbone marrowHematopoietic stem cell transplantautologous bone marrow transplantationtransplantationtransplant
Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is the transplantation of multipotent hematopoietic stem cells, usually derived from bone marrow, peripheral blood, or umbilical cord blood.wikipedia
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Organ transplantation

organ transplanttransplanttransplantation
Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is the transplantation of multipotent hematopoietic stem cells, usually derived from bone marrow, peripheral blood, or umbilical cord blood.
Sometimes an autograft is done to remove the tissue and then treat it or the person before returning it (examples include stem cell autograft and storing blood in advance of surgery).

Graft-versus-host disease

graft versus host diseaseGVHDgraft vs host disease
Infection and graft-versus-host disease are major complications of allogeneic HSCT.
GvHD is commonly associated with stem cell transplants such as those that occur with bone marrow transplants.

Multiple myeloma

myelomabone-marrow cancerbone marrow cancer
It is most often performed for patients with certain cancers of the blood or bone marrow, such as multiple myeloma or leukemia.
Remissions may be brought about with steroids, chemotherapy, targeted therapy, and stem cell transplant.

Leukemia

leukaemialeukemiasleukemic
It is most often performed for patients with certain cancers of the blood or bone marrow, such as multiple myeloma or leukemia.
Treatment may involve some combination of chemotherapy, radiation therapy, targeted therapy, and bone marrow transplant, in addition to supportive care and palliative care as needed.

Acute myeloid leukemia

acute myelogenous leukemiaacute myeloid leukaemiaAML
However, for other cancers such as acute myeloid leukemia, the reduced mortality of the autogenous relative to allogeneic HSCT may be outweighed by an increased likelihood of cancer relapse and related mortality, and therefore the allogeneic treatment may be preferred for those conditions.
People may then go on to receive additional chemotherapy, radiation therapy, or a stem cell transplant.

Acute lymphoblastic leukemia

acute lymphocytic leukemiaacute lymphoblastic leukaemiaALL
Stem cell transplantation may be used if the disease recurs following standard treatment.

Myelodysplastic syndrome

myelodysplasiamyelodysplastic syndromesMDS
Other conditions treated with stem cell transplants include sickle-cell disease, myelodysplastic syndrome, neuroblastoma, lymphoma, Ewing's sarcoma, desmoplastic small round cell tumor, chronic granulomatous disease, Hodgkin's disease and Wiskott–Aldrich syndrome.
Treatments may include supportive care, drug therapy, and stem cell transplantation.

Neuroblastoma

Neuroepitheliomaa rare form of cancerCNS Neuroblastoma
Other conditions treated with stem cell transplants include sickle-cell disease, myelodysplastic syndrome, neuroblastoma, lymphoma, Ewing's sarcoma, desmoplastic small round cell tumor, chronic granulomatous disease, Hodgkin's disease and Wiskott–Aldrich syndrome.
Treatments may include observation, surgery, radiation, chemotherapy, or stem cell transplantation.

Hodgkin lymphoma

Hodgkin's lymphomaHodgkin's diseaseHodgkin disease
Other conditions treated with stem cell transplants include sickle-cell disease, myelodysplastic syndrome, neuroblastoma, lymphoma, Ewing's sarcoma, desmoplastic small round cell tumor, chronic granulomatous disease, Hodgkin's disease and Wiskott–Aldrich syndrome.
Hodgkin lymphoma may be treated with chemotherapy, radiation therapy, and stem cell transplant.

Severe combined immunodeficiency

SCIDSevere Combined Immune DeficiencySevere combined immunodeficiency (SCID)
Candidates for HSCTs include pediatric cases where the patient has an inborn defect such as severe combined immunodeficiency or congenital neutropenia with defective stem cells, and also children or adults with aplastic anemia who have lost their stem cells after birth.
These babies, if untreated, usually die within one year due to severe, recurrent infections unless they have undergone successful hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.

Fanconi anemia

Fanconi anaemiaFanconi's anaemiaFanconi anemia C
Treatment with androgens and hematopoietic (blood cell) growth factors can help bone marrow failure temporarily, but the long-term treatment is bone marrow transplant if a donor is available.

Aplastic anemia

aplastic anaemiaaplasticacquired aplastic anemia
Candidates for HSCTs include pediatric cases where the patient has an inborn defect such as severe combined immunodeficiency or congenital neutropenia with defective stem cells, and also children or adults with aplastic anemia who have lost their stem cells after birth.
Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation is also used, especially for patients under 30 years of age with a related matched marrow donor.

Sickle cell disease

sickle cell anemiasickle-cell diseasesickle-cell anemia
Other conditions treated with stem cell transplants include sickle-cell disease, myelodysplastic syndrome, neuroblastoma, lymphoma, Ewing's sarcoma, desmoplastic small round cell tumor, chronic granulomatous disease, Hodgkin's disease and Wiskott–Aldrich syndrome.
A small percentage of people can be cured by a transplant of bone marrow cells.

Ewing's sarcoma

Ewing sarcomaEwing’s sarcomacancer
Other conditions treated with stem cell transplants include sickle-cell disease, myelodysplastic syndrome, neuroblastoma, lymphoma, Ewing's sarcoma, desmoplastic small round cell tumor, chronic granulomatous disease, Hodgkin's disease and Wiskott–Aldrich syndrome.
Treatment often includes chemotherapy, radiation therapy, surgery, and stem cell transplant.

Radiation therapy

radiotherapyradiation oncologyradiation
In these cases, the recipient's immune system is usually destroyed with radiation or chemotherapy before the transplantation.
Total body irradiation (TBI) is a radiation therapy technique used to prepare the body to receive a bone marrow transplant.

Thalassemia

thalassaemiathalassaemiasBeta-Thalassemia
Occasionally, a bone marrow transplant may be an option.

Non-Hodgkin lymphoma

non-Hodgkin's lymphomanon-Hodgkin’s lymphomanon-Hodgkin
Treatments may include chemotherapy, radiation, immunotherapy, targeted therapy, stem cell transplantation, surgery or watchful waiting.

Chemotherapy

chemotherapeuticantineoplasticantineoplastic agent
In these cases, the recipient's immune system is usually destroyed with radiation or chemotherapy before the transplantation.
In very severe myelosuppression, which occurs in some regimens, almost all the bone marrow stem cells (cells that produce white and red blood cells) are destroyed, meaning allogenic or autologous bone marrow cell transplants are necessary.

National Marrow Donor Program

Be The MatchNational Bone Marrow RegistryBe The Match Registry
Unrelated donors may be found through a registry of bone marrow donors, such as the National Marrow Donor Program in the U.S. People who would like to be tested for a specific family member or friend without joining any of the bone marrow registry data banks may contact a private HLA testing laboratory and be tested with a blood test or mouth swab to see if they are a potential match.
The NMDP coordinates the collection of hematopoietic ("blood-forming") cells that are used to perform what used to be called bone marrow transplants, but are now more properly called hematopoietic cell transplants.

Bone Marrow Donors Worldwide

World Marrow Donor Association
In 2014, according to the World Marrow Donor Association (WMDA), stem cell products provided for unrelated transplantation worldwide had increased to 20,604 (4,149 bone marrow donations, 12,506 peripheral blood stem cell donations, and 3,949 cord blood units).
World Marrow Donor Association (WMDA) is an organization based in Leiden, Netherlands, that coordinates the collection of the HLA phenotypes and other relevant data of volunteer hematopoietic cell donors (used to perform what used to be called bone marrow transplants, but now referred as hematopoietic cell transplants) and cord blood units across the globe.

Autologous stem-cell transplantation

autologous stem cell transplantationautologousautologous stem cell transplant
It may be autologous (the patient's own stem cells are used), allogeneic (the stem cells come from a donor) or syngeneic (from an identical twin).
Although it is most frequently performed with hematopoietic stem cells (precursors of blood-forming cells) in hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, cardiac cells have also been used successfully to repair damage caused by heart attacks.

Umbilical cord

umbilicalcord[umbilical] cord
Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is the transplantation of multipotent hematopoietic stem cells, usually derived from bone marrow, peripheral blood, or umbilical cord blood.
These cord blood cells can be used for bone marrow transplant.

Savior sibling

saviour siblingsavior sistera cure for his brother's thalassemia
A "savior sibling" may be intentionally selected by preimplantation genetic diagnosis in order to match a child both regarding HLA type and being free of any obvious inheritable disorder.
A savior baby or savior sibling is a child who is born to provide an organ or cell transplant to a sibling that is affected with a fatal disease, such as cancer or Fanconi anemia, that can best be treated by hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.

Total body irradiation

total-body irradiationwhole body radiationwhole body
In allogeneic transplants a combination of cyclophosphamide with total body irradiation is conventionally employed.
Total body irradiation (TBI) is a form of radiotherapy used primarily as part of the preparative regimen for haematopoietic stem cell (or bone marrow) transplantation.

Apheresis

pheresisaphaeresisApheresis machine
Autologous HSCT requires the extraction (apheresis) of hematopoietic stem cells (HSC) from the patient and storage of the harvested cells in a freezer.