Hematuria

blood in the urinehaematuriabloody urineblood in urinebloodbloodyurinating bloodglomerular haematuriahaematureain the urine
Hematuria (American English) or haematuria (British English) is a clinical sign.wikipedia
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IgA nephropathy

Berger's diseaseBerger diseaseglomerulonephritis, iga
The classic presentation for the non-aggressive form (in 40–50% of the cases) is episodic hematuria, which usually starts within a day or two of a non-specific upper respiratory tract infection (hence synpharyngitic), as opposed to post-streptococcal glomerulonephritis, which occurs some time (weeks) after initial infection.

Glomerulonephritis

C3 glomerulonephritisglomerular nephritisglomerulonephritis, membranoproliferative
As it is not strictly a single disease, its presentation depends on the specific disease entity: it may present with isolated hematuria and/or proteinuria (blood or protein in the urine); or as a nephrotic syndrome, a nephritic syndrome, acute kidney injury, or chronic kidney disease.

Urine

urinaryhuman urinepiss
It is defined by the presence of blood or red blood cells in the urine.

Kidney cancer

renal cancerkidneyrenal
Symptoms may include blood in the urine, lump in the abdomen, or back pain.

Kidney stone disease

kidney stonekidney stonesnephrolithiasis
Other possible causes include acute glomerulonephritis, staghorn calculus, polycystic kidneys, benign prostatic hyperplasia, solitary renal cyst, sickle cell disease, and hydronephrosis.
Renal colic caused by kidney stones is commonly accompanied by urinary urgency, restlessness, hematuria, sweating, nausea, and vomiting.

Urinary tract infection

cystitisurinary tract infectionsbladder infection
Rarely the urine may appear bloody.

Pyelonephritis

kidney infectionpyelitisurosepsis
Chronic pyelonephritis causes persistent flank or abdominal pain, signs of infection (fever, unintentional weight loss, malaise, decreased appetite), lower urinary tract symptoms and blood in the urine.

Bladder cancer

bladderbladder carcinomacancer of the bladder
Symptoms include blood in the urine, pain with urination, and low back pain.

Ureteral cancer

ureters
Symptoms of ureteral cancer may include "blood in the urine (hematuria); diminished urine stream and straining to void (caused by urethral stricture); frequent urination and increased nighttime urination (nocturia); hardening of tissue in the perineum, labia, or penis; itching; incontinence; pain during or after sexual intercourse (dyspareunia); painful urination (dysuria); recurrent urinary tract infection; urethral discharge and swelling".

Microhematuria

microscopic hematuriaMicroscopic amounts of blood
Microscopic hematuria requires medical testing for detection.
Microhematuria, also called microscopic hematuria (both usually abbreviated as MH), is a medical condition in which urine contains small amounts of blood; the blood quantity is too low to change the color of the urine (otherwise, it is known as gross hematuria).

Polycystic kidney disease

polycystic kidneypolycystic kidneysAutosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease
Other possible causes include acute glomerulonephritis, staghorn calculus, polycystic kidneys, benign prostatic hyperplasia, solitary renal cyst, sickle cell disease, and hydronephrosis.
Signs and symptoms include high blood pressure, headaches, abdominal pain, blood in the urine, and excessive urination.

Urine test strip

urine dipstickurine dipsticksDiagnostic test strips
Another method for detection of microscopic hematuria is the dipstick method. This test works by detecting hemoglobin in a urine sample.
Specific kidney and urinary tract diseases that can be identified include: chronic kidney disease, glomerulonephritis, proteinuria and haematuria.

Thin basement membrane disease

Benign familial hematuriaThin glomerular basement membrane disease
Thin basement membrane disease (TBMD, also known as benign familial hematuria and thin basement membrane nephropathy or TBMN) is, along with IgA nephropathy, the most common cause of hematuria without other symptoms.

Acute proliferative glomerulonephritis

post-streptococcal glomerulonephritispoststreptococcal glomerulonephritisPost-infectious glomerulonephritis

Alport syndrome

Alport's syndromeHereditary nephritis
Blood in urine is universal.

Nephrology

nephrologistrenal medicinekidney disease
Patients are referred to nephrology specialists after a urinalysis, for various reasons, such as acute kidney failure, chronic kidney disease, hematuria, proteinuria, kidney stones, hypertension, and disorders of acid/base or electrolytes.

Interstitial nephritis

tubulointerstitial nephritisacute interstitial nephritisTubulo-interstitial nephritis

Sickle cell disease

sickle cell anemiasickle-cell diseasesickle-cell anemia
Other possible causes include acute glomerulonephritis, staghorn calculus, polycystic kidneys, benign prostatic hyperplasia, solitary renal cyst, sickle cell disease, and hydronephrosis.

Urinary retention

urinary obstructionurine retentionRetention of urine
Cancers often present with blood in the urine, weight loss, lower back pain or gradual distension in the flanks.

Red blood cell

red blood cellserythrocyteserythroid
It is defined by the presence of blood or red blood cells in the urine.

Urinary system

urinary tracturinaryrenal system
These include the urinary system, female reproductive system, and integumentary system.

Female reproductive system

genital tractfemale reproductive tractfemale genital organs
These include the urinary system, female reproductive system, and integumentary system.

Integumentary system

integumentaryintegumenttegument
These include the urinary system, female reproductive system, and integumentary system.

Benign prostatic hyperplasia

enlarged prostatebenign prostatic hypertrophybenign prostate hyperplasia
Other possible causes include acute glomerulonephritis, staghorn calculus, polycystic kidneys, benign prostatic hyperplasia, solitary renal cyst, sickle cell disease, and hydronephrosis.

Renal cyst

cystkidney cystrenal
Other possible causes include acute glomerulonephritis, staghorn calculus, polycystic kidneys, benign prostatic hyperplasia, solitary renal cyst, sickle cell disease, and hydronephrosis.