A report on Hemolymph and Hemocyanin

A grasshopper has an open circulatory system, where hemolymph moves through interconnected sinuses or hemocoels, spaces surrounding the organs.
Crystal structure of hexameric haemocyanin from Panulirus interruptus refined at 3.2 angstroms resolution
Above is a diagram of an open circulatory system. An open circulatory system is made up of a heart, vessels, and hemolymph. This diagram shows how the hemolymph is circulated throughout the body of a grasshopper. The hemolymph is first pumped through the heart, into the aorta, dispersed into the head and throughout the hemocoel, then back through the ostia that are located in the heart, where the process is repeated.
The underside of the carapace of a red rock crab (Cancer productus). The purple coloring is caused by hemocyanin.
crystallographic analysis of oxygenated and deoxygenated states of arthropod hemocyanin shows unusual differences
A hemocyanin active site in the absence of O2 (each Cu center is a cation, charges not shown).
O2-bound form of a hemocyanin active site (the Cu2 center is a dication, charge not shown).

Unlike the hemoglobin in red blood cells found in vertebrates, hemocyanins are not confined in blood cells but are instead suspended directly in the hemolymph.

- Hemocyanin

Oxygen-transport systems were long thought unnecessary in insects, but ancestral and functional hemocyanin has been found in the hemolymph.

- Hemolymph
A grasshopper has an open circulatory system, where hemolymph moves through interconnected sinuses or hemocoels, spaces surrounding the organs.

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Arthropod

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Arthropods (, (gen.

Arthropods (, (gen.

Structure of a biramous appendage.
Alignment of anterior body segments and appendages across various arthropod taxa, based on the observations until mid 2010s. Head regions in black.
Illustration of an idealized arthropod exoskeleton.
Cicada climbing out of its exoskeleton while attached to tree
Arthropod eyes
Head of a wasp with three ocelli (center), and compound eyes at the left and right
Compsobuthus werneri female with young (white)
The nauplius larva of a penaeid shrimp
Marrella, one of the puzzling arthropods from the Burgess Shale
Kylinxia
The velvet worm (Onychophora) is closely related to arthropods
Insects and scorpions on sale in a food stall in Bangkok, Thailand

The haemocoel, an arthropod's internal cavity, through which its haemolymph – analogue of blood – circulates, accommodates its interior organs; it has an open circulatory system.

The most common respiratory pigment in arthropods is copper-based hemocyanin; this is used by many crustaceans and a few centipedes.