Hemodialysis

haemodialysisdialysisScribner shuntIntermittent hemodialysisartificial kidney machineAV (arteriovenous) fistuladialysis access surgerydialysis treatmentDialytraumadialyzed
Hemodialysis, also spelled haemodialysis, or simply dialysis, is a process of purifying the blood of a person whose kidneys are not working normally.wikipedia
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Home hemodialysis

homehome nocturnal hemodialysisnocturnal hemodialysis
Less frequently hemodialysis is done at home.
Home hemodialysis (HHD), is the provision of hemodialysis to purify the blood of a person whose kidneys are not working normally, in their own home.

Dialysis

kidney dialysisrenal dialysisdialysis machine
This type of dialysis achieves the extracorporeal removal of waste products such as creatinine and urea and free water from the blood when the kidneys are in a state of kidney failure.
The two main types of dialysis, hemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis, remove wastes and excess water from the blood in different ways.

Peritoneal dialysis

continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysisIntraperitoneal dialysis solutionAmbulatory Peritoneal Dialysis
Hemodialysis is one of three renal replacement therapies (the other two being kidney transplant and peritoneal dialysis).
Peritoneal dialysis has better outcomes than hemodialysis during the first couple of years.

Kidney transplantation

kidney transplantrenal transplantationrenal transplant
Hemodialysis is one of three renal replacement therapies (the other two being kidney transplant and peritoneal dialysis).
The majority of renal transplant recipients are on dialysis (peritoneal dialysis or hemodialysis) at the time of transplantation.

Renal replacement therapy

renal replacement therapieskidney replacement therapy
Hemodialysis is one of three renal replacement therapies (the other two being kidney transplant and peritoneal dialysis).
Renal replacement therapy includes dialysis (hemodialysis or peritoneal dialysis), hemofiltration, and hemodiafiltration, which are various ways of filtration of blood with or without machines.

Artificial kidney

AWAKkidneykidney, artificial
First-use syndrome is a rare but severe anaphylactic reaction to the artificial kidney.
Artificial kidney is often a synonym for hemodialysis, but may also, refer to renal replacement therapies (with exclusion of kidney transplantation) that are in use and/or in development.

Kidney failure

renal failurekidney problemsrenal impairment
This type of dialysis achieves the extracorporeal removal of waste products such as creatinine and urea and free water from the blood when the kidneys are in a state of kidney failure. Hemodialysis often involves fluid removal (through ultrafiltration), because most patients with renal failure pass little or no urine.
Treatment of chronic failure may include hemodialysis, peritoneal dialysis, or a kidney transplant.

Cimino fistula

arteriovenous fistulaCimino shuntCimino-Brescia fistula
Three primary methods are used to gain access to the blood for hemodialysis: an intravenous catheter, an arteriovenous fistula (AV) and a synthetic graft.
A Cimino fistula, also Cimino-Brescia fistula, surgically created arteriovenous fistula and (less precisely) arteriovenous fistula (often abbreviated AV fistula or AVF), is a type of vascular access for hemodialysis.

Bacteremia

bacteraemiatoxemiatoxaemia
Since hemodialysis requires access to the circulatory system, patients undergoing hemodialysis may expose their circulatory system to microbes, which can lead to bacteremia, an infection affecting the heart valves (endocarditis) or an infection affecting the bones (osteomyelitis).

Extracorporeal

extracorporeal circulationextra corporeal circulationextracorporeal therapy
Hemodialysis utilizes counter current flow, where the dialysate is flowing in the opposite direction to blood flow in the extracorporeal circuit.

Ultrafiltration (renal)

ultrafiltrationglomerular filtratefiltered
Hemodialysis often involves fluid removal (through ultrafiltration), because most patients with renal failure pass little or no urine.
In hemodialysis centers, ultrafiltration takes place on the hemodialysis machines when the venous pressure is greater than the transmembrane pressure (TMP).

Haemodialysis-associated amyloidosis

hemodialysis-associated amyloidosisDialysis related amyloidosisdialysis-related amyloidosis
Longterm complications of hemodialysis include hemodialysis-associated amyloidosis, neuropathy and various forms of heart disease.
Long-term haemodialysis results in a gradual accumulation of β 2 microglobulin, a serum protein, in the blood.

Endocarditis

subacute bacterial endocarditisa bacterial infection of his heartendocarditis, bacterial
Since hemodialysis requires access to the circulatory system, patients undergoing hemodialysis may expose their circulatory system to microbes, which can lead to bacteremia, an infection affecting the heart valves (endocarditis) or an infection affecting the bones (osteomyelitis).
Risk factors include valvular heart disease including rheumatic disease, congenital heart disease, artificial valves, hemodialysis, intravenous drug use, and electronic pacemakers.

Willem Johan Kolff

Willem KolffWillem J. KolffKolff
The artificial kidney was first developed by Abel, Rountree, and Turner in 1913, the first hemodialysis in a human being was by Hass (February 28, 1924) and the artificial kidney was developed into a clinically useful apparatus by Kolff in 1943 – 1945.
Willem Johan Kolff (February 14, 1911 – February 11, 2009), also known as Pim Kolff, was a pioneer of hemodialysis as well as in the field of artificial organs.

Georg Haas (physician)

Georg HaasHass
The artificial kidney was first developed by Abel, Rountree, and Turner in 1913, the first hemodialysis in a human being was by Hass (February 28, 1924) and the artificial kidney was developed into a clinically useful apparatus by Kolff in 1943 – 1945.
Haas performed the first human hemodialysis treatment.

Chronic kidney disease

chronic renal failureend-stage renal diseasechronic kidney failure
By the 1950s, Willem Kolff's invention of the dialyzer was used for acute renal failure, but it was not seen as a viable treatment for patients with stage 5 chronic kidney disease (CKD).
Severe disease requires hemodialysis, peritoneal dialysis, or a kidney transplant for survival.

Catheter

catheterscatheterizationindwelling catheter
The tube is connected to a 15, 16, or 17 gauge needle inserted in the dialysis fistula or graft, or connected to one port of a dialysis catheter.

Nils Alwall

Swedish professor Nils Alwall encased a modified version of this kidney inside a stainless steel canister, to which a negative pressure could be applied, in this way effecting the first truly practical application of hemodialysis, which was done in 1946 at the University of Lund.
Nils Alwall (1904, Kiaby – 1986), a Swedish professor, was a pioneer in hemodialysis and the inventor of one of the first practical dialysis machines.

Aluminium toxicity in people on dialysis

aluminium toxicityaluminum toxicitytoxicity
Aluminium toxicity in people on dialysis is a problem for people on haemodialysis.

Dialysis disequilibrium syndrome

Dialysis disequilibrium syndrome (DDS) is the occurrence of neurologic signs and symptoms, attributed to cerebral edema, during or following shortly after intermittent hemodialysis.

Northwest Kidney Centers

Northwest Kidney Center
In 1962, Scribner started the world's first outpatient dialysis facility, the Seattle Artificial Kidney Center, later renamed the Northwest Kidney Centers.
This changed when Dr. Belding H. Scribner of the University of Washington developed the Scribner shunt, a blood access device which made long-term dialysis possible for the first time.

Belding Hibbard Scribner

Belding H. ScribnerBelding ScribnerDr. Belding H. Scribner
Belding H. Scribner, working with the biomechanical engineer Wayne Quinton, modified the glass shunts used by Alwall by making them from Teflon.
In 1960, he, Wayne Quinton, and David Dillard invented a breakthrough device, the Scribner shunt.

Hemofiltration

hemodiafiltrationcontinuous renal replacement therapycontinuous hemofiltration
Note that this is a different process to the related technique of hemofiltration.

American and British English spelling differences

spelling differencesorsee spelling differences
Hemodialysis, also spelled haemodialysis, or simply dialysis, is a process of purifying the blood of a person whose kidneys are not working normally.

Kidney

kidneysrenalkidney disorder
This type of dialysis achieves the extracorporeal removal of waste products such as creatinine and urea and free water from the blood when the kidneys are in a state of kidney failure. Hemodialysis, also spelled haemodialysis, or simply dialysis, is a process of purifying the blood of a person whose kidneys are not working normally.