A report on Insect and Hemolymph

Evolution has produced enormous variety in insects. Pictured are some possible shapes of antennae.
A grasshopper has an open circulatory system, where hemolymph moves through interconnected sinuses or hemocoels, spaces surrounding the organs.
A pie chart of described eukaryote species, showing just over half of these to be insects
Above is a diagram of an open circulatory system. An open circulatory system is made up of a heart, vessels, and hemolymph. This diagram shows how the hemolymph is circulated throughout the body of a grasshopper. The hemolymph is first pumped through the heart, into the aorta, dispersed into the head and throughout the hemocoel, then back through the ostia that are located in the heart, where the process is repeated.
Insects with population trends documented by the International Union for Conservation of Nature, for orders Collembola, Hymenoptera, Lepidoptera, Odonata, and Orthoptera. Of 203 insect species that had such documented population trends in 2013, 33% were in decline.
Stylized diagram of insect digestive tract showing malpighian tubule, from an insect of the order Orthoptera
Bumblebee defecating. Note the contraction of the abdomen to provide internal pressure
The tube-like heart (green) of the mosquito Anopheles gambiae extends horizontally across the body, interlinked with the diamond-shaped wing muscles (also green) and surrounded by pericardial cells (red). Blue depicts cell nuclei.
The different forms of the male (top) and female (bottom) tussock moth Orgyia recens is an example of sexual dimorphism in insects.
Gulf fritillary life cycle, an example of holometabolism.
Most insects have compound eyes and two antennae.
A cathedral mound created by termites (Isoptera).
White-lined sphinx moth feeding in flight
The backswimmer Notonecta glauca underwater, showing its paddle-like hindleg adaptation
Perhaps one of the most well-known examples of mimicry, the viceroy butterfly (top) appears very similar to the monarch butterfly (bottom).
European honey bee carrying pollen in a pollen basket back to the hive
Aedes aegypti, a parasite, is the vector of dengue fever and yellow fever
Because they help flowering plants to cross-pollinate, some insects are critical to agriculture. This European honey bee is gathering nectar while pollen collects on its body.
A robberfly with its prey, a hoverfly. Insectivorous relationships such as these help control insect populations.
The common fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster is one of the most widely used organisms in biological research.
Insect morphology 
A- Head B- Thorax C- Abdomen
Basic motion of the insect wing in insect with an indirect flight mechanism scheme of dorsoventral cut through a thorax segment with a wings, b joints, c dorsoventral muscles, d longitudinal muscles.

It is the major tissue type of the open circulatory system characteristic of arthropods (e.g. arachnids, crustaceans and insects).

- Hemolymph

The dorsal blood vessel circulates the hemolymph, arthropods' fluid analog of blood, from the rear of the body cavity forward.

- Insect
Evolution has produced enormous variety in insects. Pictured are some possible shapes of antennae.

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Arthropods (, (gen.

Arthropods (, (gen.

Structure of a biramous appendage.
Alignment of anterior body segments and appendages across various arthropod taxa, based on the observations until mid 2010s. Head regions in black.
Illustration of an idealized arthropod exoskeleton.
Cicada climbing out of its exoskeleton while attached to tree
Arthropod eyes
Head of a wasp with three ocelli (center), and compound eyes at the left and right
Compsobuthus werneri female with young (white)
The nauplius larva of a penaeid shrimp
Marrella, one of the puzzling arthropods from the Burgess Shale
The velvet worm (Onychophora) is closely related to arthropods
Insects and scorpions on sale in a food stall in Bangkok, Thailand

The haemocoel, an arthropod's internal cavity, through which its haemolymph – analogue of blood – circulates, accommodates its interior organs; it has an open circulatory system.

One arthropod sub-group, insects, is the most species-rich member of all ecological guilds in land and freshwater environments.


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Coleoptera at the Staatliches Museum für Naturkunde Karlsruhe, Germany
Fossil and life restoration of Moravocoleus permianus (Tshekardocoleidae) from the Early Permian of the Czech Republic, representative of the morphology of early beetles
Beetle genera were mainly saprophages (detritivores) in the Permian and Triassic. During the Jurassic, herbivorous and then carnivorous genera became more common. In the Cenozoic, genera at all three trophic levels became far more numerous.
Fossil buprestid beetle from the Eocene (50 mya) Messel pit, which retains its structural color
Beetle body structure, using cockchafer.
A: head, B: thorax, C: abdomen.
1: antenna, 2: compound eye, 3: femur, 4: elytron (wing cover), 5: tibia, 6: tarsus, 7: claws, 8: mouthparts, 9: prothorax, 10: mesothorax, 11: metathorax, 12: abdominal sternites, 13: pygidium.
Front view of the head of Lamia textor
Polyphylla fullo has distinctive fan-like antennae, one of several distinct forms for the appendages among beetles.
Acilius sulcatus, a diving beetle with hind legs adapted as swimming limbs
Checkered beetle Trichodes alvearius taking off, showing the hard elytra (forewings adapted as wing-cases) held stiffly away from the flight wings
A beetle's body systems
Punctate flower chafers (Neorrhina punctata, Scarabaeidae) mating
The life cycle of the stag beetle includes three instars.
Scarabaeiform larva of Hercules beetle
The ivory-marked beetle, Eburia quadrigeminata, may live up to 40 years inside the hardwoods on which the larva feeds.
Photinus pyralis, firefly, in flight
A dung beetle rolling dung
Hycleus sp. (Meloidae) feeding on the petals of Ipomoea carnea
A camouflaged longhorn beetle, Ecyrus dasycerus
Clytus arietis (Cerambycidae), a Batesian mimic of wasps
Blister beetles such as Hycleus have brilliant aposematic coloration, warning of their toxicity.
An Israeli Copper Flower-Chafer (Protaetia cuprea ignicollis) on a crown daisy (Glebionis coronaria)
1: Adult ambrosia beetle burrows into wood and lays eggs, carrying fungal spores in its mycangia. 
2: Larva feeds on fungus, which digests wood, removing toxins, to mutual benefit. 
3: Larva pupates.
Tenebrionid beetle in the Thar Desert
The fogstand beetle of the Namib Desert, Stenocara gracilipes, is able to survive by collecting water from fog on its back.
A scarab in the Valley of the Kings
Cotton boll weevil
Larvae of the Colorado potato beetle, Leptinotarsa decemlineata, a serious crop pest
Coccinella septempunctata, a predatory beetle beneficial to agriculture
Mealworms in a bowl for human consumption
Zopheridae in jewellery at the Texas A&M University Insect Collection
"Remarkable Beetles Found at Simunjon, Borneo". A few of the 2,000 species of beetle collected by Alfred Russel Wallace in Borneo
Titan beetle, Titanus giganteus, a tropical longhorn, is one of the largest and heaviest insects in the world.
Scydosella musawasensis, the smallest known beetle: scale bar (right) is 50 μm.
Hercules beetle, Dynastes hercules ecuatorianus, the longest of all beetles
iridescent Protaetia cuprea feeding on thistle
iridescent Protaetia cuprea feeding on thistle

Beetles are insects that form the order Coleoptera, in the superorder Endopterygota.

Like other insects, beetles have open circulatory systems, based on hemolymph rather than blood.


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Fossil grasshoppers at the Royal Ontario Museum
Ensifera, like this great green bush-cricket Tettigonia viridissima, somewhat resemble grasshoppers but have over 20 segments in their antennae and different ovipositors.
Structure of mouthparts
Frontal view of Egyptian locust (Anacridium aegyptium) showing the compound eyes, tiny ocelli and numerous setae
Six stages (instars) of development, from newly hatched nymph to fully winged adult
Romalea microptera grasshoppers: female (larger) is laying eggs, with male in attendance.
Millions of plague locusts on the move in Australia
Cottontop tamarin monkey eating a grasshopper
Grasshopper with parasitic mites
Locusts killed by the naturally occurring fungus Metarhizium, an environmentally friendly means of biological control. CSIRO, 2005
Detail of grasshopper on table in Rachel Ruysch's painting Flowers in a Vase, c. 1685. National Gallery, London
Sir Thomas Gresham's gilded grasshopper symbol, Lombard Street, London, 1563
Fried grasshoppers from Gunung Kidul, Yogyakarta, Indonesia
Sweet-and-salty grasshoppers dish in Japan (Inago no Tsukudani)
Crop pest: grasshopper eating a maize leaf
Egyptian hieroglyphs "snḥm"
A grasshopper beam engine, 1847
Gaudy grasshopper, Atractomorpha lata, evades predators with camouflage.
Lubber grasshopper, Titanacris albipes, has deimatically coloured wings, used to startle predators.
Leaf grasshopper, Phyllochoreia ramakrishnai, mimics a green leaf.
Painted grasshopper, Dactylotum bicolor, deters predators with warning coloration.
Spotted grasshopper, Aularches miliaris, defends itself with toxic foam and warning colours.<ref>{{cite journal |author=Hingston, R.W.G. | year=1927 |doi=10.1111/j.1365-2311.1927.tb00060.x |title=The liquid-squirting habit of oriental grasshoppers| journal=Transactions of the Entomological Society of London |volume=75 |pages=65–69}}</ref>

Grasshoppers are a group of insects belonging to the suborder Caelifera.

Like other insects, grasshoppers have an open circulatory system and their body cavities are filled with haemolymph.

Indian moon moth (Actias selene) with some of the spiracles identified

Respiratory system of insects

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Indian moon moth (Actias selene) with some of the spiracles identified
Scanning electron micrograph of a cricket spiracle valve

An insect's respiratory system is the system with which it introduces respiratory gases to its interior and performs gas exchange.

The respiratory system of insects (and many other arthropods) is separate from the circulatory system.