Hemoptysis

coughing up bloodhaemoptysishæmoptysisBloody sputumcoughing bloodcoughing up of bloodBloodblood coughed upblood in sputum during coughblood is coughed up
Hemoptysis is the coughing up of blood or blood-stained mucus from the bronchi, larynx, trachea, or lungs.wikipedia
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Lung cancer

lungbronchogenic carcinomalungs
This can occur with lung cancer, infections such as tuberculosis, bronchitis, or pneumonia, and certain cardiovascular conditions.
The most common symptoms are coughing (including coughing up blood), weight loss, shortness of breath, and chest pains.

Tuberculosis

consumptionpulmonary tuberculosisTB
This can occur with lung cancer, infections such as tuberculosis, bronchitis, or pneumonia, and certain cardiovascular conditions.
The classic symptoms of active TB are a chronic cough with blood-containing mucus, fever, night sweats, and weight loss.

Pneumonia

bronchopneumoniabronchial pneumoniaNecrotizing pneumonia
This can occur with lung cancer, infections such as tuberculosis, bronchitis, or pneumonia, and certain cardiovascular conditions.
Bloody sputum (known as hemoptysis) may also occur with tuberculosis, Gram-negative pneumonia, lung abscesses and more commonly acute bronchitis.

Bronchiectasis

bronchectasisbronchiectasiadilated
Less common causes include aspergilloma, bronchiectasis, coccidioidomycosis, pulmonary embolism, pneumonic plague, and cystic fibrosis.
Other symptoms include shortness of breath, coughing up blood, and chest pain.

Pulmonary embolism

pulmonary embolipulmonary emboluspulmonary thrombosis
Less common causes include aspergilloma, bronchiectasis, coccidioidomycosis, pulmonary embolism, pneumonic plague, and cystic fibrosis.
Symptoms of a PE may include shortness of breath, chest pain particularly upon breathing in, and coughing up blood.

Bronchus

bronchibronchialbronchial tubes
Hemoptysis is the coughing up of blood or blood-stained mucus from the bronchi, larynx, trachea, or lungs.
An accessory cardiac bronchus is usually an asymptomatic condition but may be associated with persistent infection or hemoptysis.

Aspergilloma

fungus ball
Less common causes include aspergilloma, bronchiectasis, coccidioidomycosis, pulmonary embolism, pneumonic plague, and cystic fibrosis.
Thus, the most common symptom of associated with aspergillomata is coughing up blood (hemoptysis).

Cystic fibrosis

CFCystic fibrosis of the pancreasdisease
Less common causes include aspergilloma, bronchiectasis, coccidioidomycosis, pulmonary embolism, pneumonic plague, and cystic fibrosis.
Other signs include coughing up blood (hemoptysis), high blood pressure in the lung (pulmonary hypertension), heart failure, difficulties getting enough oxygen to the body (hypoxia), and respiratory failure requiring support with breathing masks, such as bilevel positive airway pressure machines or ventilators.

Hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia

Hereditary haemorrhagic telangiectasiaOsler–Weber–Rendu diseaseOsler–Weber–Rendu syndrome
Rarer causes include hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT or Rendu-Osler-Weber syndrome), Goodpasture's syndrome, and granulomatosis with polyangiitis.
Bleeding from lung AVMs is relatively unusual, but may cause hemoptysis (coughing up blood) or hemothorax (blood accumulating in the chest cavity).

Sputum

expectorationmucushuman sputum
Hemoptysis is the coughing up of blood or blood-stained mucus from the bronchi, larynx, trachea, or lungs.

Pneumonic plague

pneumonicPlague, pneumonicplague
Less common causes include aspergilloma, bronchiectasis, coccidioidomycosis, pulmonary embolism, pneumonic plague, and cystic fibrosis.
The most apparent symptom of pneumonic plague is coughing, often with hemoptysis (coughing up blood).

Goodpasture syndrome

Goodpasture's syndromeanti-glomerular basement membrane diseaseAnti-Glomerular Basement Membrane nephritis
Rarer causes include hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT or Rendu-Osler-Weber syndrome), Goodpasture's syndrome, and granulomatosis with polyangiitis.
Lung symptoms usually antedate kidney symptoms and usually include: coughing up blood, chest pain (in less than 50% of cases overall), cough, and shortness of breath.

Coccidioidomycosis

Valley feverCoccidiomycosisSan Joaquin Valley Fever
Less common causes include aspergilloma, bronchiectasis, coccidioidomycosis, pulmonary embolism, pneumonic plague, and cystic fibrosis.
These cavities can result in symptoms like characteristic chest pain, coughing up blood, and persistent cough.

Endometriosis

Endomentriosisendometriosis,endometriotic
A rare cause of hemoptysis in women is endometriosis, which leads to intermittent hemoptysis coinciding with menstrual periods.
Manifestations of this include coughing up blood, a collapsed lung, or bleeding into the pleural space.

Granulomatosis with polyangiitis

Wegener's granulomatosiscoin lesion, pulmonary
Rarer causes include hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT or Rendu-Osler-Weber syndrome), Goodpasture's syndrome, and granulomatosis with polyangiitis.

Mitral valve stenosis

mitral stenosisMitral valvuloplastymitral atresia
Cardiac causes like congestive heart failure and mitral stenosis should be ruled out.

Histoplasmosis

reticuloendotheliosisclassical histoplasmosisHistoplasma capsulatum
After healing of lesions, hard calcified lymph nodes can erode the walls of airway causing hemoptysis.

Lung abscess

Abscess of lungabscess on his lungabscesses
Cough can be productive of foul smelling purulent mucus (≈70%) or less frequently with blood in one third of cases).

Pulmonary edema

pulmonary oedemapulmonary congestionacute pulmonary edema
The most common symptom of pulmonary edema is difficulty breathing, but may include other symptoms such as coughing up blood (classically seen as pink, frothy sputum), excessive sweating, anxiety, and pale skin.

Behçet's disease

Behcet's diseaseBehcet syndromeBehcet's syndrome
Lung involvement is typically in the form of hemoptysis, pleuritis, cough, or fever, and in severe cases can be life-threatening if the outlet pulmonary artery develops an aneurysm which ruptures causing severe vascular collapse and death from bleeding in the lungs.

Tropical eosinophilia

tropical pulmonary eosinophilia
Others may cough up a little blood and may also have a wheeze.

Hughes–Stovin syndrome

Hughes-Stovin syndrome
Common clinical presentations include fever, cough, dyspnea and hemoptysis.

Bronchoscopy

bronchoscopebronchoscopicbronchoscopies
Laser photocoagulation can be used to stop bleeding during bronchoscopy.
Massive hemoptysis, defined as loss of over 600 mL of blood in 24 hours, is a medical emergency and should be addressed with initiation of intravenous fluids and examination with rigid bronchoscopy.

Embolization

embolisationGelfoamangiographic embolization
Angiography of bronchial arteries can be performed to locate the bleeding, and it can often be embolized.

Blood

human bloodhematologicaloxygen consumption
Hemoptysis is the coughing up of blood or blood-stained mucus from the bronchi, larynx, trachea, or lungs.