Hemorrhagic cystitis

haemorrhagic cystitisbleeding from the bladderinflammation and bleeding from the bladder
Hemorrhagic cystitis or haemorrhagic cystitis is an inflammation of the bladder defined by lower urinary tract symptoms that include dysuria, hematuria, and hemorrhage.wikipedia
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Cyclophosphamide

(C)'''yclophosphamidealdophosphamideCytoxan
The disease can occur as a complication of cyclophosphamide, ifosfamide and radiation therapy.
Common side effects include low white blood cell counts, loss of appetite, vomiting, hair loss, and bleeding from the bladder.

Dysuria

painful urinationburning with urinationpain with urination
Hemorrhagic cystitis or haemorrhagic cystitis is an inflammation of the bladder defined by lower urinary tract symptoms that include dysuria, hematuria, and hemorrhage.

Ifosfamide

(I)'''fosfamideIFEXIsophosphamide
The disease can occur as a complication of cyclophosphamide, ifosfamide and radiation therapy.
Ifosfamide is often used in conjunction with mesna to avoid internal bleeding in the patient, in particular hemorrhagic cystitis.

BK virus

BK polyomavirusBKBK virus nephritis
Adenovirus (particularly serotypes 11 and 21 of subgroup B) is the most common cause of acute viral hemorrhagic cystitis in children, though it can result from BK virus as well.
In bone marrow transplant recipients it is notable as a cause for hemorrhagic cystitis.

Mesna

(M)'''esnaMesnexsodium salt
Unfortunately mesna is ineffective as a treatment once hemorrhagic cystitis has developed.
Mesna, sold under the brand name Mesnex among others, is a medication used in those taking cyclophosphamide or ifosfamide to decrease the risk of bleeding from the bladder.

Adenoviridae

adenovirusadenovirusesadenoviral
Adenovirus (particularly serotypes 11 and 21 of subgroup B) is the most common cause of acute viral hemorrhagic cystitis in children, though it can result from BK virus as well.
Rarely, adenovirus can cause hemorrhagic cystitis (inflammation of the urinary bladder—a form of urinary tract infection—with blood in the urine).

Hematuria

blood in the urinehaematuriabloody urine
Hemorrhagic cystitis or haemorrhagic cystitis is an inflammation of the bladder defined by lower urinary tract symptoms that include dysuria, hematuria, and hemorrhage.

Bleeding

hemorrhagehaemorrhagehemorrhaging
Hemorrhagic cystitis or haemorrhagic cystitis is an inflammation of the bladder defined by lower urinary tract symptoms that include dysuria, hematuria, and hemorrhage.

Nonoxynol-9

The bladder irritation was thought to be caused by the spermicidal detergent nonoxynol-9.

Immunodeficiency

immunocompromisedimmune deficiencyimmunodeficient
In immunocompromised patients, pus is present in the urine but often no organism can be cultured.

Polymerase chain reaction

PCRPCR amplificationpolymerase chain reaction (PCR)
In children, polymerase chain reaction sequencing of urine can detect fragments of the infectious agent.

Kidney failure

renal failurekidney problemsrenal impairment
Although rare, once a case of radiation-induced hemorrhagic cystitis is diagnosed there is no empirically-proven treatments to heal this type of condition, which can severely degrade a patient's quality of life and might possibly lead to renal failure with risk of death.

Hexamethylenetetramine

hexamineMethenaminehexamethylene tetramine
Its use had temporarily been reduced in the late 1990s, due to adverse effects, particularly chemically-induced hemorrhagic cystitis in overdose, but its use has now been re-approved because of the prevalence of antibiotic resistance to more commonly used drugs.

Diuresis

osmotic diuresisforced diuresisimmersion diuresis
Forced diuresis (increased urine formation by diuretics and fluid) may enhance the excretion of certain drugs in urine and is used to treat drug overdose or poisoning of these drugs and hemorrhagic cystitis.

CHOP

R-CHOPCHOP-RCHOEP
Chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting may require antiemetics (such as ondansetron), and hemorrhagic cystitis is prevented with administration of mesna.

Decoy cells

Polyomaviruses may cause progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (JC virus) and polyomavirus-associated nephropathy, ureteral stenosis and hemorrhagic cystitis (BK virus).

4-Chloro-o-toluidine

4-Chloro-''o''-toluidineChlorotoluidinep-Chloro-o-toluidine
Haemorrhagic cystitis is the main symptom of acute toxicity, with methaemoglobinaemia was observed in 50% of poisoning cases.

Urinary tract infection

cystitisurinary tract infectionsbladder infection
Hemorrhagic cystitis, characterized by blood in the urine, can occur secondary to a number of causes including: infections, radiation therapy, underlying cancer, medications and toxins.

Potassium alum

Aluminium potassium sulfatepotash alumalum
Potassium alum was also used topically to remove pimples and acne, and to cauterize aphthous ulcers in the mouth and canker sores, as it has a significant drying effect to the area and reduces the irritation felt at the site.. It has been used to stop bleeding in cases of hemorrhagic cystitis.

Granulomatosis with polyangiitis

Wegener's granulomatosiscoin lesion, pulmonary
Oral cyclophosphamide at a dose of 2 mg/kg/day was the standard treatment for many years; this regimen resulted in complete remission in more than 75% of people with GPA but is associated with significant toxicities including infertility, inflammation and bleeding from the bladder, and bladder cancer.