Hemothorax

haemothoraxbleeding into the pleural spacebloodblood around the lungsCatamenial hemothoraxClotted hemothoraxhemohemothoracesTraumatic hemothorax
A hemothorax (derived from hemo- [blood] + thorax [chest], plural hemothoraces) is an accumulation of blood within the pleural cavity.wikipedia
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Endometriosis

Endomentriosisendometriosis,endometriotic
Hemothoraces are usually caused by an injury but may occur spontaneously: due to cancer invading the pleural cavity, as a result of a blood clotting disorder, as an unusual manifestation of endometriosis, in response to a collapsed lung, or rarely in association with other conditions.
Manifestations of this include coughing up blood, a collapsed lung, or bleeding into the pleural space.

Fibrothorax

formation of scar tissue.
Complications of a hemothorax include infection within the pleural cavity and the formation of scar tissue.
Fibrothorax may occur as a complication of many diseases, including infection of the pleural space known as an empyema or bleeding into the pleural space known as a haemothorax.

Thoracentesis

thoracocentesisneedle thoracostomyanalysing a sample of the fluid
They can be differentiated from other forms of fluid within the pleural cavity by analysing a sample of the fluid, and are defined as having a hematocrit of greater than 50% that of the person's blood.
When cardiopulmonary status is compromised (i.e. when the fluid or air has its repercussions on the function of heart and lungs), due to air (significant pneumothorax), fluid (pleural fluid) or blood (hemothorax) outside the lung, then this procedure is usually replaced with tube thoracostomy, the placement of a large tube in the pleural space.

Hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia

Hereditary haemorrhagic telangiectasiaOsler–Weber–Rendu diseaseOsler–Weber–Rendu syndrome
Spontaneous tearing of blood vessels is more likely to occur in those with disorders that weaken blood vessels such as some forms of Ehlers-Danlos syndrome, or in those with malformed blood vessels as is seen in Rendu-Osler-Weber syndrome.
Bleeding from lung AVMs is relatively unusual, but may cause hemoptysis (coughing up blood) or hemothorax (blood accumulating in the chest cavity).

Pleural effusion

pleuraleffusionpleural effusions
Following the initial loss of blood, a small hemothorax may irritate the pleura, causing additional fluid to seep out, leading to a bloodstained pleural effusion.
Various kinds of pleural effusion, depending on the nature of the fluid and what caused its entry into the pleural space, are hydrothorax (serous fluid), hemothorax (blood), urinothorax (urine), chylothorax (chyle), or pyothorax (pus) commonly known as pleural empyema.

Thoracic endometriosis

thoracic endometriosis syndrome
Endometrial tissue that implants on the pleural surface can bleed in response to the hormonal changes of the menstrual cycle, causing what is known as a catamenial hemothorax as part of the thoracic endometriosis syndrome.

Thoracotomy

mini-thoracotomyanterolateral thoracotomyclamshell thoracotomy
While small haemothoraces may require little in the way of treatment, larger hemothoraces may require fluid resuscitation to replace the blood that has been lost, drainage of the blood within the pleural space using a procedure known as a tube thoracostomy, and potentially surgery in the form of a thoracotomy or video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS) to prevent further bleeding.
One or more chest tubes—with one end inside the opened pleural cavity and the other submerged under saline solution inside a sealed container, forming an airtight drainage system—are necessary to remove air and fluid from the pleural cavity, preventing the development of pneumothorax or hemothorax.

Pneumothorax

collapsed lungtension pneumothoraxpunctured lung
Hemothoraces are usually caused by an injury but may occur spontaneously: due to cancer invading the pleural cavity, as a result of a blood clotting disorder, as an unusual manifestation of endometriosis, in response to a collapsed lung, or rarely in association with other conditions.
Other conditions that can result in similar symptoms include a hemothorax (buildup of blood in the pleural space), pulmonary embolism, and heart attack.

Pulmonary contusion

lung contusionblast lungbruised lungs
A collapsed lung can result when the pleural cavity (the space outside the lung) accumulates blood (hemothorax) or air (pneumothorax) or both (hemopneumothorax).

Chest tube

chest draintube thoracostomyintercostal drain
Hemothoraces may be treated by draining the blood using a chest tube, but may require surgery if the bleeding continues.
It is used to remove air (pneumothorax), fluid (pleural effusion, blood, chyle), or pus (empyema) from the intrathoracic space.

Thrombolysis

thrombolyticthrombolytic therapythrombolytic drug
Additional treatment options include antibiotics to reduce the risk of infection and fibrinolytic therapy to break down clotted blood within the pleural space.

Hemopneumothorax

Haemopneumothorax
Hemopneumothorax, or haemopneumothorax is the condition of having air in the chest cavity (pneumothorax) and blood in the chest cavity (hemothorax).

Haemo

hemo-
A hemothorax (derived from hemo- [blood] + thorax [chest], plural hemothoraces) is an accumulation of blood within the pleural cavity.

Thorax

chestthoracicthoraces
A hemothorax (derived from hemo- [blood] + thorax [chest], plural hemothoraces) is an accumulation of blood within the pleural cavity.

Pleural cavity

pleuralpleural spacepleura
A hemothorax (derived from hemo- [blood] + thorax [chest], plural hemothoraces) is an accumulation of blood within the pleural cavity.

Tachycardia

fast heart rateincreased heart raterapid heart rate
The symptoms of a hemothorax include chest pain and difficulty breathing, while the clinical signs include reduced breath sounds on the affected side and a rapid heart rate.

Cancer

cancersmalignanciescancerous
Hemothoraces are usually caused by an injury but may occur spontaneously: due to cancer invading the pleural cavity, as a result of a blood clotting disorder, as an unusual manifestation of endometriosis, in response to a collapsed lung, or rarely in association with other conditions.

Coagulopathy

bleeding disordersbleeding disordercoagulopathies
Hemothoraces are usually caused by an injury but may occur spontaneously: due to cancer invading the pleural cavity, as a result of a blood clotting disorder, as an unusual manifestation of endometriosis, in response to a collapsed lung, or rarely in association with other conditions.

Chest radiograph

chest X-raychest X-rayschest radiography
Hemothoraces are usually diagnosed using a chest X-ray, but can be identified using other forms of imaging including ultrasound, a CT scan, or an MRI scan.

CT scan

computed tomographyCTCT scans
Hemothoraces are usually diagnosed using a chest X-ray, but can be identified using other forms of imaging including ultrasound, a CT scan, or an MRI scan.

Hematocrit

haematocrithemoconcentrationpacked cell volume
They can be differentiated from other forms of fluid within the pleural cavity by analysing a sample of the fluid, and are defined as having a hematocrit of greater than 50% that of the person's blood.

Pleural empyema

empyemaPyothoraxempyema, pleural
Complications of a hemothorax include infection within the pleural cavity and the formation of scar tissue.

Shortness of breath

dyspnearespiratory distressdyspnoea
A small hemothorax usually causes little in the way of symptoms, while larger hemothoraces commonly cause breathlessness and chest pain, and occasionally lightheadedness.

Lightheadedness

presyncopelight-headednesslight-headed
A small hemothorax usually causes little in the way of symptoms, while larger hemothoraces commonly cause breathlessness and chest pain, and occasionally lightheadedness.

Percussion (medicine)

percussionpercussedpercussing
When the affected side is tapped or percussed, a dull sound may be heard in contrast to the usual resonant note.