Henri Christophe

Portrait by Richard Evans, c. undefined 1816
Equestrian statue of Henri Christophe in the Haitian capital Port-au-Prince
Haitian livre coin with portrait of Henry I in style of Roman solidus, minted c. undefined 1820.
In this portrait executed by Johann Gottfried Eiffe, a German artist in the Royal Court, Henry wears the grand cross of the Royal and Military Order of St. Henry (Ordre Royal et Militaire de Saint Henry)
The pistol used in Henri Christophe's suicide
Pierre Nord Alexis, 17th President of Haiti
Michèle Bennett.

Key leader in the Haitian Revolution and the only monarch of the Kingdom of Haiti.

- Henri Christophe

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Cap-Haïtien

Commune of about 190,000 people on the north coast of Haiti and capital of the department of Nord.

The well-preserved Cathedral Notre-Dame of Cap‑Haïtien.
A street scene in Cap‑Haïtien
French colonial architecture in Cap
Labadie beach and village
Water taxis parked at Labadie beach
A view of the beach at Paradis
View of the Citadelle Laferrière, in northern Haiti
Inside the ruins of Sans Souci Palace
Engraving of Cap-Français in 1728
The French army led by Le Clerc lands in Cap Français (1802)
American Marines in 1915 defending the entrance gate in Cap-Haïten
Marine's base at Cap-Haïtien
Front view of Sans-Souci Palace
Hotel de Ville (City Hall), site of the City Council, Cap-Haïtien.
A cruise ship at Labadie.

Previously named Cap‑Français (Kap-Fransè; initially Cap-François Kap-Franswa) and Cap‑Henri (Kap-Enri) during the rule of Henri I, it was historically nicknamed the Paris of the Antilles, because of its wealth and sophistication, expressed through its architecture and artistic life.

Alexandre Pétion

The first president of the Republic of Haiti from 1807 until his death in 1818.

Lithograph portrait of Alexandre Pétion
Alexandre Pétion

He is acknowledged as one of Haiti's founding fathers; a member of the revolutionary quartet that also includes Toussaint Louverture, Jean-Jacques Dessalines, and his later rival Henri Christophe.

Corvée

Form of unpaid, forced labour, which is intermittent in nature and which lasts limited periods of time: typically only a certain number of days' work each year.

French corvée
Egyptian peasants seized for non-payment of taxes during the Pyramid Age.
Paul I's edict, the manifesto of three-day corvee
C. 1000 BC clay bowl, one day corvée ration(?) Marlik, Iran
Amarna letter 365, Nuribta

However, the application of the term is not limited to that time or place; corvée has existed in modern and ancient Egypt, ancient Sumer, ancient Rome, China, Japan, everywhere in continental Europe, the Incan civilization, Haiti under Henry I and under American occupation (1915–1934), and Portugal's African colonies until the mid-1960s.

Jean-Jacques Dessalines

Leader of the Haitian Revolution and the first ruler of an independent Haiti under the 1805 constitution.

Imagined depiction of Dessalines in a mural painting in Port-au-Prince
An 1806 engraving of Jean-Jacques Dessalines holding a severed French head.
Dessalines depicted on a 1916 Banque Nationale de la Republique 1 gourde note (1916)

Disaffected members of Dessalines's administration, including Alexandre Pétion and Henri Christophe, began a conspiracy to overthrow the Emperor.

Kingdom of Haiti

The Kingdom of Haiti in the northwest of Hispaniola
King Henri I of the Kingdom of Haiti
The Kingdom of Haiti in the northwest of Hispaniola
San-Souci Palace.
Sans-Souci Chapel
Citadelle Laferrière.

The Kingdom of Haiti (Royaume d'Haïti, Wayòm an Ayiti) was the state established by Henri Christophe on 28 March 1811 when he proclaimed himself King Henri I after having previously ruled as president of the State of Haiti, in the northern part of the country.

Toussaint Louverture

Haitian general and the most prominent leader of the Haitian Revolution.

Posthumous 1813 painting of Louverture
Louverture, as depicted in an 1802 French engraving
Louverture surveying his troops
British officer Thomas Maitland meeting with Louverture to negotiate
Louverture accused André Rigaud (pictured) of trying to assassinate him.
An engraving of Louverture
Napoleon dispatched General Charles Emmanuel Leclerc (pictured) to seize control of the island.
After his 1802 arrest, Louverture was imprisoned at Fort-de-Joux in France, where he died in 1803.
19th-century depiction of Louverture
In Louverture's absence, Jean-Jacques Dessalines led Haiti to victory over the French in 1803.
An 1870 statue by Anne Whitney
Poster for Federal Theater Project presentation in Boston Haiti. A Drama of the Black Napoleon (1938) by William DuBois

By now his officers included men who were to remain important throughout the revolution: his brother Paul, his nephew Moïse, Jean-Jacques Dessalines, and Henri Christophe.

Jean-Pierre Boyer

One of the leaders of the Haitian Revolution, and President of Haiti from 1818 to 1843.

Alexandre Pétion and Henri Christophe competed to rule Haiti, and represented the split between the urban mulatto elite of the South and the black former slaves of the North, respectively.

Sans-Souci Palace

Aerial view of the palace ruins
Sans-Souci Palace, National History Park, Haiti.
Sans-Souci Palace in 1836.
Sans Souci. Castle of King Christopher of Haiti, lithograph by Gottfried Küstner (1800–1864) from a work by Carl Ritter, published in 1836.
Sans-Souci Palace in 1907.

The Palace of Sans-Souci, or Sans-Souci Palace (Palais Sans Souci ), was the principal royal residence of Henry I, King of Haiti, better known as Henri Christophe.

State of Haiti

The name of the state in northern Haiti.

The State of Haiti in the north of Hispaniola
The State of Haiti in the north of Hispaniola

The northern State of Haiti was ruled by Henri Christophe originally as Provisional Chief of the Haitian Government from 17 October 1806 until 17 February 1807 when he became President of the State of Haiti.

Citadelle Laferrière

Large early 19th-century fortress situated on the Bonnet à l'Evêque mountaintop in Nord, Haiti.

The Citadelle Laferrière
Walls of the citadel.
View from the walls.
Cannonball stockpiles, viewed from the roof
Citadelle Laferrière aerial view from a US Army UH-60 Black Hawk during Operation Unified Response, after the 2010 Haiti Earthquake
Aerial view of a nearby gun emplacement

Commissioned by Haitian revolutionary Henri Christophe, and built by tens of thousands of former slaves, the Citadelle was the linchpin of the newly independent Haiti's defensive strategy against potential French incursion.