An animation showing when United States territories and states forbade or allowed slavery, 1789–1861
Clay photographed in 1848
Slave auction block, Green Hill Plantation, Campbell County, Virginia, Historic American Buildings Survey
Henry Clay and Lucretia
Slaves processing tobacco in 17th-century Virginia
View of Henry Clay's law office (1803–1810), Lexington, Kentucky
Slaves on a South Carolina plantation (The Old Plantation, c. 1790)
Portrait by Matthew Harris Jouett, 1818
Ledger of sale of 118 slaves, Charleston, South Carolina, c. 1754
Clay helped Adams win the 1825 contingent House election after Clay failed to finish among the three electoral vote-winners. States in orange voted for Crawford, states in green for Adams, and states in blue for Jackson.
Prince Estabrook memorial in front of Buckman Tavern on Lexington Green in Lexington, Massachusetts. Prince Estabrook, who was wounded in the Battle of Lexington and Concord, was the first black casualty of the Revolutionary War.
Portrait of Henry Clay
Continental soldiers at Yorktown. On the left, an African American soldier of the 1st Rhode Island Regiment.
Clay supported construction of the National Road, which extended west from Cumberland, Maryland.
This postage stamp, which was created at the time of the Bicentennial, honors Salem Poor, who was an enslaved African-American man who purchased his freedom, became a soldier, and rose to fame as a war hero during the Battle of Bunker Hill.
Henry Clay, circa 1832
Advertisement in The Pennsylvania Gazette, May 24, 1796, seeking the return of Oney Judge, a fugitive slave who had escaped from the household of George Washington.
Andrew Jackson defeated Clay in the 1832 election
Confederate $100 bill, 1862–63, showing happy slaves farming. John C. Calhoun is at left, Columbia at right.
Clay (brown) won the backing of several state delegations on the first ballot of the 1839 Whig National Convention, but William Henry Harrison ultimately won the party's presidential nomination.
This portrait of Judge Samuel Sewall by John Smibert is in the Museum of Fine Arts, Boston Massachusetts.
James K. Polk defeated Clay in the 1844 election.
Establishing the Northwest Territory as free soil – no slavery – by Manasseh Cutler and Rufus Putnam proved to be crucial to the outcome of the Civil War.
Clay (brown) won the backing of numerous delegates on the first ballot of the 1848 Whig National Convention, but Zachary Taylor ultimately won the party's presidential nomination.
Statue of abolitionist and crusading minister Theodore Parker in front of the Theodore Parker Church in West Roxbury, Massachusetts.
Henry Clay Jr., who died serving in the Mexican–American War
Statue of prominent abolitionist Frederick Douglass in the Highland Park Bowl in Rochester, New York. Douglass was a great admirer of Theodore Parker.
Henry Clay monument and mausoleum, Lexington Cemetery
Benjamin Kent, Old Burying Ground, Halifax, Nova Scotia
Clay's estate, Ashland, in Lexington, Kentucky
Simon Legree and Uncle Tom: a scene from Uncle Tom's Cabin (1852), an influential abolitionist novel
Henry Clay (1777–1852), one of three founders of the American Colonization Society, which assisted free blacks in moving to Africa. Liberia was a result.
Movement of slaves between 1790 and 1860
Slaves Waiting for Sale: Richmond, Virginia. Painting by Eyre Crowe
Ashley's Sack is a cloth that recounts a slave sale separating a mother and her daughter. The sack belonged to a nine-year-old girl Ashley and was a parting gift from her mother, Rose, after Ashley had been sold. Rose filled the sack with a dress, braid of her hair, pecans, and "my love always"
Slave trader's business in Atlanta, Georgia, 1864
Peter or Gordon, a whipped slave, photo taken at Baton Rouge, Louisiana, 1863; the guilty overseer was fired.
Wilson Chinn, a branded slave from Louisiana--Also exhibiting instruments of torture used to punish slaves
Slave sale, Charleston, 1856
U.S. brig Perry confronting the slave ship Martha off Ambriz on June 6, 1850
Eastman Johnson's 1863 painting "The Lord is My Shepherd"
Illustration from History of American conspiracies – a record of treason, insurrection, rebellion and c., in the United States of America, from 1760 to 1860 (1863)
James Hopkinson's Plantation. Planting sweet potatoes. ca. 1862/63
Slaves for sale, a scene in New Orleans, 1861
Mixed-race slave girls of predominant European ancestry, New Orleans, 1863 (see also white slave propaganda).
A slave auction, 1853
Five-dollar banknote showing a plantation scene with enslaved people in South Carolina. Issued by the Planters Bank, Winnsboro, 1853. On display at the British Museum in London.
Eastman Johnson (American, 1824–1906). A Ride for Liberty – The Fugitive Slaves (recto), ca. 1862. Oil on paperboard. Brooklyn Museum
Uncle Marian, a slave of great notoriety, of North Carolina. Daguerreotype of elderly North Carolina slave, circa 1850.
Slaves on J. J. Smith's cotton plantation near Beaufort, South Carolina, photographed by Timothy O'Sullivan standing before their quarters in 1862
Escaped slaves, ca. 1862, at the headquarters of General Lafayette
Four generations of a slave family, Smith's Plantation, Beaufort, South Carolina, 1862
Abraham Lincoln presents the first draft of the Emancipation Proclamation to his cabinet. Painted by Francis Bicknell Carpenter in 1864
An industrial school set up for ex-slaves in Richmond during Reconstruction
Many Native Americans were enslaved during the California Genocide by American settlers.
Percentage of slaves in each county of the slave states in 1860
Evolution of the enslaved population of the United States as a percentage of the population of each state, 1790–1860
Abolition of slavery in the various states of the United States over time:Abolition of slavery during or shortly after the American Revolution
The Northwest Ordinance, 1787
Gradual emancipation in New York (starting 1799) and New Jersey (starting 1804)
The Missouri Compromise, 1821
Effective abolition of slavery by Mexican or joint US/British authority
Abolition of slavery by Congressional action, 1861
Abolition of slavery by Congressional action, 1862
Emancipation Proclamation as originally issued, 1 Jan 1863
Subsequent operation of the Emancipation Proclamation in 1863
Abolition of slavery by state action during the Civil War
Operation of the Emancipation Proclamation in 1864
Operation of the Emancipation Proclamation in 1865
Thirteenth Amendment to the U.S. constitution, 18 Dec 1865
Territory incorporated into the U.S. after the passage of the Thirteenth Amendment

In 1820, he helped bring an end to a sectional crisis over slavery by leading the passage of the Missouri Compromise.

- Henry Clay

Henry Clay, one of the founders and a prominent slaveholder politician from Kentucky, said that blacks faced

- Slavery in the United States
An animation showing when United States territories and states forbade or allowed slavery, 1789–1861

13 related topics with Alpha

Overall

Portrait by Ralph Eleaser Whiteside Earl, c. undefined 1835

Andrew Jackson

6 links

American lawyer, general, and statesman who served as the seventh president of the United States from 1829 to 1837.

American lawyer, general, and statesman who served as the seventh president of the United States from 1829 to 1837.

Portrait by Ralph Eleaser Whiteside Earl, c. undefined 1835
Young Jackson Refusing to Clean Major Coffin's Boots (1876 lithograph)
Notice of reward offered by Jackson for return of an enslaved man
General Andrew Jackson as pictured in Harper's Magazine, Vol 28, "War with the Creek Indians", page 605, 1864
In the Treaty of Fort Jackson, the Muscogee surrendered large parts of present-day Alabama and Georgia.
General Andrew Jackson by John Wesley Jarvis, c. undefined 1819
The Battle of New Orleans. General Andrew Jackson stands on the parapet of his defenses as his troops repulse attacking Highlanders, by painter Edward Percy Moran in 1910.
Jackson at the Battle of New Orleans, painted by Thomas Sully in 1845 from an earlier portrait he had completed from life in 1824
Trial of Robert Ambrister during the Seminole War. Ambrister was one of two British subjects executed by General Jackson. (1848)
Teracotta bust of General Jackson by William Rush, 1819
Jackson in 1824, painted by Thomas Sully
1828 election results
President Andrew Jackson
New York: Ritchie & Co. (1860)
Jackson's Indian Removal Act and subsequent treaties resulted in the forced removal of the major tribes of the Southeast from their traditional territories, many along the Trail of Tears.
Portrait of Jackson by Earl, 1830
William C. Rives, Jackson's Minister to France, successfully negotiated a reparations treaty with France in 1831.
1832 election results
1833 Democratic cartoon shows Jackson destroying the "Devil's Bank"
Richard Lawrence's attempt on Jackson's life, as depicted in an 1835 etching
USS Porpoise (1836), a brig ship laid down in 1835 and launched in May 1836; used in the U.S. Exploring Expedition
A New York newspaper blamed the Panic of 1837 on Andrew Jackson, depicted in spectacles and top hat.
Mezzotint after a Daguerreotype of Jackson by Mathew Brady, April 15, 1845
Tennessee Gentleman, portrait of Jackson, c. 1831, from the collection of The Hermitage
Andrew Jackson as Grand Master of Tennessee, 1822
Equestrian statue of Jackson, Jackson County Courthouse, Kansas City, Missouri, commissioned by Judge Harry S. Truman
Jackson portrait on obverse $20 bill
2-cent red stamp
2-cent green stamp
The tomb of Andrew and Rachel Jackson located at The Hermitage

In reaction to the alleged "corrupt bargain" between Adams and Henry Clay and the ambitious agenda of President Adams, Jackson's supporters founded the Democratic Party.

Though fearful of its effects on the slavery debate, Jackson advocated the annexation of Texas, which was accomplished shortly before his death.

Portrait by John Vanderlyn, 1816

James Madison

6 links

American statesman, diplomat, and Founding Father who served as the fourth president of the United States from 1809 to 1817.

American statesman, diplomat, and Founding Father who served as the fourth president of the United States from 1809 to 1817.

Portrait by John Vanderlyn, 1816
Madison's Birthplace
Madison at Princeton, portrait by James Sharples
Congressional delegate Madison, age 32 by Charles Willson Peale
page one of the original copy
of the U.S. Constitution
Gouverneur Morris signs the Constitution before George Washington. Madison sits next to Robert Morris, in front of Benjamin Franklin. Painting by John Henry Hintermeister, 1925.
Thomas Jefferson founded the Democratic-Republican Party with Madison.
Montpelier, Madison's tobacco plantation in Virginia
The 1803 Louisiana Purchase totaled 827,987 sqmi, doubling the size of the United States.
James Madison by Gilbert Stuart,
1808 electoral vote results
James Madison engraving by David Edwin from between 1809 and 1817
USS Constitution defeats HMS Guerriere, a significant event during the war. U.S. nautical victories boosted American morale.
The British set ablaze the U.S. Capital on August 24, 1814.
Battle of New Orleans. 1815
Battle of Tippecanoe November 7, 1811
Portrait of James Madison c. 1821, by Gilbert Stuart
Madison's gravestone at Montpelier
Portrait of Madison, age 82, c. 1833
A life-sized statue of Madison at James Madison University.
Due to his support for religious liberty, James Madison (upper left) is honored alongside early U.S. Baptist figures in a stained glass window in National Baptist Memorial Church, Washington, D.C.

With an estimated 100 slaves and a 5000 acre plantation, Madison's father was the largest landowner and a leading citizen in Piedmont.

Many Americans called for a "second war of independence" to restore honor and stature to their new nation, and an angry public elected a "war hawk" Congress, led by Henry Clay and John C. Calhoun.

Portrait by Alexander Gardner, November 1863

Abraham Lincoln

5 links

American lawyer and statesman who served as the 16th president of the United States from 1861 until his assassination in 1865.

American lawyer and statesman who served as the 16th president of the United States from 1861 until his assassination in 1865.

Portrait by Alexander Gardner, November 1863
The farm site where Lincoln grew up in Spencer County, Indiana
Lincoln's home in Springfield, Illinois
Lincoln in his late 30s as a member of the U.S. House of Representatives. Photo taken by one of Lincoln's law students around 1846.
Lincoln in 1857
Lincoln in 1858, the year of his debates with Stephen Douglas over slavery
A portrait of Dred Scott, petitioner in Dred Scott v. Sandford
Abraham Lincoln (1860) by Mathew Brady, taken the day of the Cooper Union speech
A Timothy Cole wood engraving taken from a May 20, 1860, ambrotype of Lincoln, two days following his nomination for president
Headlines on the day of Lincoln's inauguration portended hostilities with the Confederacy, Fort Sumter being attacked less than six weeks later.
March 1861 inaugural at the Capitol building. The dome above the rotunda was still under construction.
Lincoln with officers after the Battle of Antietam. Notable figures (from left) are 1. Col. Delos Sackett; 4. Gen. George W. Morell; 5. Alexander S. Webb, Chief of Staff, V Corps; 6. McClellan;. 8. Dr. Jonathan Letterman; 10. Lincoln; 11. Henry J. Hunt; 12. Fitz John Porter; 15. Andrew A. Humphreys; 16. Capt. George Armstrong Custer.
Running the Machine: An 1864 political cartoon satirizing Lincoln's administration – featuring William Fessenden, Edwin Stanton, William Seward, Gideon Welles, Lincoln, and others
Lincoln and McClellan
Lincoln, absent his usual top hat, is highlighted at Gettysburg.
An electoral landslide for Lincoln (in red) in the 1864 election; southern states (brown) and territories (gray) not in play
A poster of the 1864 election campaign with Lincoln as the candidate for president and Andrew Johnson as the candidate for vice president
Lincoln's second inaugural address in 1865 at the almost completed Capitol building
A political cartoon of Vice President Andrew Johnson (a former tailor) and Lincoln, 1865, entitled The 'Rail Splitter' At Work Repairing the Union. The caption reads (Johnson): "Take it quietly Uncle Abe and I will draw it closer than ever." (Lincoln): "A few more stitches Andy and the good old Union will be mended."
Shown in the presidential booth of Ford's Theatre, from left to right, are assassin John Wilkes Booth, Abraham Lincoln, Mary Todd Lincoln, Clara Harris, and Henry Rathbone.
Funeral of Lincoln
Abraham Lincoln, painting by George Peter Alexander Healy in 1869
Lincoln in February 1865, two months before his death
Lincoln Memorial in Washington, D.C.
The Lincoln cent, an American coin portraying Lincoln
Lincoln's image carved into the stone of Mount Rushmore|alt=See caption
Abraham Lincoln, a 1909 bronze statue by Adolph Weinman, sits before a historic church in Hodgenville, Kentucky.|alt=See caption
The Lincoln memorial postage stamp of 1866 was issued by the U.S. Post Office exactly one year after Lincoln's death.
Painting of Abraham Lincoln for the U.S. Capitol, by Ned Bittinger

Lincoln led the nation through the American Civil War and succeeded in preserving the Union, abolishing slavery, bolstering the federal government, and modernizing the U.S. economy.

He echoed Henry Clay's support for the American Colonization Society which advocated a program of abolition in conjunction with settling freed slaves in Liberia.

Portrait by George Peter Alexander Healy c. undefined 1845

John C. Calhoun

4 links

Portrait by George Peter Alexander Healy c. undefined 1845
Calhoun's wife, Floride Calhoun
Charles Bird King's 1822 portrait of Calhoun at the age of 40
State historic marker at Fort Hill, Calhoun's home from 1825 until his death in 1850
A portrait of Calhoun from 1834 by Rembrandt Peale
Calhoun, during his tenure as Secretary of State (April 1844 – March 1845)
Daguerreotype of Calhoun, c. 1843
Calhoun photographed by Mathew Brady in 1849, shortly before his death
Calhoun's grave at St. Philip's Church yard in Charleston
George Peter Alexander Healy's 1851 painting of Calhoun on exhibit at City Hall in Charleston, South Carolina
Calhoun's home, Fort Hill, on the grounds that became part of Clemson University, in Clemson, South Carolina
Undated photograph of Calhoun
John C. Calhoun postage stamp, CSA issue of 1862, unused
Confederate First issue banknote depicting both Calhoun and Andrew Jackson (Act of March 9, 1861)
John C. Calhoun statue in National Statuary Hall Collection at the U.S. Capitol

John Caldwell Calhoun (March 18, 1782 – March 31, 1850) was an American statesman and political theorist from South Carolina who held many important positions including being the seventh vice president of the United States from 1825 to 1832, while adamantly defending slavery and protecting the interests of the white South.

He was one of the "Great Triumvirate" or the "Immortal Trio" of Congressional leaders, along with his colleagues Daniel Webster and Henry Clay.

Adams c. 1843–48, photographed by
Mathew Brady

John Quincy Adams

4 links

American statesman, diplomat, lawyer, and diarist who served as the sixth president of the United States, from 1825 to 1829.

American statesman, diplomat, lawyer, and diarist who served as the sixth president of the United States, from 1825 to 1829.

Adams c. 1843–48, photographed by
Mathew Brady
Adams's birthplace in Quincy, Massachusetts
1815 US passport issued by John Quincy Adams at London.
Adams portrait – Gilbert Stuart, 1818
Painting of John Quincy Adams by Thomas Sully, 1824
In the Adams–Onís Treaty, the United States acquired Florida and set the western border of the 1803 Louisiana Purchase.
1824 presidential election results
General Andrew Jackson, Adams's opponent in the 1824 and 1828 United States presidential elections
Painting of Quincy Adams by Charles Osgood, 1828
Quincy Adams appointed Henry Clay as Secretary of State
1828 presidential election results
Daguerreotype of Quincy Adams by Philip Haas, 1843
Portrait of Quincy Adams by William Hudson, 1844
John Quincy Adams, c. 1840s, Unknown author
BEP engraved portrait of Adams as president
Adams's portrait at the U.S. National Portrait Gallery by George Bingham c. 1850 copy of an 1844 original
Adams's cenotaph at the Congressional Cemetery
John Quincy Adams's original tomb at Hancock Cemetery, across the street from United First Parish Church
Presidential Dollar of John Quincy Adams
Official portrait of Adams by George Peter Alexander Healy, c. 1858
Peacefield - John Quincy Adam's Home
Tombs of Presidents John Adams (far left) and John Quincy Adams (right) and their wives Abigail and Louisa, in a family crypt beneath the United First Parish Church.

Adams, Andrew Jackson, William H. Crawford, and Henry Clay — all members of the Democratic-Republican Party — competed in the 1824 presidential election.

During his time in Congress, Adams became increasingly critical of slavery and of the Southern leaders who he believed controlled the Democratic Party.

Collection box for the Massachusetts Anti-Slavery Society, circa 1850.

Abolitionism in the United States

4 links

Collection box for the Massachusetts Anti-Slavery Society, circa 1850.
Thones Kunders's house at 5109 Germantown Avenue, where the 1688 Germantown Quaker Petition Against Slavery was written.
Samuel Sewall (1652–1730), judge who wrote The Selling of Joseph (1700) which denounced the spread of slavery in the American colonies.
Benjamin Kent, lawyer that freed a slave in America (1766)
Thomas Paine's 1775 article "African Slavery in America" was one of the first to advocate abolishing slavery and freeing slaves.
An animation showing when states and territories forbade or admitted slavery 1789–1861
Wm. Lloyd Garrison (1805–1879), publisher of the abolitionist newspaper The Liberator and one of the founders of the American Anti-Slavery Society.
Wood engraving of proslavery riot in Alton, Illinois, on 7 November 1837, which resulted in the murder of abolitionist Elijah Parish Lovejoy (1802–1837).
Lysander Spooner (1808–1887), an individualist anarchist who wrote The Unconstitutionality of Slavery (1845).
Idealized portrait of John Brown being adored by an enslaved mother and child as he walks to his execution.
Frederick Douglass (1818–1895), a former slave whose memoirs, Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass, an American Slave (1845) and My Bondage and My Freedom (1855), became bestsellers, which aided the cause of abolition.
Charles Turner Torrey, c. 1840, from Memoir of Rev. Charles T. Torrey, Joseph P. Lovejoy, ed. (Boston: John P. Jewett & Co.), 1847
Uncle Tom's Cabin inflamed public opinion in the North and Europe against the personified evils of slavery.
This Democratic editorial cartoon links Republican candidate John Frémont (far right) to temperance, feminism, Fourierism, free love, Catholicism, and abolition.
John Brown (1800–1859), abolitionist who advocated armed rebellion by slaves. He slaughtered pro-slavery settlers in Kansas and in 1859 was hanged by the state of Virginia for leading an unsuccessful slave insurrection at Harpers Ferry.
This photo of Gordon was widely distributed by abolitionists.
Wilson Chinn, a branded slave from Louisiana--became one of the most widely circulated photos of the abolitionist movement during the American Civil War
John Jay (1745–1829), a founder of the New York Manumission Society in 1785
This anti-slavery map shows the slave states in black, with black-and-white shading representing the threatened spread of slavery into Texas and the western territories.
Officers and men of the Irish-Catholic 69th New York Volunteer Regiment attend Catholic services in 1861.
Like many Quakers, Lucretia Mott considered slavery an evil to be opposed.
Plaque commemorating the founding of the Female Anti-Slavery Society in Philadelphia in 1833
Burning of Pennsylvania Hall, home of the Pennsylvania Anti-Slavery Society. Print by John Caspar Wild. Note firemen spraying water on adjacent building.
Henry Clay (1777–1852), one of the three founders of the American Colonization Society.
Abolition of slavery in the various states of the US over time:Abolition of slavery during or shortly after the American Revolution
The Northwest Ordinance, 1787
Gradual emancipation in New York (starting 1799) and New Jersey (starting 1804)
The Missouri Compromise, 1821
Effective abolition of slavery by Mexican or joint US/British authority
Abolition of slavery by Congressional action, 1861
Abolition of slavery by Congressional action, 1862ff.
Emancipation Proclamation as originally issued, 1 Jan 1863
Subsequent operation of the Emancipation Proclamation in 1863
Abolition of slavery by state action during the Civil War
Operation of the Emancipation Proclamation in 1864
Operation of the Emancipation Proclamation in 1865
Thirteenth Amendment to the US constitution, 18 Dec 1865
Territory incorporated into the US after the passage of the Thirteenth Amendment

In the United States, abolitionism, the movement that sought to end slavery in the country, was active from the late colonial era until the American Civil War, the end of which brought about the abolition of American slavery through the Thirteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution (ratified 1865).

The Compromise of 1850 was proposed by "The Great Compromiser" Henry Clay; support was coordinated by Senator Stephen A. Douglas.

Clockwise from top:
Damage to the United States Capitol after the burning of Washington

Mortally wounded Isaac Brock spurs on the York Volunteers at the battle of Queenston Heights

USS Constitution vs HMS Guerriere

The death of Tecumseh in 1813

Andrew Jackson defeats the British assault on New Orleans in 1815

War of 1812

3 links

Fought by the United States of America and its indigenous allies against the United Kingdom and its allies in British North America, with limited participation by Spain in Florida.

Fought by the United States of America and its indigenous allies against the United Kingdom and its allies in British North America, with limited participation by Spain in Florida.

Clockwise from top:
Damage to the United States Capitol after the burning of Washington

Mortally wounded Isaac Brock spurs on the York Volunteers at the battle of Queenston Heights

USS Constitution vs HMS Guerriere

The death of Tecumseh in 1813

Andrew Jackson defeats the British assault on New Orleans in 1815
Upper and Lower Canada, circa 1812
Map showing the general distribution of Indian tribes in the Northwest Territory in the early 1790s
American expansion in the Indiana Territory
James Madison, the fourth President of the United States (1809–1817). Madison was the leader of the Democratic-Republican Party, whose power base came from southern and western states.
Depiction of a British private soldier (left) and officer (right) of the period
Governor General George Prévost was urged to maintain a defensive strategy as British forces were already preoccupied with the Napoleonic Wars.
Northern theatre, War of 1812
American surrender of Detroit, August 1812
Oliver Hazard Perry's message to William Henry Harrison after the Battle of Lake Erie began as such: "We have met the enemy and they are ours".
Laura Secord providing advance warning to James FitzGibbon, which led to a British-Iroquois victory at the Battle of Beaver Dams, June 1813
Fencibles, militia, and Mohawks repel an American attack on Montreal, Battle of the Chateauguay, October 1813
American infantry prepare to attack during the Battle of Lundy's Lane
Unsuccessful British assault on Fort Erie, 14 August 1814
Defeat at Plattsburgh led Prévost to call off the invasion of New York.
The Upper Mississippi River during the War of 1812:
The Royal Navy's North American squadron was based in Halifax, Nova Scotia and Bermuda. At the start of the war, the squadron had one ship of the line, seven frigates, nine sloops as well as brigs and schooners.
USS Constitution defeats in a single-ship engagement. The battle was an important victory for American morale.
Captain Broke leads the boarding party to USS Chesapeake (1799). The British capture of Chesapeake was one of the bloodiest contests in the age of sail.
The Battle of Valparaíso ended the American naval threat to British interests in the south Pacific Ocean.
The capture of USS President was the last naval duel to take place during the conflict, with its combatants unaware of the signing of the Treaty of Ghent several weeks prior.
Marines aboard USS Wasp (1814) engage, June 1814. During the war, sloops of the United States Navy scored several victories against British sloops.
Baltimore Clippers were a series of schooners used by American privateers during the war.
A map of the American coastline. British naval strategy was to protect their shipping in North America and enforce a naval blockade on the United States.
The only known photograph of a Black Refugee, c. 1890. During the war, a number of African Americans slaves escaped aboard British ships, settling in Canada (mainly in Nova Scotia) or Trinidad.
Map of the Chesapeake Campaign
Admiralty House, at Mount Wyndham, Bermuda, where the Chesapeake campaign was planned
An artist's rendering of the bombardment at Fort McHenry during the Battle of Baltimore. Watching the bombardment from a truce ship, Francis Scott Key was inspired to write the four-stanza poem that later became "The Star-Spangled Banner".
In 1813, Creek warriors attacked Fort Mims and killed 400 to 500 people. The massacre became a rallying point for Americans.
Creek forces were defeated at the Battle of Horseshoe Bend, bringing an end to the Creek War.
American forces repelled a British assault on New Orleans in January 1815. The battle occurred before news of a peace treaty reached the United States.
A political caricature of delegates from the Hartford Convention deciding whether to leap into the hands of the British, December 1814. The convention led to widespread fears that the New England states might attempt to secede from the United States.
Depiction of the signing of the Treaty of Ghent, which formally ended the war between the British Empire and the United States
United States per capita GDP 1810–1815 in constant 2009 dollars
The Royal Naval Dockyard, Bermuda
Fort Henry at Kingston in 1836. Built from 1832 to 1836, the fort was one of several works undertaken to improve the colonies' defences.
Independence Day celebrations in 1819. In the United States, the war was followed by the Era of Good Feelings, a period that saw nationalism and a desire for national unity rise throughout the country.

He notes that it was considered key to maintaining sectional balance between free and slave states thrown off by American settlement of the Louisiana Territory and widely supported by dozens of War Hawk congressmen such as Henry Clay, Felix Grundy, John Adams Harper and Richard Mentor Johnson, who voted for war with expansion as a key aim.

The British Royal Navy's blockades and raids allowed about 4,000 African Americans to escape slavery by fleeing American plantations aboard British ships.

The leading British delegate Lord Gambier is shaking hands with the American leader John Quincy Adams. The British Undersecretary of State for War and the Colonies, Henry Goulburn, is carrying a red folder.

Treaty of Ghent

3 links

The peace treaty that ended the War of 1812 between the United States and the United Kingdom.

The peace treaty that ended the War of 1812 between the United States and the United Kingdom.

The leading British delegate Lord Gambier is shaking hands with the American leader John Quincy Adams. The British Undersecretary of State for War and the Colonies, Henry Goulburn, is carrying a red folder.
Plaque at a building in Veldstraat, Ghent, where the American diplomats stayed and one of the locations where the treaty was negotiated. It was located at the retail "Esprit" store on Veldstraat 47 and placed by the United States Daughters of 1812. The room in which the treaty was signed is now part of the Hotel d'Hane-Steenhuyse.
The Peace Bridge between New York and Ontario

The Americans sent five commissioners: John Quincy Adams, Henry Clay, James A. Bayard, Sr., Jonathan Russell, and Albert Gallatin.

The British promised to return the freed slaves that they had taken.

Portrait by Mathew Brady, 1855–1860

Roger B. Taney

3 links

The fifth chief justice of the United States, holding that office from 1836 until his death in 1864.

The fifth chief justice of the United States, holding that office from 1836 until his death in 1864.

Portrait by Mathew Brady, 1855–1860
Bureau of Engraving and Printing portrait of Taney as Secretary of the Treasury
Chief Justice Roger B. Taney, photograph by Mathew Brady
Taney's grave in Frederick, Maryland
Roger B. Taney statue removed from Mount Vernon Place, Baltimore in August 2017
Roger Taney appears on a 1940 U.S. revenue stamp

He delivered the majority opinion in Dred Scott v. Sandford (1857), ruling that African Americans could not be considered U.S. citizens and that Congress could not prohibit slavery in the U.S. territories.

The Bank War became the key issue of the 1832 presidential election, which saw Jackson defeat a challenge from national bank supporter Henry Clay.

Robert Finley founded the American Colonization Society.

American Colonization Society

3 links

Founded in 1816 by Robert Finley to encourage and support the migration of free people of color to the continent of Africa.

Founded in 1816 by Robert Finley to encourage and support the migration of free people of color to the continent of Africa.

Robert Finley founded the American Colonization Society.
Drawing of Paul Cuffe (1812)
Membership certificate of Rev. Samuel Rose Ely, dated March 1840. Henry Clay's signature as president of the Society is visible at the bottom.

According to Garrison and his many followers, the Society was not a solution to the problem of American slavery—it actually was helping, and was intended to help, to preserve it.

On December 21, 1816, the society was officially established at the Davis Hotel in Washington, D.C. Among the Society's supporters were Charles Fenton Mercer (from Virginia), Henry Clay (Kentucky), John Randolph (Virginia), Richard Bland Lee (Virginia), and Bushrod Washington (Virginia).