Henry Morton Stanley

Stanley, with pith helmet, in 1872.
Portrait of a young Henry Morton Stanley c.1870s
Stanley's graffito at Persepolis, Iran
"Dr. Livingstone, I presume?", an illustration from Stanley's 1872 book How I Found Livingstone
1872 Carte de visite – Stanley and Kalulu.
Henry M Stanley with the officers of the Advance Column, Cairo, 1890. From the left: Dr. Thomas Heazle Parke, Robert H. Nelson, Henry M. Stanley, William G. Stairs, and Arthur J. M. Jephson
Henry M. Stanley in 1884
Henry Morton Stanley, 1890
Studio Portrait of Henry Morton Stanley, ca. 1890, published by L Herbst, Sydney
Henry Stanley and party standing on the back of an observation car at Monterey, California, 19 March 1891
Comparison of Africa in the years 1880 and 1913
Henry Morton Stanley's grave in Pirbright, Surrey
Memorial to H. M. Stanley in St Asaph
Henry M. Stanley in 1884

Welsh-American explorer, journalist, soldier, colonial administrator, author and politician who was famous for his exploration of Central Africa and his search for missionary and explorer David Livingstone, whom he later claimed to have greeted with the now-famous line: "Dr. Livingstone, I presume?".

- Henry Morton Stanley

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Congo Free State

Large state and absolute monarchy in Central Africa from 1885 to 1908.

Leopold II, King of the Belgians and de facto owner of the Congo Free State from 1885 to 1908
Henry Morton Stanley, whose exploration of the Congo region at Leopold's invitation led to the establishment of the Congo Free State under personal sovereignty
Cartoon depicting Leopold II and other imperial powers at Berlin conference 1884
Map of the Congo Free State in 1892
Steamboat in the Congo Free State, 1899
'La revue' of the Force Publique, Boma, capital city of the Congo Free State, 1899
The concessions and the Domaine de la Couronne. The infamous A.B.I.R. company is shown in dark red.
Cecil Rhodes attempted to expand the territory of the British South Africa Company northward into the Congo basin, presenting a problem for Leopold II.
Francis Dhanis, ca. 1900
Clearing tropical forests ate away at profit margins. However, ample plots of cleared land were already available. Above, a Congolese farming village (Baringa, Equateur) is emptied and leveled to make way for a rubber plantation.
Congolese labourers tapping rubber near Lusambo in Kasai.
A typical Force Publique regiment, circa 1900
A Congolese man, Nsala, looking at the severed hand and foot of his five-year-old daughter who was killed and allegedly cannibalized by members of the Force Publique in 1904.
Mutilated Congolese children, image from King Leopold's Soliloquy, Mark Twain's political satire, where the aging king complains that the incorruptible camera was the only witness he had encountered in his long experience that he could not bribe. The book was illustrated with photographs by John Hobbis Harris.
Cartoon by British caricaturist 'Francis Carruthers Gould' depicting King Leopold II, and the Congo Free State.
A 1906 Punch cartoon by Edward Linley Sambourne, depicting Leopold II as a snake entangling a Congolese man
Roger Casement
E.D. Morel
Proclamation from Inspector-general Ghislain to the population of the Congo, announcing the annexation of the territory by Belgium in 1908
Equestrian statue of Leopold II at the Regent place in Brussels, Belgium
The Monument to General Storms in Brussels daubed in red paint, symbol of the blood of the Congolese people.
Congolese people working at the port of Leopoldville
Construction of a railroad by Congolese workers
Melting latex of rubber in the forest of Lusambo

Henry Morton Stanley, famous for making contact with British missionary David Livingstone in Africa in 1871, later explored the region during a journey that ended in 1877 and was described in Stanley's 1878 book Through the Dark Continent.

Emin Pasha Relief Expedition

One of the last major European expeditions into the interior of Africa in the nineteenth century, ostensibly to the relief of Emin Pasha, General Charles Gordon's besieged governor of Equatoria, threatened by Mahdist forces.

Henry M Stanley with the officers of the Advance Column, Cairo, 1890. From the left : Dr. Thomas Heazle Parke, Robert H. Nelson, Henry M. Stanley, William G. Stairs, and Arthur J. M. Jephson
The steel boat Advance as depicted in In Darkest Africa by H.M. Stanley.
The expedition route between the Upper Congo river and Bagamoyo
Le Peace
Le Florida

The expedition was led by Henry Morton Stanley and came to be both celebrated for its ambition in crossing "darkest Africa", and notorious for the deaths of so many of its members and the disease unwittingly left in its wake.

New York Herald

Large-distribution newspaper based in New York City that existed between 1835 and 1924, when it was acquired by its smaller rival the New-York Tribune to form the New York Herald Tribune.

Cover of New York Herald on June 20, 1861, covering news of the American Civil War
New York Herald Building (1908) by architect Stanford White. It was demolished in 1921
François Flameng (1856-1923), A winter evening in a crowded Herald Square at the New York Herald Building, oil on board 62.4 x 52.4 cm, signed l.r. and dated 1909. Provenance: Simonis & Buunk Fine Art, The Netherlands.
The New York Herald, December 8, 1862
Minerva, the Bellringers, and Owls by Antonin Carles

In April 1867, Bennett turned over control of the paper to his son James Gordon Bennett Jr. Under James Jr., the paper financed Henry Morton Stanley's expeditions into Africa to find explorer David Livingstone, where they met on November 10, 1871.

Lake Tanganyika

African Great Lake.

Lake Tanganyika from space, June 1985
Lake Tanganyika eastern Shore in Kagongo Ward, Kigoma Region, Tanzania
Clear water lake on Lake Tanganyika in Kagongo Ward, Kigoma Region, Tanzania
A biologist collecting samples in 2020 in the murky waters of Lake Tanganyika for a study on the diet adaptations of cichlid fishes to better understand their evolution and speciation.
One of the many Tanganyika cichlids is Neolamprologus brichardi. The complex behaviors of this species and its close relative N. pulcher have been studied in detail
The Tanganyika killifish (Lamprichthys tanganicanus) is the only member of its genus
The shell of the endemic thalassoid freshwater snail Tiphobia horei with its elaborate shape and spines.
Fishing Boat in Kagongo Ward, Kigoma District
Fishermen on Lake Tanganyika
Lake Tanganyika. The black line indicates Henry Morton Stanley's route.
Water in Kagongo Ward, Kigoma District
Bathybatini (E): Bathybates ferox is benthic and piscivorous, but the genus also includes pelagic species. The tribe is sometimes split in three, others being Hemibatini and Trematocarini<ref>{{Cite journal|last=Meyer, Matchiner, and Salburger| year=2015| title=Lake Tanganyika—A 'Melting Pot' of Ancient and Young Cichlid Lineages (Teleostei: Cichlidae)?|journal=PLOS ONE| volume=10| issue=7| doi= 10.1371/journal.pone.0125043| pmid=25928886| page=e0125043| pmc=4415804| bibcode=2015PLoSO..1025043W| doi-access=free}}</ref><ref name=Weiss2015>{{Cite journal|last=Weiss, Cotterill, and Schliewen|year=2015|title=A tribal level phylogeny of Lake Tanganyika cichlid fishes based on a genomic multi-marker approach|journal=Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution|volume=83|pages=56–71|doi=10.1016/j.ympev.2014.10.009|pmid=25433288|pmc=4334724}}</ref>
Benthochromini (E): Benthochromis horii was scientifically described in 2008, but has often been misidentifed as B. tricoti<ref>{{cite journal |title= Description of a new cichlid fish species of the genus Benthochromis (Perciformes: Cichlidae) from Lake Tanganyika |last1=Takahashi |journal= Journal of Fish Biology |volume= 72|issue=3 |pages= 603–613 |year=2008 |doi= 10.1111/j.1095-8649.2007.01727.x |first1=T.}}</ref>
Boulengerochromini (E): Boulengerochromis microlepis is one of the world's largest cichlids and only member of its tribe
Cyphotilapiini (E): Cyphotilapia frontosa, one of only two similar species in the tribe<ref>{{cite journal |last1= Takahashi |first1= T. |last2= Nakaya |first2= K. |year= 2003 |title= New species of Cyphotilapia (Perciformes: Cichlidae) from Lake Tanganyika, Africa |journal= Copeia |volume= 2003 |issue= 4 |pages= 824–832 |doi= 10.1643/ia03-148.1|s2cid= 83854866 }}</ref>
Cyprichromini (E): Cyprichromis microlepidotus and other members of this tribe are open-water planktivores<ref>{{cite iucn |author=Bigirimana, C. |date=2006 |title=Cyprichromis microlepidotus |volume=2006 |page=e.T60487A12363286 |doi=10.2305/IUCN.UK.2006.RLTS.T60487A12363286.en |access-date=13 November 2021}}</ref><ref name=Smith1998>Smith, M.P. (1998). Lake Tanganyikan Cichlids, pp. 9-10. {{ISBN|0-7641-0615-5}}</ref>
Ectodini (E): Ophthalmotilapia nasuta (male) is sexually dimorphic, males being more colorful with longer fins and nose<ref>SeriouslyFish: Ophthalmotilapia nasuta. Retrieved 6 April 2017.</ref>
Eretmodini (E): Eretmodus cyanostictus lives near the bottom in the turbulent, coastal surf zone,<ref>{{FishBase | genus = Eretmodus | species = cyanostictus | month = April| year = 2017}}</ref> like other members of its tribe
Haplochromini: Astatotilapia burtoni is one of the few Tanganyika species, unlike other African Great Lakes where most belong to this tribe<ref name=Lowe2009>{{cite journal | last1 = Lowe-McConnell | first1 = R | year = 2009 | title = Fisheries and cichlid evolution in the African Great Lakes: progress and problems | journal = Freshwater Reviews | volume = 2 | issue = 2| pages = 131–151 | doi=10.1608/frj-2.2.2| s2cid = 54011001 }}</ref>
Lamprologini (E): Julidochromis marlieri is popular in the aquarium trade where members of the genus are known as "Julies"<ref>SeriouslyFish: Julidochromis marlieri. Retrieved 6 April 2017.</ref>
Limnochromini (E): Gnathochromis permaxillaris is a zooplanktivore with an unusual protractile mouth<ref>{{cite iucn |author=Bigirimana, C. |date=2006 |title=Gnathochromis permaxillaris |volume=2006 |page=e.T60493A12364587 |doi=10.2305/IUCN.UK.2006.RLTS.T60493A12364587.en |access-date=13 November 2021}}</ref>
Perissodini (E): Perissodus microlepis, a specialized scale-eating species<ref>{{cite journal | last1 = Stewart | first1 = T.A. | last2 = Albertson | first2 = R.C. | year = 2010 | title = Evolution of a unique predatory feeding apparatus: functional anatomy, development and a genetic locus for jaw laterality in Lake Tanganyika scale-eating cichlids | journal = BMC Biology | volume = 8 | issue = 1| page = 8 | doi = 10.1186/1741-7007-8-8 | pmid = 20102595 | pmc = 2828976 }}</ref>
Tilapiini: Oreochromis tanganicae is one of the most common coastal species found in local fish markets<ref>{{cite iucn |author=Ntakimazi, G. |date=2006 |title=Oreochromis tanganicae |volume=2006 |page=e.T60625A12387918 |doi=10.2305/IUCN.UK.2006.RLTS.T60625A12387918.en |access-date=13 November 2021}}</ref>
Tropheini (E): Tropheus moorii ("red" Chimba morph) is highly variable and the taxonomy of some of the morphs is questionable<ref>Begon, M.; and A.H. Fitter (1995). Advances in Ecological Research, vol. 26, p. 203. {{ISBN|0-12-013926-X}}</ref><ref>{{cite journal | last1 = Salzburger | last2 = Niederstätter | last3 = Brandstätter | last4 = Berger | last5 = Parson | last6 = Snoeks | last7 = Sturmbauer | year = 2006 | title = Colour-assortative mating among populations of Tropheus moorii, a cichlid fish from Lake Tanganyika, East Africa | journal = Proc Biol Sci | volume = 273 | issue = 1584| pages = 257–266 | doi=10.1098/rspb.2005.3321 | pmid=16543167 | pmc=1560039}}</ref><ref>Toman, R. (1995). Tropheus Evolution In Lake Tanganyika. Cichlidworld. Retrieved 7 April 2017.</ref>

"Tanganika" was the name of the lake that Henry Morton Stanley encountered when he was at Ujiji in 1876.

James Gordon Bennett Jr.

Publisher of the New York Herald, founded by his father, James Gordon Bennett Sr. (1795–1872), who emigrated from Scotland.

The Yacht Henrietta.
James Gordon Bennett Jr.
On the Yacht "Namouna", Venice, by Stewart. Bennett is center left, in the white suit. Lillie Langtry is the woman seated, right (1890)
Yachting on the Mediterranean, by Stewart (1896)
Bennett as painted by Julian Story (1904)
The 1906 Gordon Bennett Cup in Ballooning (1906)
Bennett (c. 1910–1915)

He sponsored explorers including Henry Morton Stanley's trip to Africa to find David Livingstone, and the ill-fated USS Jeannette attempt on the North Pole.

Denbigh

Market town and a community in Denbighshire, Wales.

Denbigh, c.1895
Denbigh Town Hall
Old hospital in Denbigh
1750 hunting scene by John Boydell
Denbigh c.1778 from Thomas Pennant's A Tour in Wales
Town and castle in 1786
1808 engraving by James Storer
Denbigh painted by a travelling French artist c.1830
North-east view of the hospital, 1850s
Fairytale River

Sir Henry Morton Stanley, a journalist and explorer

Leopold II of Belgium

The second King of the Belgians from 1865 to 1909 and, personally, the owner and dictatorial ruler of the Congo Free State from 1885 to 1908.

Royal portrait, c. 1900
Leopold as a younger man in the uniform of the Grenadiers (Portrait by Nicaise de Keyser)
Leopold II at his accession to the throne
The Cinquantenaire/Jubelpark memorial arcade and museums in Brussels, commissioned by Leopold II
Cartoon depicting Leopold II laying the first stone of the Basilica of the Sacred Heart in Brussels
Map of the Congo Free State, c. 1890
Cartoon depicting Leopold II and other imperial powers at the Berlin conference of 1884
A father stares at the hand and foot of his five-year-old daughter, severed as a punishment for having harvested too little rubber.
A 1906 Punch cartoon by Edward Linley Sambourne depicting Leopold II as a rubber snake entangling a Congolese rubber collector.
Leopold II's funeral procession passes the unfinished Royal Palace of Brussels, 22 December 1909
Statue in Kinshasa, which is no longer on display.
Leopold and Marie Henriette

He used Henry Morton Stanley to help him lay claim to the Congo, the present-day Democratic Republic of the Congo.

Kinshasa

Capital and the largest city of the Democratic Republic of the Congo, and largest francophone city in the world.

View of Léopoldville station and port (1884)
Kinshassa village (1912)
Down at the banks of the Congo River in Ngaliema commune
Kinshasa Districts Communes and Quarters (2021)
Kinshasa in 2016
Statue of Lumumba, and behind it the Limete Tower
Marsavco
Kinshasa in 2013
The University of Kinshasa
Office of the Agence Congolaise de Presse (ACP)
Stadium of the Martyrs
The People's Palace, seat of the Congolese parliament
Road of Kinshasa City
The Boulevard du 30 Juin provides an artery to the business district in Gombe, Kinshasa.
A memorial at Kinshasa train station remembering those who died during the construction of the railroad
Downtown Kinshasa at night
Église Sainte-Anne de Kinshasa (Catholic Church in the Democratic Republic of the Congo)
Église Francophone CBCO Kintambo (Baptist Community of Congo)

The city was established as a trading post by Henry Morton Stanley in 1881.

Boma, Democratic Republic of the Congo

Port town on the Congo River, some 100 km upstream from the Atlantic Ocean, in the Kongo Central province of the Democratic Republic of the Congo, adjacent to the border with Angola.

A stamp of the Congo Free State, used in Boma around 1900
View to the north from Boma, 1889
Boma pier, 1899
Authorities at the end of the pier, Boma, 1899
The nine old kings of Boma (phot. H. A. Shanu, 1898), Royal Museum for Central Africa
Fort de Shinkakasa &ndash; fortification on the Congo River near Boma
Church of Boma, which still exists; oldest in the country
Residence of the Governor-General in Boma
Henry Morton Stanley's map of the area during his expedition down the Congo River

British explorer Henry Morton Stanley arrived here on 9 August 1877, after crossing Africa from east to west.

Order of Leopold (Belgium)

One of the three current Belgian national honorary orders of knighthood.

Order of Leopold (Civil Grand Cordon set of insignia)
Leopold I, first King of the Belgians, Founder and First Grand Master of the Order.
Uniform of HM Albert I, Royal Collection of Belgium
Count Paul de Smet de Naeyer, Grand Cordon
King Albert II in 2005
Cartoon depicting king Leopold II of the Belgians who is throwing medals to crowd
1/ Grand Cordon Star - civil and military divisions (left), Grand Cordon sash (middle), Grand Officer plaques - civil and maritime divisions (right). Bottom part: Commander's Cross (civil division), officer's cross (military division), officer's cross (civil division), officer's cross (maritime division), knight's cross (military division) (courtesy Société de l'Ordre de Léopold)
Order of Leopold Grand Cordon in case, from the reign of Albert I.
Grand Cordon badge (obverse).
Grand Cordon set of insignia.
Grand Cordon badge (reverse).
Grand Cordon breast star.
Knights class (Chevalier).
Knights class with swords (Chevalier Militaire).
Officer class with swords (Officier Militaire).
Officer class (Officier).
Commander class with swords (Commandeur Militaire).
Grand Cordon breast star from the reign of Albert I.
Grand Cordon badge in gold, 1930.
Collar of the Order, heraldic depiction.
Grand Cordon sash and badge, with swords.
Grand Cordon breast star, with swords.

His successors continued to bestow the Order; among the thousands of recipients are some famous people like Porfirio Díaz, Pope Leo XIII, Mohamed Ennaceur, Pierre-Jean De Smet, Eugène Scribe, Alfred Belpaire, Victor Horta, Joseph Geefs, Gustave Van de Woestijne, Raymond Poincaré, Constant Permeke, Henry Morton Stanley, Lou Tseng-Tsiang, Amschel Mayer Rothschild, Emile Claus, Fernand Khnopff, Paul Saintenoy, Joseph Jongen, Eugène Ysaÿe, Alfred Bastien, William-Adolphe Bouguereau, Antonio López de Santa Anna, Thomas Vinçotte, Mgr.