Henry Oldenburg

OldenburgHenry (Heinrich) Oldenburg
Henry Oldenburg (also Henry Oldenbourg) FRS (c. 1619 as Heinrich Oldenburg – 5 September 1677) was a German theologian known as a diplomat, a natural philosopher and as the creator of scientific peer review.wikipedia
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Scholarly peer review

peer reviewpeer-reviewedrefereed
1619 as Heinrich Oldenburg – 5 September 1677) was a German theologian known as a diplomat, a natural philosopher and as the creator of scientific peer review.
The first record of an editorial pre-publication peer-review is from 1665 by Henry Oldenburg, the founding editor of Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society at the Royal Society of London.

Royal Society

FRSRoyal Society of LondonThe Royal Society
At the foundation of the Royal Society he took on the task of foreign correspondence, as the first Secretary. After the Restoration he became an early member (original fellow) of the Royal Society (founded in 1660), and served as its first secretary along with John Wilkins, maintaining an extensive network of scientific contacts through Europe.
This view was held by Jean-Baptiste du Hamel, Giovanni Domenico Cassini, Bernard le Bovier de Fontenelle and Melchisédech Thévenot at the time and has some grounding in that Henry Oldenburg, the society's first secretary, had attended the Montmor Academy meeting.

Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society

Philosophical TransactionsTransactions of the Royal SocietyPhilosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London
He also became the founding editor of the Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society.
The first issue, published in London on 6 March 1665, was edited and published by the Society's first secretary, Henry Oldenburg, four-and-a-half years after the Royal Society was founded.

Baruch Spinoza

SpinozaBenedict de SpinozaBenedict Spinoza
Among Oldenburg's correspondents at this time was Baruch Spinoza, whom he was introduced to on a trip to the Netherlands, and to whom he presented a volume of writings on scientific topics by Boyle. * Reinier de Graaf, Christiaan Huygens and his father, Constantijn Huygens, Antoni van Leeuwenhoek, Willem Ten Rhijne, Benedictus/Baruch Spinoza, Peter Serrarius, Jan Swammerdam, Isaac Vossius.
By the beginning of the 1660s, Spinoza's name became more widely known, and eventually Gottfried Leibniz and Henry Oldenburg paid him visits, as stated in Matthew Stewart's The Courtier and the Heretic.

Katherine Jones, Viscountess Ranelagh

Lady RanelaghLady Katherine RanelaghKatherine Boyle
Either through John Milton, whom he met early in his mission, or through Lady Ranelagh, sister to Boyle and the mother of Richard Jones, Oldenburg gained entry to an important intellectual circle, including Samuel Hartlib, whose extensive web of correspondents Oldenburg was to take over, John Dury who became his father-in-law, and others such as the economist William Petty.
From 1656 Henry Oldenburg was tutor to her son Richard.

Bexley

Old BexleyBexley, LondonBexley Village
He was interred on 7 September at St Mary the Virgin, Bexley.
Among others, the scientist Henry Oldenburg was buried in the churchyard in 1677.

Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz

LeibnizGottfried LeibnizGottfried Wilhelm von Leibniz
* Sir William Curtius, Johann Hevelius, Gottfried Leibniz, Philipp Jacob Sachs von Lewenheimb, Johann Daniel Major, Ehrenfried Walther von Tschirnhaus, Martin Vogel.
There Leibniz came into acquaintance of Henry Oldenburg and John Collins.

John Wilkins

WilkinsWilkinBishop Wilkins
After the Restoration he became an early member (original fellow) of the Royal Society (founded in 1660), and served as its first secretary along with John Wilkins, maintaining an extensive network of scientific contacts through Europe.
Possessing strong scientific tastes, Wilkins was a founding member of the Royal Society and was soon elected fellow and one of the Society's two secretaries: he shared the work with Henry Oldenburg, whom he had met in Oxford in 1656.

John Dury

John DurieJohn
Either through John Milton, whom he met early in his mission, or through Lady Ranelagh, sister to Boyle and the mother of Richard Jones, Oldenburg gained entry to an important intellectual circle, including Samuel Hartlib, whose extensive web of correspondents Oldenburg was to take over, John Dury who became his father-in-law, and others such as the economist William Petty. Oldenburg married his second wife, Dora Katherina Dury (1654–77), the daughter of John Dury.
Their daughter Dora Katherina Dury (1654–77) was Henry Oldenburg's second wife.

Henri Justel

Henry JustelHenricus Justellus
* Adrien Auzout, Henri Justel, Pierre Petit, Ismaël Bullialdus.
As a well-connected intellectual and savant, he corresponded with John Locke, with Robert Boyle, Edmond Halley and Henry Oldenburg of the Royal Society, and with Gottfried Leibniz and Antoine Arnauld.

Ismaël Bullialdus

Ismael BullialdusBullialdusIsmael Boulliau
* Adrien Auzout, Henri Justel, Pierre Petit, Ismaël Bullialdus. He was one of the foremost intelligencers of Europe of the seventeenth century, with a network of correspondents to rival those of Fabri de Peiresc, Marin Mersenne and Ismaël Boulliau.
The most famous of the known letters included in the original Archive Boulliau include correspondence with notable luminaries, including Galileo, Marin Mersenne, Henry Oldenburg, Christiaan Huygens, and Fermat.

Christiaan Huygens

HuygensChristian HuygensChristiaan Huyghens
* Reinier de Graaf, Christiaan Huygens and his father, Constantijn Huygens, Antoni van Leeuwenhoek, Willem Ten Rhijne, Benedictus/Baruch Spinoza, Peter Serrarius, Jan Swammerdam, Isaac Vossius.
Streete then debated the published record of the transit of Hevelius, a controversy mediated by Henry Oldenburg.

Marcello Malpighi

MalpighiMalpighi, MarcelloMarcello Malphigi
* Paolo Boccone, Giovanni Domenico Cassini, Marcello Malpighi.
He was invited to correspond with the Royal Society in 1667 by Henry Oldenburg, and became a fellow of the society the next year.

Curtius baronets

William CurtiusCurtius of SwedenSir William Curtius
* Sir William Curtius, Johann Hevelius, Gottfried Leibniz, Philipp Jacob Sachs von Lewenheimb, Johann Daniel Major, Ehrenfried Walther von Tschirnhaus, Martin Vogel.
He corresponded with both Henry Oldenburg, the Secretary of the Society, and Leibniz, bringing the latter a copy of Wilkin's Encyclopaedic Essay.

Peer review

peer-reviewedpeer-reviewpeer reviewed
* Peer review
Henry Oldenburg (1619–1677) was a British philosopher who is seen as the 'father' of modern scientific peer review.

Antonie van Leeuwenhoek

Anton van LeeuwenhoekAntoni van LeeuwenhoekLeeuwenhoek
* Reinier de Graaf, Christiaan Huygens and his father, Constantijn Huygens, Antoni van Leeuwenhoek, Willem Ten Rhijne, Benedictus/Baruch Spinoza, Peter Serrarius, Jan Swammerdam, Isaac Vossius.
When the Royal Society in London published the groundbreaking work of an Italian lensmaker in their journal Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society, de Graaf wrote to the editor of the journal, Henry Oldenburg, with a ringing endorsement of van Leeuwenhoek's microscopes which, he claimed, "far surpass those which we have hitherto seen".

Jan Swammerdam

SwammerdamSwammerdam, Jan
* Reinier de Graaf, Christiaan Huygens and his father, Constantijn Huygens, Antoni van Leeuwenhoek, Willem Ten Rhijne, Benedictus/Baruch Spinoza, Peter Serrarius, Jan Swammerdam, Isaac Vossius.
In a letter to Henry Oldenburg he explained "I was never at any time busier than in these days, and the chief of all architects has blessed my endeavors".

Fellow of the Royal Society

FRSForMemRSFellows of the Royal Society
Henry Oldenburg (also Henry Oldenbourg) FRS (c.

Natural philosophy

natural philosophernatural philosophersNatural
1619 as Heinrich Oldenburg – 5 September 1677) was a German theologian known as a diplomat, a natural philosopher and as the creator of scientific peer review.

Intelligencer

Intelligencer (disambiguation)
He was one of the foremost intelligencers of Europe of the seventeenth century, with a network of correspondents to rival those of Fabri de Peiresc, Marin Mersenne and Ismaël Boulliau.

Nicolas-Claude Fabri de Peiresc

PeirescNicolas Claude Fabri de PeirescFabri de Peiresc
He was one of the foremost intelligencers of Europe of the seventeenth century, with a network of correspondents to rival those of Fabri de Peiresc, Marin Mersenne and Ismaël Boulliau.

Marin Mersenne

MersenneMersenne, MarinFather Mersenne
He was one of the foremost intelligencers of Europe of the seventeenth century, with a network of correspondents to rival those of Fabri de Peiresc, Marin Mersenne and Ismaël Boulliau.

Bremen

Bremen, GermanyRönnebeckBremer
Born in Bremen, Germany, he trained in theology and received his degree on 2 November 1639.

Interregnum (England)

InterregnumEnglish InterregnumThe Interregnum
He went to London in 1653, as a diplomat, and settled in England of the Interregnum.

Robert Boyle

BoyleBoyle, RobertSir Robert Boyle
Among Oldenburg's correspondents at this time was Baruch Spinoza, whom he was introduced to on a trip to the Netherlands, and to whom he presented a volume of writings on scientific topics by Boyle. He forged a strong relationship with his lifelong patron Robert Boyle, and was tutor to Boyle's nephew, the politician Richard Jones.