Heparin

unfractionated heparinblood-thinning medicationheparin antagonistsheparin overdoseheparin sodiumHeparin: Mechanism of anticoagulant actionheparinizeherparinizedlow molecular weight heparin
Heparin, also known as unfractionated heparin (UFH), is a medication which is used as an anticoagulant (blood thinner).wikipedia
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Anticoagulant

anticoagulationanticoagulantsblood thinners
Heparin, also known as unfractionated heparin (UFH), is a medication which is used as an anticoagulant (blood thinner).
Common anticoagulants include warfarin and heparin.

Mast cell

mast cellsanaphylactic degranulationmastocytes
Heparin is a naturally occurring anticoagulant produced by basophils and mast cells.
A mast cell (also known as a mastocyte or a labrocyte ) is a type of white blood cell that contains many granules rich in histamine and heparin.

Pulmonary embolism

pulmonary emboluspulmonary embolipulmonary thrombosis
Specifically it is used to treat and prevent deep vein thrombosis, pulmonary embolism, and arterial thromboembolism.
Treatment is typically with blood thinners such as heparin or warfarin.

Glycosaminoglycan

glycosaminoglycansmucopolysaccharidesmucopolysaccharide
Heparin is a naturally occurring glycosaminoglycan.
Heparin/heparan sulfate (HSGAGs) and chondroitin sulfate/dermatan sulfate (CSGAGs) are synthesized in the Golgi apparatus, where protein cores made in the rough endoplasmic reticulum are posttranslationally modified with O-linked glycosylations by glycosyltransferases forming proteoglycans.

Heparin-induced thrombocytopenia

heparin induced thrombocytopeniaheparin-induced thrombocytopenia and thrombosisHeparin-induced thrombocytopenia syndrome
Serious side effects include heparin induced thrombocytopenia.
Heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (HIT) is the development of thrombocytopenia (a low platelet count), due to the administration of various forms of heparin, an anticoagulant.

Myocardial infarction

heart attackheart attacksacute myocardial infarction
It is also used in the treatment of heart attacks and unstable angina. Acute coronary syndrome, e.g., NSTEMI
People who have a non-ST elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI) are often managed with the blood thinner heparin, with the additional use of PCI in those at high risk.

Protamine sulfate

Protamine sulfate has been given to counteract the anticoagulant effect of heparin (1 mg per 100 units of heparin that had been given over the past four hours).
Protamine sulfate is a medication that is used to reverse the effects of heparin.

Tinzaparin sodium

tinzaparin
Heparin and its low-molecular-weight derivatives (e.g., enoxaparin, dalteparin, tinzaparin) are effective in preventing deep vein thromboses and pulmonary emboli in people at risk, but no evidence indicates any one is more effective than the other in preventing mortality.
Tinzaparin is an antithrombotic drug in the heparin group.

Basophil

basophilsbasophil granulocytebasophilic
Heparin is a naturally occurring anticoagulant produced by basophils and mast cells.
Basophils contain anticoagulant heparin, which prevents blood from clotting too quickly.

Cardiopulmonary bypass

heart-lung machineheart-lung machinesheart–lung machine
Cardiopulmonary bypass for heart surgery
The patient is administered heparin to prevent clotting, and protamine sulfate is given after to reverse effects of heparin.

Enoxaparin sodium

enoxaparinLovenox
Heparin and its low-molecular-weight derivatives (e.g., enoxaparin, dalteparin, tinzaparin) are effective in preventing deep vein thromboses and pulmonary emboli in people at risk, but no evidence indicates any one is more effective than the other in preventing mortality.
Enoxaparin is made from heparin.

Antithrombin

antithrombin IIIantithrombin iii deficiencyantithrombin (AT)
Heparin binds to the enzyme inhibitor antithrombin III (AT), causing a conformational change that results in its activation through an increase in the flexibility of its reactive site loop.
Its activity is increased manyfold by the anticoagulant drug heparin, which enhances the binding of antithrombin to factor IIa (Thrombin) and factor Xa.

Tissue plasminogen activator

tPAPLATrecombinant tissue plasminogen activator
While heparin does not break down clots that have already formed (unlike tissue plasminogen activator), it allows the body's natural clot lysis mechanisms to work normally to break down clots that have formed.
Pulmonary embolism (blood clots that have moved to the lung arteries) is usually treated with heparin generally followed by warfarin.

Low molecular weight heparin

low-molecular-weight heparinLow molecular weight heparin (LMWH)low-molecular weight heparin
A fractionated version of heparin, known as low molecular weight heparin, is also available.
Heparin is a naturally occurring polysaccharide that inhibits coagulation, the process that leads to thrombosis.

WHO Model List of Essential Medicines

World Health Organization's List of Essential MedicinesList of Essential MedicinesModel List of Essential Medicines
It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines, the most effective and safe medicines needed in a health system.
Heparin sodium

Fibrinolysis

fibrinolyticfibrinolytic systemprofibrinolytic
While heparin does not break down clots that have already formed (unlike tissue plasminogen activator), it allows the body's natural clot lysis mechanisms to work normally to break down clots that have formed.
Alternatively, a more rapid detection of fibrinolytic activity, especially hyperfibrinolysis, is possible with thromboelastometry (TEM) in whole blood, even in patients on heparin.

Arterial embolism

arterial thromboembolismarterial embolusblood clot from elsewhere getting lodged in an artery
Specifically it is used to treat and prevent deep vein thrombosis, pulmonary embolism, and arterial thromboembolism.
Anticoagulants (such as warfarin or heparin) and antiplatelet medication (such as aspirin, ticlopidine, and clopidogrel) can prevent new clots from forming

Hematoma

haematomahematomasbruises
It can be injected intravenously or subcutaneously (under the skin); intramuscular injections (into muscle) are avoided because of the potential for forming hematomas.
Blood seepage and collection of blood may occur if heparin is given via an intramuscular route; to avoid this, heparin must be given intravenously or subcutaneously.

Dalteparin sodium

dalteparin
Heparin and its low-molecular-weight derivatives (e.g., enoxaparin, dalteparin, tinzaparin) are effective in preventing deep vein thromboses and pulmonary emboli in people at risk, but no evidence indicates any one is more effective than the other in preventing mortality.
Dalteparin is not superior to unfractionated heparin in preventing blood clots.

Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation

ECMOextracorporeal life support(ECMO)
ECMO circuit for extracorporeal life support
Once it has been decided that ECMO will be initiated, the person is anticoagulated with intravenous heparin and then the cannulae are inserted.

Acute coronary syndrome

acute coronary syndromesacute coronary syndrome (ACS)cardiac dysfunction
Acute coronary syndrome, e.g., NSTEMI
The accepted management of unstable angina and acute coronary syndrome is therefore empirical treatment with aspirin, a second platelet inhibitor such as clopidogrel, prasugrel or ticagrelor, and heparin (usually a low-molecular weight heparin), with intravenous nitroglycerin and opioids if the pain persists.

Coagulation

blood clottingblood coagulationclotting
Partial thromboplastin time should not be confused with prothrombin time, or PT, which measures blood clotting time through a different pathway of the coagulation cascade.
It is constantly active, but its adhesion to these factors is increased by the presence of heparan sulfate (a glycosaminoglycan) or the administration of heparins (different heparinoids increase affinity to FXa, thrombin, or both).

Unstable angina

pre-infarct anginaunstableunstable angina pectoris
It is also used in the treatment of heart attacks and unstable angina.
Antiplatelet drugs such as aspirin and clopidogrel can help reduce the progression of atherosclerotic plaque formation, as well as combining these with an anticoagulant such as a low molecular weight heparin.

Atrial fibrillation

paroxysmal atrial fibrillationatrial fibrilationatrial arrhythmia
Atrial fibrillation
Anticoagulation can be achieved through a number of means including warfarin, heparin, dabigatran, rivaroxaban, edoxaban, and apixaban.

Heparan sulfate

heparan sulfate proteoglycanheparan sulphateheparin sulfate
It is a synthetic pentasaccharide, whose chemical structure is almost identical to the AT binding pentasaccharide sequence that can be found within polymeric heparin and heparan sulfate.
Heparan sulfate is a member of the glycosaminoglycan family of carbohydrates and is very closely related in structure to heparin.