Hepatitis B

Bchronic hepatitis Bhepatitis B virusHBVhepatitis B (HBV)serum hepatitisCongenital viral hepatitisHepatitis
Hepatitis B (HB) is an infectious disease caused by the hepatitis B virus (HBV) that affects the liver.wikipedia
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Hepatitis B virus

HBVhepatitis BB
Hepatitis B (HB) is an infectious disease caused by the hepatitis B virus (HBV) that affects the liver.
This virus causes the disease hepatitis B.

Hepatocellular carcinoma

liver cancerhepatocarcinomahepatic cancer
Most of those with chronic disease have no symptoms; however, cirrhosis and liver cancer may eventually develop.
It occurs in the setting of chronic liver inflammation, and is most closely linked to chronic viral hepatitis infection (hepatitis B or C) or exposure to toxins such as alcohol or aflatoxin.

Cirrhosis

cirrhosis of the liverliver cirrhosisliver fibrosis
Most of those with chronic disease have no symptoms; however, cirrhosis and liver cancer may eventually develop.
Cirrhosis is most commonly caused by alcohol, hepatitis B, hepatitis C, and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease.

Hepatitis

chronic hepatitisliver inflammationacute hepatitis
It is one of five main hepatitis viruses: A, B, C, D, and E.
Hepatitis is most commonly caused by the viruses hepatitis A, B, C, D, and E.

Hepatitis B vaccine

hepatitis BEngerix-BHBV vaccine
The infection has been preventable by vaccination since 1982.
Hepatitis B vaccine is a vaccine that prevents hepatitis B.

Hepatitis A

hepatitis A virusinfectious hepatitisA
It is one of five main hepatitis viruses: A, B, C, D, and E.
It is one of five known hepatitis viruses: A, B, C, D, and E.

Hepatitis D

Dhepatitis D virusDeltavirus
It is one of five main hepatitis viruses: A, B, C, D, and E.
This is one of five known hepatitis viruses: A, B, C, D, and E.

Hepatitis C

Chepatitis-CHCV
It is one of five main hepatitis viruses: A, B, C, D, and E.
It is one of five known hepatitis viruses: A, B, C, D, and E.

Hepatitis E

Ehepatitis E virus
It is one of five main hepatitis viruses: A, B, C, D, and E.
One of five known human hepatitis viruses: hepatitis A, B, C, D, and E, HEV is a positive-sense, single-stranded, nonenveloped, RNA icosahedral virus.

Condom

condomscollection condomrubber
It is also recommended that all blood be tested for hepatitis B before transfusion, and that condoms be used to prevent infection.
Their use greatly decreases the risk of gonorrhea, chlamydia, trichomoniasis, hepatitis B, and HIV/AIDS.

Liver transplantation

liver transplanttransplantliver
Liver transplantation is sometimes used for cirrhosis.
Living donor liver transplantation (LDLT) has emerged in recent decades as a critical surgical option for patients with end stage liver disease, such as cirrhosis and/or hepatocellular carcinoma often attributable to one or more of the following: long-term alcohol abuse, long-term untreated hepatitis C infection, long-term untreated hepatitis B infection.

Liver

hepaticliver protein synthesislivers
Hepatitis B (HB) is an infectious disease caused by the hepatitis B virus (HBV) that affects the liver.
The most usual cause of this is viral, and the most common of these infections are hepatitis A, B, C, D, and E.

Polyarteritis nodosa

periarteritis nodosaPolyarteritisPAN
Symptoms outside of the liver are present in 1–10% of HBV-infected people and include serum-sickness–like syndrome, acute necrotizing vasculitis (polyarteritis nodosa), membranous glomerulonephritis, and papular acrodermatitis of childhood (Gianotti–Crosti syndrome).
PAN is sometimes associated with infection by the hepatitis B or hepatitis C virus.

Drug injection

intravenous drugintravenous drug useinjecting drug user
In areas where the disease is rare, intravenous drug use and sexual intercourse are the most frequent routes of infection.
Blood-borne pathogens, such as HIV, Hepatitis B, and Hepatitis C are of particular concern among injection drug users who share supplies, and increase the likelihood of infection.

Sexual intercourse

sexcopulationintercourse
In areas where the disease is rare, intravenous drug use and sexual intercourse are the most frequent routes of infection.
Hepatitis B can also be transmitted through sexual contact.

Blood transfusion

transfusionblood transfusionstransfusions
Other risk factors include working in healthcare, blood transfusions, dialysis, living with an infected person, travel in countries where the infection rate is high, and living in an institution.

Membranous glomerulonephritis

membranous nephropathymembranous nephritisglomerulonephritis, membranous
Hepatitis B virus has been linked to the development of membranous glomerulonephritis (MGN).

Vertically transmitted infection

vertical transmissionmother-to-child transmissionvertically
Infection around the time of birth or from contact with other people's blood during childhood is the most frequent method by which hepatitis B is acquired in areas where the disease is common.
Hepatitis B may also be classified as a vertically transmitted infection.

Serum sickness–like reaction

serum sickness-like reactionserum-sickness–like syndrome
Symptoms outside of the liver are present in 1–10% of HBV-infected people and include serum-sickness–like syndrome, acute necrotizing vasculitis (polyarteritis nodosa), membranous glomerulonephritis, and papular acrodermatitis of childhood (Gianotti–Crosti syndrome).
Acute hepatitis B will sometimes be complicated with this syndrome, which often resolves with the onset of jaundice.

Transmission (medicine)

transmissiondisease transmissiontransmissible disease
In areas where the disease is rare, intravenous drug use and sexual intercourse are the most frequent routes of infection.
Some diseases transmissible by the sexual route include HIV/AIDS, chlamydia, genital warts, gonorrhea, hepatitis B, syphilis, herpes, and trichomoniasis.

Infection

infectious diseaseinfectious diseasesinfections
Hepatitis B (HB) is an infectious disease caused by the hepatitis B virus (HBV) that affects the liver.

HBsAg

Australia antigenHepatitis B surface antigenHBV surface antigen
These particles are not infectious and are composed of the lipid and protein that forms part of the surface of the virion, which is called the surface antigens (HBsAg), and is produced in excess during the life cycle of the virus.
It indicates current hepatitis B infection.

Virus

virusesviralvirion
The virus particle (virion) consists of an outer lipid envelope and an icosahedral nucleocapsid core composed of protein.
In 1963, the hepatitis B virus was discovered by Baruch Blumberg, and in 1965, Howard Temin described the first retrovirus.

Hepatitis B virus precore mutant

In some rare strains of the virus known as Hepatitis B virus precore mutants, no HBeAg is present.
A precore mutant is a variety of hepatitis B virus that does not produce hepatitis B virus e antigen (HBeAg).

Acute liver failure

fulminant liver failurefulminant hepatic failureliver failure
A few people may have a more severe form of liver disease known as fulminant hepatic failure and may die as a result.
Common causes for acute liver failure are paracetamol (acetaminophen) overdose, idiosyncratic reaction to medication (e.g. tetracycline, troglitazone), excessive alcohol consumption (severe alcoholic hepatitis), viral hepatitis (hepatitis A or B — it is extremely uncommon in hepatitis C), acute fatty liver of pregnancy, and idiopathic (without an obvious cause).