Hepatitis C

Chepatitis-CHCVhepatitis c antibodieshepatitis c, chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV)Anti-hepatitis Chepatitishepatitis c antigensHepatitis C infection
Hepatitis C is an infectious disease caused by the hepatitis C virus (HCV) that primarily affects the liver.wikipedia
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Hepacivirus C

hepatitis C virusHCVhepatitis C
Hepatitis C is an infectious disease caused by the hepatitis C virus (HCV) that primarily affects the liver. The hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a small, enveloped, single-stranded, positive-sense RNA virus.
The hepatitis C virus is the cause of hepatitis C and some cancers such as liver cancer (hepatocellular carcinoma, abbreviated HCC) and lymphomas in humans.

Hepatocellular carcinoma

liver cancerhepatocarcinomahepatic cancer
In some cases, those with cirrhosis will develop serious complications such as liver failure, liver cancer, or dilated blood vessels in the esophagus and stomach.
It occurs in the setting of chronic liver inflammation, and is most closely linked to chronic viral hepatitis infection (hepatitis B or C) or exposure to toxins such as alcohol or aflatoxin.

Sofosbuvir

SovaldiPSI-7977
Chronic infection can be cured about 95% of the time with antiviral medications such as sofosbuvir or simeprevir.
Sofosbuvir, sold under the brand name Sovaldi among others, is a medication used for the treatment of hepatitis C.

Hepatitis A

hepatitis A virusinfectious hepatitisA
It is one of five known hepatitis viruses: A, B, C, D, and E. About 167,000 deaths due to liver cancer and 326,000 deaths due to cirrhosis occurred in 2015 due to hepatitis C. The existence of hepatitis C – originally identifiable only as a type of non-A non-B hepatitis – was suggested in the 1970s and proven in 1989.
It is one of five known hepatitis viruses: A, B, C, D, and E.

Hepatitis D

Dhepatitis D virusDeltavirus
It is one of five known hepatitis viruses: A, B, C, D, and E.
This is one of five known hepatitis viruses: A, B, C, D, and E.

Simeprevir

Chronic infection can be cured about 95% of the time with antiviral medications such as sofosbuvir or simeprevir.
Simeprevir, sold under the trade names Olysio among others, is a medication used in combination with other medications for the treatment of hepatitis C.

Hepatitis E

Ehepatitis E virus
It is one of five known hepatitis viruses: A, B, C, D, and E.
One of five known human hepatitis viruses: hepatitis A, B, C, D, and E, HEV is a positive-sense, single-stranded, nonenveloped, RNA icosahedral virus.

Ribavirin

CopegusRebetolRibasphere
Peginterferon and ribavirin were earlier generation treatments that had a cure rate of less than 50% and greater side effects.
Ribavirin, also known as tribavirin, is an antiviral medication used to treat RSV infection, hepatitis C and some viral hemorrhagic fevers.

Hepatitis

chronic hepatitisliver inflammationacute hepatitis
About 167,000 deaths due to liver cancer and 326,000 deaths due to cirrhosis occurred in 2015 due to hepatitis C. The existence of hepatitis C – originally identifiable only as a type of non-A non-B hepatitis – was suggested in the 1970s and proven in 1989.
Hepatitis is most commonly caused by the viruses hepatitis A, B, C, D, and E.

Hepatitis B

Bchronic hepatitis Bhepatitis B virus
It is one of five known hepatitis viruses: A, B, C, D, and E. About 167,000 deaths due to liver cancer and 326,000 deaths due to cirrhosis occurred in 2015 due to hepatitis C. The existence of hepatitis C – originally identifiable only as a type of non-A non-B hepatitis – was suggested in the 1970s and proven in 1989.
It is one of five main hepatitis viruses: A, B, C, D, and E.

Drug injection

intravenous drugintravenous drug useinjecting drug user
HCV is spread primarily by blood-to-blood contact associated with intravenous drug use, poorly sterilized medical equipment, needlestick injuries in healthcare, and transfusions.
Blood-borne pathogens, such as HIV, Hepatitis B, and Hepatitis C are of particular concern among injection drug users who share supplies, and increase the likelihood of infection.

Liver cancer

liverliver tumourcancer of the liver
Chronic infection after several years may cause cirrhosis or liver cancer.
The leading cause of liver cancer is cirrhosis due to hepatitis B, hepatitis C or alcohol.

Gastric varices

Gastric variceal obliterationstomachdilated stomach veins
In some cases, those with cirrhosis will develop serious complications such as liver failure, liver cancer, or dilated blood vessels in the esophagus and stomach.
The latter may be a complication of acute pancreatitis, pancreatic cancer, or other abdominal tumours, as well as hepatitis C.

Liver transplantation

liver transplanttransplantliver
Those who develop cirrhosis or liver cancer may require a liver transplant.
Living donor liver transplantation (LDLT) has emerged in recent decades as a critical surgical option for patients with end stage liver disease, such as cirrhosis and/or hepatocellular carcinoma often attributable to one or more of the following: long-term alcohol abuse, long-term untreated hepatitis C infection, long-term untreated hepatitis B infection.

Liver

hepaticliver protein synthesislivers
Hepatitis C is an infectious disease caused by the hepatitis C virus (HCV) that primarily affects the liver.
The most usual cause of this is viral, and the most common of these infections are hepatitis A, B, C, D, and E.

Cryoglobulinemia

cryoglobulinaemiaEssential mixed cryoglobulinemiaCryroglobulinemia
The most common problem due to hepatitis C but not involving the liver is mixed cryoglobulinemia (usually the type II form) — an inflammation of small and medium-sized blood vessels.
Other routine tests include measuring blood levels of rheumatoid factor activity, complement C4, other complement components, and hepatitic C antigen.

RNA virus

RNA virusesRNARNA genome
The hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a small, enveloped, single-stranded, positive-sense RNA virus.
Notable human diseases caused by RNA viruses include Ebola virus disease, SARS, rabies, common cold, influenza, hepatitis C, hepatitis E, West Nile fever, polio and measles.

Necrolytic acral erythema

Hepatitis C is also associated with autoimmune disorders such as Sjögren's syndrome, lichen planus, a low platelet count, porphyria cutanea tarda, necrolytic acral erythema, insulin resistance, diabetes mellitus, diabetic nephropathy, autoimmune thyroiditis, and B-cell lymphoproliferative disorders.
Necrolytic acral erythema is a cutaneous condition that is a manifestation of hepatitis C viral infection or zinc deficiency.

Liver failure

hepatic failureliverhepatic
In some cases, those with cirrhosis will develop serious complications such as liver failure, liver cancer, or dilated blood vessels in the esophagus and stomach.
Chronic liver failure usually occurs in the context of cirrhosis, itself potentially the result of many possible causes, such as excessive alcohol intake, hepatitis B or C, autoimmune, hereditary and metabolic causes (such as iron or copper overload, steatohepatitis or non-alcoholic fatty liver disease).

Hepacivirus

It is a member of the genus Hepacivirus in the family Flaviviridae.
The hepatitis C virus (HCV), belonging to the species Hepacivirus C, has humans as its only known natural host, and is associated with hepatitis and hepatocellular carcinoma.

Sjögren syndrome

Sjögren's syndromeSjogren's syndromeSjogren syndrome
Hepatitis C is also associated with autoimmune disorders such as Sjögren's syndrome, lichen planus, a low platelet count, porphyria cutanea tarda, necrolytic acral erythema, insulin resistance, diabetes mellitus, diabetic nephropathy, autoimmune thyroiditis, and B-cell lymphoproliferative disorders.
Epstein-Barr virus, hepatitis C, and human T-cell leukemia virus-1 are among the most studied infectious agents in SS.

Needlestick injury

needlestick injuriesneedle stick injuryneedle sticks
HCV is spread primarily by blood-to-blood contact associated with intravenous drug use, poorly sterilized medical equipment, needlestick injuries in healthcare, and transfusions.
Even though the acute physiological effects of a needlestick injury are generally negligible, these injuries can lead to transmission of blood-borne diseases, placing those exposed at increased risk of contracting infectious diseases, such as hepatitis B (HBV), hepatitis C (HCV), and the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV).

Insulin resistance

insulin sensitivityresistantinsulin resistant
Hepatitis C is also associated with autoimmune disorders such as Sjögren's syndrome, lichen planus, a low platelet count, porphyria cutanea tarda, necrolytic acral erythema, insulin resistance, diabetes mellitus, diabetic nephropathy, autoimmune thyroiditis, and B-cell lymphoproliferative disorders.
Hepatitis C also makes people three to four times more likely to develop type 2 diabetes and insulin resistance.

Blood transfusion

transfusionblood transfusionstransfusions
HCV is spread primarily by blood-to-blood contact associated with intravenous drug use, poorly sterilized medical equipment, needlestick injuries in healthcare, and transfusions.

Infectious diseases within American prisons

HIV/AIDS in American prisonsAIDSHIV and hepatitis C
Occurrence of hepatitis C among prison inmates in the United States is 10 to 20 times that of the occurrence observed in the general population; this has been attributed to high-risk behavior in prisons such as IDU and tattooing with nonsterile equipment.
The spread of infectious diseases, such as HIV/AIDS and other sexually transmitted diseases, hepatitis C (HCV), hepatitis B (HBV), and tuberculosis result largely from needle-sharing, drug use, and consensual and nonconsensual sex among prisoners.