Hepburn romanization

HepburnromanisedromanizedTraditional Hepburn romanization HepburnChin SokuminHepburn romanisationHepburn spellingHepburn-styleHepburn’s romanization of Japanese
Hepburn romanization is a system for the romanization of Japanese, that uses the Latin alphabet to write the Japanese language.wikipedia
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Romanization of Japanese

romanizedrōmajiromaji
Hepburn romanization is a system for the romanization of Japanese, that uses the Latin alphabet to write the Japanese language.
The three main ones are Hepburn romanization, Kunrei-shiki romanization (ISO 3602), and Nihon-shiki romanization (ISO 3602 Strict).

Romanization

romanizedromanizeromanisation
It is used by most foreigners learning to spell Japanese in the Latin alphabet and by the Japanese for romanizing personal names, geographical locations, and other information such as train tables, road signs, and official communications with foreign countries.
The popular Hepburn romanization of Japanese is an example of a transcriptive romanization designed for English speakers.

James Curtis Hepburn

James HepburnDr. James Curtis HepburnHepburn
The commission's romanization scheme was popularized by the wide dissemination of a Japanese–English dictionary by commission member and American missionary James Curtis Hepburn which was published in 1886.
He is known for the Hepburn romanization system for transliteration of the Japanese language into the Latin alphabet, which he popularized in his Japanese–English dictionary.

Nihon-shiki romanization

Nihon-shikiJapanese recordsnihon
Since it is based on English and Italian pronunciations, people who speak English or Romance languages (e.g., Italian, French, Portuguese and Spanish) will generally be more accurate in pronouncing unfamiliar Japanese words romanized in the Hepburn style compared to Nihon-shiki romanization and Kunrei-shiki romanization. Hepburn is based on English phonology and has competed with the alternative Nihon-shiki romanization, which was developed in Japan as a replacement of the Japanese script. Tôkyô – indicated with circumflex accents, like the alternative Nihon-shiki and Kunrei-shiki romanizations. They are often used when macrons are unavailable or difficult to input, due to their visual similarity.
It was invented by physicist Aikitsu Tanakadate in 1885, with the intention to replace the Hepburn system of romanization.

Kunrei-shiki romanization

Kunrei-shikiKunreiKunrei" system
Although Kunrei romanization is officially favored by the Japanese government today, Hepburn romanization is still in use and remains the worldwide standard. Tôkyô – indicated with circumflex accents, like the alternative Nihon-shiki and Kunrei-shiki romanizations. They are often used when macrons are unavailable or difficult to input, due to their visual similarity. The Commission eventually decided in favor of a slightly-modified version of Nihon-shiki, which was proclaimed to be Japan's official romanization for all purposes by a September 21, 1937, cabinet ordinance; it is now known as the Kunrei-shiki romanization.
Kunrei-shiki competes with the older Hepburn romanization system, which was promoted by the authorities during the Allied occupation of Japan, after World War II.

Japanese writing system

JapaneseJapanese charactersJapanese writing
Hepburn is based on English phonology and has competed with the alternative Nihon-shiki romanization, which was developed in Japan as a replacement of the Japanese script.
The Hepburn method of romanization, designed for English speakers, is a de facto standard widely used inside and outside Japan.

Macron (diacritic)

macronĪŪ
Tōkyō – indicated with macrons. That follows the rules of the traditional and modified Hepburn systems and is considered to be standard.
The Hepburn romanization system of Japanese, for example, kōtsū "traffic" as opposed to kotsu "bone" or "knack".

Circumflex

circumflex accentÔhat
Tôkyô – indicated with circumflex accents, like the alternative Nihon-shiki and Kunrei-shiki romanizations. They are often used when macrons are unavailable or difficult to input, due to their visual similarity.
Japanese. In the Kunrei-shiki and Nihon-shiki systems of romanization, and sometimes the Hepburn system, the circumflex is used as a replacement for the macron.

JSL romanization

JSLform of romaji
Tookyoo – written by doubling the long vowels. Some dictionaries such as Pocket Kenkyusha Japanese dictionary and Basic English writers' Japanese-English wordbook follow this style, and it is also used in the JSL form of romanization. It is also used to write words without reference to any particular system.
For example, different conjugations of a verb may be achieved by changing the final vowel (as in the chart on the right), thus "bear[ing] a direct relation to Japanese structure" (in Jorden's words ), whereas the common Hepburn romanization may require exceptions in some cases, in order to more clearly illustrate pronunciation to native English speakers.

Wāpuro rōmaji

wāpurotyping Japanese
Toukyou – written using kana spelling: ō as ou or oo (depending on the kana) and ū as uu. That is sometimes called wāpuro style, as it is how text is entered into a Japanese word processor by using a keyboard with Roman characters. The method most accurately represents the way that vowels are written in kana by differentiating between おう (as in とうきょう(東京), written Toukyou in this system) and おお (as in とおい(遠い), written tooi in this system).
Many aspects of Hepburn, Kunrei and Nihon-shiki romanizations are accepted, so that both si (Kunrei/Nihon-shiki) and shi (Hepburn) resolve to し.

Katakana

kanakatakana scriptアィヌ
Each entry contains hiragana, katakana, and Hepburn romanization, in that order.
Existing schemes for the romanization of Japanese either are based on the systematic nature of the script, e.g. nihon-siki チ ti, or they apply some Western graphotactics, usually the English one, to the common Japanese pronunciation of the kana signs, e.g. Hepburn-shiki チ chi.

Hiragana

charactersJapanese hiragana
Each entry contains hiragana, katakana, and Hepburn romanization, in that order.
The following table shows the complete hiragana together with the Hepburn romanization and IPA transcription in the gojūon order.

Latin alphabet

LatinRomanLatin letters
Hepburn romanization is a system for the romanization of Japanese, that uses the Latin alphabet to write the Japanese language.

Orthography

orthographicorthographiesorthographically
Largely based on English writing conventions, consonants closely correspond to the English pronunciation and vowels approximate the Italian pronunciation.

Kanō Jigorō

Jigoro KanoJigorō KanōKano
The "modified Hepburn system", also known as the "standard system", was published in 1908 with revisions by Kanō Jigorō and the Society for the Propagation of Romanization ().

Phonology

phonologicalphonologicallyphonologist
Since it is based on English and Italian pronunciations, people who speak English or Romance languages (e.g., Italian, French, Portuguese and Spanish) will generally be more accurate in pronouncing unfamiliar Japanese words romanized in the Hepburn style compared to Nihon-shiki romanization and Kunrei-shiki romanization.

Romance languages

RomanceRomance languageRomance philologist
Since it is based on English and Italian pronunciations, people who speak English or Romance languages (e.g., Italian, French, Portuguese and Spanish) will generally be more accurate in pronouncing unfamiliar Japanese words romanized in the Hepburn style compared to Nihon-shiki romanization and Kunrei-shiki romanization.

Cabinet of Japan

CabinetJapanese Cabinetcabinet member
The Commission eventually decided in favor of a slightly-modified version of Nihon-shiki, which was proclaimed to be Japan's official romanization for all purposes by a September 21, 1937, cabinet ordinance; it is now known as the Kunrei-shiki romanization.

Law of Japan

Japanese lawJapanJapanese
The Commission eventually decided in favor of a slightly-modified version of Nihon-shiki, which was proclaimed to be Japan's official romanization for all purposes by a September 21, 1937, cabinet ordinance; it is now known as the Kunrei-shiki romanization.

Supreme Commander for the Allied Powers

American occupation authoritiesSCAPGHQ
The ordinance was temporarily overturned by the Supreme Commander for the Allied Powers (SCAP) during the Occupation of Japan, but it was reissued with slight revisions in 1954.

Occupation of Japan

occupationJapanoccupied Japan
The ordinance was temporarily overturned by the Supreme Commander for the Allied Powers (SCAP) during the Occupation of Japan, but it was reissued with slight revisions in 1954.

American National Standards Institute

ANSIASAAmerican National Standard
In 1972 a revised version of Hepburn was codified as ANSI standard Z39.11-1972.

Ministry of Foreign Affairs (Japan)

Ministry of Foreign AffairsForeign MinistryJapanese Ministry of Foreign Affairs
As of 1978 the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, the Ministry of International Trade and Industry, and many other official organizations used Hepburn instead of Kunrei-shiki.

Ministry of International Trade and Industry

Minister of International Trade and IndustryMITIJapanese Ministry of International Trade and Industry
As of 1978 the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, the Ministry of International Trade and Industry, and many other official organizations used Hepburn instead of Kunrei-shiki.

The Japan Times

Japan TimesThe Japan Times and MailThe Japan Times Online
In addition The Japan Times, the Japan Travel Bureau, and many other private organizations used Hepburn instead of Kunrei-shiki.