Heraclitus

Heraclitus of EphesusHeracliteanpanta rheiHerakleitosPanta rhei (Heraclitus)HeracleitusHeraclitanHeracliteHeraclitianHeraklit
Heraclitus of Ephesus (c. 535) was a pre-Socratic Ionian Greek philosopher, and a native of the city of Ephesus, in modern-day Turkey and then part of the Persian Empire.wikipedia
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Process philosophy

philosophy of organismprocessprocesses
He's been seen variously as a "material monist or a process philosopher; a scientific cosmologist, a metaphysician, or a mainly religious thinker; an empiricist, a rationalist, or a mystic; a conventional thinker or a revolutionary; a developer of logic or one who denied the law of non-contradiction; the first genuine philosopher or an anti-intellectual obscurantist."
Philosophers who appeal to process rather than substance include Heraclitus, Karl Marx, Friedrich Nietzsche, Henri Bergson, Martin Heidegger, Charles Sanders Peirce, William James, Alfred North Whitehead, Thomas Nail, Alfred Korzybski, R. G. Collingwood, Alan Watts, Robert M. Pirsig, Roberto Mangabeira Unger, Charles Hartshorne, Arran Gare, Nicholas Rescher, Colin Wilson, Jacques Derrida, Bruno Latour, Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel and Gilles Deleuze.

Mysticism

mysticmysticalmystics
He's been seen variously as a "material monist or a process philosopher; a scientific cosmologist, a metaphysician, or a mainly religious thinker; an empiricist, a rationalist, or a mystic; a conventional thinker or a revolutionary; a developer of logic or one who denied the law of non-contradiction; the first genuine philosopher or an anti-intellectual obscurantist."
The terms are first found connected in the writings of Heraclitus.

Metaphysics

metaphysicalmetaphysicianmetaphysic
He's been seen variously as a "material monist or a process philosopher; a scientific cosmologist, a metaphysician, or a mainly religious thinker; an empiricist, a rationalist, or a mystic; a conventional thinker or a revolutionary; a developer of logic or one who denied the law of non-contradiction; the first genuine philosopher or an anti-intellectual obscurantist."
Parmenides denied change altogether, while Heraclitus argued that change was ubiquitous: "[Y]ou cannot step into the same river twice."

Ionian School (philosophy)

Ionian SchoolIonianphysikoi
535) was a pre-Socratic Ionian Greek philosopher, and a native of the city of Ephesus, in modern-day Turkey and then part of the Persian Empire.
The Ionian School included such thinkers as Thales, Anaximander, Anaximenes, Heraclitus, Anaxagoras, and Archelaus.

Logos

λόγοςWordWord of God
Heraclitus believed the world was somehow in accordance with Logos (literally, "word", "reason", or "account").
It became a technical term in Western philosophy beginning with Heraclitus (c.

Unity of opposites

coincidentia oppositorumcontrabalancedcoincidence of opposites
He was committed to a unity of opposites and harmony in the world.
First suggested by Heraclitus (c.

Plato

Plato's dialoguesDialogues of PlatoPlatonic dialogues
Both had an influence on Plato and thus on all of Western philosophy.
His own most decisive philosophical influences are usually thought to have been along with Socrates, the pre-Socratics Pythagoras, Heraclitus and Parmenides, although few of his predecessors' works remain extant and much of what we know about these figures today derives from Plato himself.

Ancient Greek philosophy

Greek philosophyGreek philosophersGreek philosopher
535) was a pre-Socratic Ionian Greek philosopher, and a native of the city of Ephesus, in modern-day Turkey and then part of the Persian Empire.
Contrary to the Milesian school, which posits one stable element as the arche, Heraclitus taught that panta rhei ("everything flows"), the closest element to this eternal flux being fire.

Pythagoras

PythagoreanPythagoras of SamosPythagoreans
Heraclitus is silent on Parmenides, yet Parmenides seems possibly to refer to him, and Heraclitus refers to the likes of Pythagoras.
The poet Heraclitus of Ephesus, who was born across a few miles of sea away from Samos and may have lived within Pythagoras's lifetime, mocked Pythagoras as a clever charlatan, remarking that "Pythagoras, son of Mnesarchus, practiced inquiry more than any other man, and selecting from these writings he manufactured a wisdom for himself—much learning, artful knavery."

Parmenides

Parmenides of EleaParmenideanAmeinias
This aspect of his philosophy is contrasted with that of Parmenides, who believed in being, and that nothing changes.
This is generally considered one of the first digressions into the philosophical concept of being, and has been contrasted with Heraclitus's statement that "No man ever steps into the same river twice" as one of the first digressions into the philosophical concept of becoming.

Being

beingsbePhilosophy of Being
This aspect of his philosophy is contrasted with that of Parmenides, who believed in being, and that nothing changes.
Heraclitus, on the other hand, foreshadowed modern thought by denying existence.

Ephesus

EphesosEphesianApasa
535) was a pre-Socratic Ionian Greek philosopher, and a native of the city of Ephesus, in modern-day Turkey and then part of the Persian Empire.
The city prospered again under a new rule, producing a number of important historical figures such as the elegiac poet Callinus and the iambic poet Hipponax, the philosopher Heraclitus, the great painter Parrhasius and later the grammarian Zenodotos and physicians Soranus and Rufus.

Misanthropy

misanthropicmisanthropehatred of humanity
Considered a misanthrope given to depression, he was also called "the weeping philosopher," in contrast to Democritus, "the laughing philosopher".
The pre-Socratic philosopher Heraclitus was by various accounts a misanthrope and a loner who had little patience for human society.

Xenophanes

Xenophanes of ColophonXenophane
Diogenes relates that Sotion said he was a "hearer" of Xenophanes, which contradicts Heraclitus' statement (so says Diogenes Laërtius) that he had taught himself by questioning himself.
His surviving work refers to Thales, Epimenides, and Pythagoras, and he himself is mentioned in the writings of Heraclitus and Epicharmus.

On Nature (Heraclitus)

On NatureOn Nature'' (Heraclitus)
Heraclitus was known to have produced a single work on papyrus, On Nature.
On Nature is a philosophical treatise written by Heraclitus.

Diels–Kranz numbering

DKDiels-KranzDie Fragmente der Vorsokratiker
These are catalogued using the Diels–Kranz numbering system.
Another interesting example of such a source is Hippolytus of Rome, whose polemic Refutation of All Heresies is a source of many direct quotations of Heraclitus as well as of other philosophers, thereby perpetuating the work of those he was refuting.

Becoming (philosophy)

becomingcoming to bein fieri'' (becoming)
He was most famous for his insistence on ever-present change, or flux or becoming, as the characteristic feature of the world, as stated in the famous saying, "No man ever steps in the same river twice" as well as "Panta rhei," everything flows.
In the philosophical study of ontology, the concept of becoming originated in ancient Greece with the philosopher Heraclitus of Ephesus, who in the sixth century BC, said that nothing in this world is constant except change and becoming (i.e., everything is impermanent.

Temple of Artemis

Artemis of EphesusTemple of Artemis at EphesusDiana of Ephesus
Diogenes Laërtius says that Heraclitus used to play knucklebones with the youths in the great temple of Artemis, the Artemisium, one of the largest temples of the 6th century BC and one of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World.
Heraclitus deposited his book "On Nature" as a dedication to Artemis in the great temple.

Idios kosmos

world of their own
"The waking have one common world, but the sleeping turn aside each into a world of his own (idios kosmos)."
The two phrases come from the Diels-Kranz fragment B89 of Heraclitus: ὁ Ἡράκλειτός φησι τοῖς ἐγρηγορόσιν ἕνα καὶ κοινὸν κόσμον εἶναι τῶν δὲ κοιμωμένων ἕκαστον εἰς ἴδιον ἀποστρέφεσθαι ("Heraclitus said that the waking have one common world, but the sleeping turn aside each into a world of his own.")

Law of noncontradiction

law of non-contradictionprinciple of non-contradictionPrinciple of contradiction
He's been seen variously as a "material monist or a process philosopher; a scientific cosmologist, a metaphysician, or a mainly religious thinker; an empiricist, a rationalist, or a mystic; a conventional thinker or a revolutionary; a developer of logic or one who denied the law of non-contradiction; the first genuine philosopher or an anti-intellectual obscurantist." In the Metaphysics Aristotle mentions how some say Heraclitus denied the law of noncontradiction, and accuses him of not reasoning.
According to both Plato and Aristotle, Heraclitus was said to have denied the law of non-contradiction.

Ephesian school

EphesianHeracliteansmobilism
Diogenes Laërtius says: "the book acquired such fame that it produced partisans of his philosophy who were called Heracliteans."
Ephesian school sometimes refers to the philosophical thought of the ancient Greek philosopher Heraclitus of Ephesus, who considered that the being of all the universe is fire.

Paradox

paradoxesparadoxicallogical paradox
Due to the oracular and paradoxical nature of his philosophy, and his fondness for word play, he was called "The Obscure" even in antiquity.
A taste for paradox is central to the philosophies of Laozi, Zeno of Elea, Zhuangzi, Heraclitus, Bhartrhari, Meister Eckhart, Hegel, Kierkegaard, Nietzsche, and G.K. Chesterton, among many others.

Cratylus

Cratylus of Athens
Cratylus was one such follower.
He was a radical proponent of Heraclitean philosophy and influenced the young Plato.

Rheology

rheologicalrheologistrheological properties
The word rhei (as in rheology) is the Greek word for "to stream", and is etymologically related to Rhea according to Plato's Cratylus.
The term was inspired by the aphorism of Simplicius (often attributed to Heraclitus), panta rhei, "everything flows", and was first used to describe the flow of liquids and the deformation of solids.

Metaphysics (Aristotle)

MetaphysicsAristotelian metaphysicsMetaphysica
In the Metaphysics Aristotle mentions how some say Heraclitus denied the law of noncontradiction, and accuses him of not reasoning.
Two contrasting theories, those of Heraclitus and Parmenides, were an important influence on both Plato and Aristotle.