Heraclius

Emperor HeracliusHeraclius IHeraclius the YoungerHerakleiosByzantine Emperor HeracliusFlavius HeracliusFlavius Heraclius AgustusStory of HeracliusTheodosius
Heraclius (Flavius Heraclius Augustus, Φλάβιος Ἡράκλειος, Flavios Iraklios; c. 575 – February 11, 641) was the Emperor of the Byzantine Empire from 610 to 641.wikipedia
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Byzantine Empire

ByzantineEastern Roman EmpireByzantines
Heraclius (Flavius Heraclius Augustus, Φλάβιος Ἡράκλειος, Flavios Iraklios; c. 575 – February 11, 641) was the Emperor of the Byzantine Empire from 610 to 641.
In the reign of Heraclius ((r.

Heraclius the Elder

Heraclius
His rise to power began in 608, when he and his father, Heraclius the Elder, the exarch of Africa, led a revolt against the unpopular usurper Phocas.
Heraclius the Elder (Heraclius; Ἡράκλειος; died 610) was a Byzantine general and the father of Byzantine emperor Heraclius (r.

Byzantine–Sasanian War of 602–628

Byzantine–Sassanid War of 602–628Byzantine-Sassanid War of 602–628Byzantine–Sasanian War
Heraclius immediately took charge of the Byzantine–Sasanian War of 602–628.
While the Persians proved largely successful during the first stage of the war from 602 to 622, conquering much of the Levant, Egypt, several islands in the Aegean Sea and parts of Anatolia, the ascendancy of emperor Heraclius in 610 led, despite initial setbacks, to a status quo ante bellum.

Theodore (brother of Heraclius)

Theodore
In 634 the Muslims marched into Roman Syria, defeating Heraclius's brother Theodore.
Theodore (Theodorus, Θεόδωρος; fl. c. 610 – 636) was the brother (or half-brother) of the Byzantine emperor Heraclius (r.

Croats

CroatianCroatCroatians
Heraclius entered diplomatic relations with the Croats and Serbs in the Balkans.
It mainly served as Byzantine propaganda praising Emperor Heraclius for repopulating the Balkans (previously devastated by the Avars) with Croats, who were seen by the Byzantines as tributary peoples living on what had always been 'Roman land'.

Battle of Nineveh (627)

Battle of NinevehNinevehbattle
Heraclius drove the Persians out of Asia Minor and pushed deep into their territory, defeating them decisively in 627 at the Battle of Nineveh.
While the Persians were successful during the first stages of the war, conquering much of the Levant, Egypt, and even Anatolia, the ascendancy of Heraclius eventually led to the Persians' downfall.

Phocas

Emperor PhocasFlavius PhocasFlavius Phocas Augustus
His rise to power began in 608, when he and his father, Heraclius the Elder, the exarch of Africa, led a revolt against the unpopular usurper Phocas.
Heraclius the Elder's son, Heraclius, succeeded in taking Constantinople on 5 October 610, and executed Phocas on the same day, before declaring himself the Byzantine Emperor.

Nicetas (cousin of Heraclius)

NicetasNiketasGeneral Nicetas
Heraclius's younger cousin Nicetas launched an overland invasion of Egypt; by 609, he had defeated Phocas's general Bonosus and secured the province.
Nicetas or Niketas was the cousin of Emperor Heraclius.

Kavad II

Kavadh IIKavad II SheroeSiroes
The Persian king Khosrow II was overthrown and executed by his son Kavad II, who soon sued for a peace treaty, agreeing to withdraw from all occupied territory.
In 627, the Sasanian general Rhahzadh was slain and Dastgerd, the king's favorite residence, had been sacked into oblivion by Byzantine emperor Heraclius, who was advancing towards the nearby Sasanian capital of Ctesiphon.

Exarch

Apostolic ExarchateApostolic ExarchPatriarchal Exarchate
After the war, Maurice appointed Heraclius the Elder to the position of Exarch of Africa.
The Exarchates were a response to weakening imperial authority in the provinces and were part of the overall process of unification of civil and military offices, initiated in early form by Justinian I, which would lead eventually to the creation of the Thematic system by either the Emperor Heraclius or Constans II.

Martina (empress)

MartinaEmpress MartinaEmpress of Byzantium
After her death in 612, he married his niece Martina in 613; this second marriage was considered incestuous and was very unpopular.
Martina (died after 641) was the second empress of the Byzantine Empire by marriage to Heraclius, and regent in 641 with her son.

Priscus (general)

Priscus
When he reached the capital, the Excubitors, an elite Imperial Guard unit led by Phocas's son-in-law Priscus, deserted to Heraclius, and he entered the city without serious resistance.
602–610) and Heraclius (r.

Africa (Roman province)

AfricaAfrica ProconsularisRoman North Africa
After the war, Maurice appointed Heraclius the Elder to the position of Exarch of Africa.
The exarchate prospered, and from it resulted the overthrow of the emperor Phocas by Heraclius in 610.

Constantinople

ConstantinopolitanConstantinopolisConstantinopole
The first battles of the campaign ended in defeat for the Byzantines; the Persian army fought their way to the Bosphorus but Constantinople was protected by impenetrable walls and a strong navy, and Heraclius was able to avoid total defeat.
Heraclius, son of the exarch of Africa, set sail for the city and assumed the throne.

Fabia Eudokia

EudokiaEudociaFabia Eudocia
On October 5, 610, Heraclius was crowned for a second time, this time in the Chapel of St. Stephen within the Great Palace; at the same time he married Fabia, who took the name Eudokia.
580 – 13 August 612), originally named Fabia, was a Byzantine woman who became the first empress-consort of Heraclius from 610 to her death in 612.

Khosrow II

Khosrau IIChosroes IIKhosrow Parviz
Khosrow II (Chosroes) of the Sasanian Empire had been restored to his throne by Maurice, and they had remained allies until the latter's death.
Following the failure of the siege, Heraclius started a counterattack, undoing all territorial gains by Khosrow in the Levant, most of Anatolia, the western Caucasus, and Egypt, eventually marching into the Sassanian capital of Ctesiphon.

Sasanian Empire

SassanidSasanianSassanid Empire
Khosrow II (Chosroes) of the Sasanian Empire had been restored to his throne by Maurice, and they had remained allies until the latter's death. Emerging from the Arabian Peninsula, the Muslims quickly conquered the Sasanian Empire.
In 613, outside Antioch, the Persian generals Shahrbaraz and Shahin decisively defeated a major counter-attack led in person by the Byzantine emperor Heraclius.

Monothelitism

MonotheliteMonothelitesmonotheletism
He tried to repair the schism in the Christian church in regard to the Monophysites, by promoting a compromise doctrine called Monothelitism.
The Byzantine emperor Heraclius tried to unite all of the various factions within the empire with this new formula that was more inclusive and more elastic.

Bonus (patrician)

Bonus
On April 5, 622, Heraclius left Constantinople, entrusting the city to Sergius and general Bonus as regents of his son.
Bonus (, died 627) was a Byzantine statesman and general, one of the closest associates of Emperor Heraclius (r.

Exarchate of Africa

Exarch of AfricaAfricaExarchate of Carthage
His rise to power began in 608, when he and his father, Heraclius the Elder, the exarch of Africa, led a revolt against the unpopular usurper Phocas.
During the successful revolt of the exarch of Carthage, Heraclius the Elder, and his namesake son Heraclius in 608, the Berbers comprised a large portion of the fleet that transported Heraclius to Constantinople.

Roman Syria

SyriaSyrianByzantine Syria
In 634 the Muslims marched into Roman Syria, defeating Heraclius's brother Theodore.
It was occupied by the Sasanians between 609 and 628, then reconquered by the emperor Heraclius, but lost again to the advancing Muslims after the Battle of Yarmouk and the fall of Antioch.

Shahrbaraz

Sasanid general ShahrbarazShahrvarazShahrwaraz
A major counter-attack led by Heraclius two years later was decisively defeated outside Antioch by Shahrbaraz and Shahin, and the Roman position collapsed; the Persians devastated parts of Asia Minor and captured Chalcedon across from Constantinople on the Bosporus.
In 610, Heraclius, an Armenian of probable Arsacid descent, revolted against the Byzantine Emperor Phocas and killed him, crowning himself as Emperor of the Byzantine Empire.

Siege of Constantinople (626)

Siege of ConstantinopleFirst Siege of Constantinoplebesieged Constantinople
In 626 the Avars and Slavs supported by a Persian army commanded by Shahrbaraz, besieged Constantinople, but the siege ended in failure (the victory was attributed to the icons of the Virgin which were led in procession by Sergius about the walls of the city), while a second Persian army under Shahin suffered another crushing defeat at the hands of Heraclius's brother Theodore.
The failure of the siege saved the Empire from collapse, and, combined with other victories achieved by Emperor Heraclius (r.

Church of the Holy Sepulchre

Holy SepulchreChurch of the Holy Sepulchertomb
In 613, the Persian army took Damascus with the help of the Jews, seized Jerusalem in 614, damaging the Church of the Holy Sepulchre and capturing the True Cross, and afterwards capturing Egypt in 617 or 618.
In 630, the Emperor Heraclius rebuilt the church after recapturing the city.

Sergius I of Constantinople

Patriarch Sergius I of ConstantinoplePatriarch SergiusSergius
With the Persians at the very gate of Constantinople, Heraclius thought of abandoning the city and moving the capital to Carthage, but the powerful church figure Patriarch Sergius convinced him to stay.
He was also a known supporter of Emperor Heraclius, crowning Heraclius as Emperor himself in 610.