Heraldry

The German Hyghalmen Roll was made in the late 15th century and illustrates the German practice of repeating themes from the arms in the crest. (See Roll of arms).
Enamel from the tomb of Geoffrey Plantagenet, Count of Anjou, one of the earliest depictions of modern heraldry.
Two pursuivants wearing tabards, Windsor Castle, 2006.
A shield parted per pale and per fir twig fess. Coat of arms of former Finnish municipality of Varpaisjärvi.
An extravagant example of marshalling: the 719 quarterings of the Grenville Armorial at Stowe House
German heraldry has examples of shields with numerous crests, as this arms of Saxe-Altenburg featuring a total of seven crests. Some thaler coins display as many as fifteen.
Flags as supporters and orders in the armory of the Prince of Vergara.
The coat of arms of Mikkeli, a city of South Savonia, Finland, has been drawn up in honour of the headquarters of the Finnish Army led by Marshal C. G. E. Mannerheim; this was stationed in the city during the Winter War, the Continuation War and the Lapland War. The coat of arms was originally used without the Mannerheim Cross, and is the third coat of arms affixed to the city.
Coat of Arms of the Turiec county in Slovakia.
State Emblem of the Soviet Union (1956-1991 version)
Arms created in 1977, featuring a hydrocarbon molecule
Military coat of arms, depicting a red locomotive.
Reverse of the Narmer Palette, circa 3100 BC. The top row depicts four men carrying standards.  Directly above them is a serekh containing the name of the king, Narmer.
Fresco depicting a shield of a type common in Mycenaean Greece.
Vase with Greek soldiers in armor, circa 550 BC.
A reconstruction of a shield that would have been carried by a Roman Legionary.
Shields from the "Magister Militum Praesentalis II". From the Notitia Dignitatum, a medieval copy of a Late Roman register of military commands.
The death of King Harold, from the Bayeux Tapestry. The shields look heraldic, but do not seem to have been personal or hereditary emblems.

Discipline relating to the design, display and study of armorial bearings , as well as related disciplines, such as vexillology, together with the study of ceremony, rank and pedigree.

- Heraldry
The German Hyghalmen Roll was made in the late 15th century and illustrates the German practice of repeating themes from the arms in the crest. (See Roll of arms).

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Restored griffin fresco in the Throne Room, Palace of Knossos, Crete, original from Bronze Age

Griffin

Legendary creature with the body, tail, and back legs of a lion; the head and wings of an eagle; and sometimes an eagle's talons as its front feet.

Legendary creature with the body, tail, and back legs of a lion; the head and wings of an eagle; and sometimes an eagle's talons as its front feet.

Restored griffin fresco in the Throne Room, Palace of Knossos, Crete, original from Bronze Age
Bronze griffins from ancient Luristan, Iran, 1st millennium BC. Vorderasiatisches Museum Berlin
Bronze griffin head from Olympia, Greece. 7th century BC. Olympia museum
The Pisa Griffin, in the Pisa Cathedral Museum, 11th century
The chief coin type of the Greek city state of Abdera was known as "the Griffon" because of the mythical animal depicted on it
Bronze figure of a griffin, Roman period (AD 50–270)
Griffin segreant wearing the mural crown of Perugia, 13th century
Griffin inscription at Sanchi Stupa from 3rd century BCE
A soldier fighting a griffin, 'Alphonso' Psalter, 1284
Martin Schongauer: The griffin, 15th century
Medieval tapestry, Basel, c. 1450 CE
Statue of a griffin at St Mark's Basilica in Venice
Illustration for Mandeville's legend by H. J. Ford, 1899
Griffin misericord, Ripon Cathedral, alleged inspiration for the Gryphon in Lewis Carroll’s Alice's Adventures in Wonderland
"Griff" Statue in the forecourt of the Farkashegyi Cemetery Budapest, 2007
The Gryphon is the emblem and mascot of the University of Guelph
Company logo for Merv Griffin Entertainment, using a silver griffin statue
Early historic references to the gryphon describe the area of the Dzungarian Gate, a region where Protoceratops and Psittacosaurus skeletons are very common.
Griffin in Johann Vogel: Meditationes emblematicae de restaurata pace Germaniae, 1649
A heraldic griffin passant of the Bevan family crest
Heraldic guardian griffin at Kasteel de Haar, Netherlands, 1892–1912
The Gryf coat of arms of the knighthood family Gryfici. Used by c. 481 Polish noble families.
The red griffin rampant was the coat of arms of the dukes of Pomerania and survives today as the armorial of West Pomeranian Voivodeship (historically, Farther Pomerania) in Poland. It is also part of the coat of arms of the German state of Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, representing the historical region Vorpommern (Hither Pommerania).
Similarly, the coat of arms of Greifswald, Germany, in Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, also shows a red griffin rampant – perched in a tree, reflecting a legend about the town's founding in the 13th century.
The Coat of arms of Crimea
Seal of Heraklion, Greece
Rogue taxidermy griffin, Zoological Museum, Copenhagen
Flag of the Utti Jaeger Regiment of the Finnish Army

In 15th-century and later heraldry, such a beast may be called an alke, a keythong or a male griffin.

The family tree of Louis III, Duke of Württemberg (ruled 1568–1593)

Genealogy

Study of families, family history, and the tracing of their lineages.

Study of families, family history, and the tracing of their lineages.

The family tree of Louis III, Duke of Württemberg (ruled 1568–1593)
The family tree of "the Landas", a 17th-century family
12 generations patrilineage of a Hindu Lingayat male from central Karnataka spanning over 275 years, depicted in descending order
A Medieval genealogy traced from Adam and Eve
Variations of VNTR allele lengths in six individuals
Gramps is an example of genealogy software.
A family history page from an antebellum era family Bible
The Family History Library, operated by The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, is the world's largest library dedicated to genealogical research.
Lineage of a family, c. 1809

The term often overlapped with heraldry, in which the ancestry of royalty was reflected in their coats of arms.

Coat of arms of the city of Ghent in the sixteenth century.

Coat of arms

Coat of arms of the city of Ghent in the sixteenth century.
Brabant Lion held by Floris de Merode during the funeral of Albert VII, Archduke of Austria, print after design by Jacob Franquart
The German Hyghalmen Roll, c. late 15th century, illustrates the German practice of thematic repetition from the arms in the crest
Arms of the Duke of Richmond c.1780
Coat of arms of Sir Edward Stanley, 3rd Earl of Derby, KG
Coat of arms of the city of Vaasa, showing the shield with the Royal House of Wasa emblem, a crown and a Cross of Liberty pendant.
Coat of arms of the province of Utrecht, Netherlands
Coat of arms of the Porvoo town
Coat of arms of Liptov County in Slovakia.
The Great Seal of the United States, which displays as its central design the heraldic device of the nation.
The coat of arms of Pope John Paul II displays the papal tiara and crossed keys of the pontifical office.
Imperial Seal of Japan
The Great Seal of the United States, which displays as its central design the heraldic device of the nation.

A coat of arms is a heraldic visual design on an escutcheon (i.e., shield), surcoat, or tabard (the latter two being outer garments).

Pictures of heralds from the 14th–17th century, from H. Ströhl's Heraldischer Atlas

Herald

Officer of arms, ranking between pursuivant and king of arms.

Officer of arms, ranking between pursuivant and king of arms.

Pictures of heralds from the 14th–17th century, from H. Ströhl's Heraldischer Atlas
English heralds, wearing tabards, in procession to St. George's Chapel, Windsor Castle for the annual service of the Order of the Garter in 2006. (l-r) Wales Herald of Arms Extraordinary (Michael Siddons), Somerset Herald of Arms in Ordinary (David White), Maltravers Herald of Arms Extraordinary (John Robinson), York Herald of Arms in Ordinary (Henry Paston-Bedingfeld), Windsor Herald of Arms in Ordinary (William Hunt).
Herald Gelre of the Duke of Gueldres (around 1380)
Bavarian herald Jörg Rugen wearing a tabard of the Coat of arms of Bavaria, around 1510.
A 14th-century illustration showing an English herald approaching Scottish soldiers – an incident of the Anglo-Scottish Wars
Tabard worn by an English herald in the College of Arms

This practice of heraldry became increasingly important and further regulated over the years, and in several countries around the world it is still overseen by heralds.

College of Arms

Royal corporation consisting of professional officers of arms, with jurisdiction over England, Wales, Northern Ireland and some Commonwealth realms.

Royal corporation consisting of professional officers of arms, with jurisdiction over England, Wales, Northern Ireland and some Commonwealth realms.

Depiction of King Richard III, the College of Arms' founder, his wife Queen Anne Neville, and their son Edward of Middleham, Prince of Wales, with their heraldic crests and badges from the Rous Roll. A roll of arms painted by John Rous around 1483–1485 for the Earl of Warwick.
Prince Arthur's Book, an armorial of arms for Arthur, Prince of Wales, c. 1520, depicting the proliferation of lions in English heraldry
Officers of the College of Arms riding in procession to the Westminster Tournament, from a tourney roll, made during the reign of King Henry VIII in 1511. The pursuivants to the left are identified by their reversed tabards, while the figure in the right (with the black hat) is probably Garter King of Arms Sir Thomas Wriothesley.
Roll of grants of arms during the Tudor period by Sir Thomas Wriothesley, c 1528
Armorial achievement of the College and its Kings of Arms, from Lant's Roll painted by Thomas Lant around 1595. It depicts the arms of Garter, Clarenceux, Norroy and Ulster. The additional charge in the first quarter of the first two shields, does not appear subsequently.
Heraldic banners and crests of King Charles II and his brother James, Duke of York (later James II), observed by Elias Ashmole, Windsor Herald. On a visitation to Berkshire in 1664–1665, the banners and crests were found at the choir stalls of St. George's Chapel, Windsor Castle.
The College of Arms as it looked in the 18th century, engraved by Benjamin Cole, and published in William Maitland's The History and Survey of London From Its Evolution to the Present Time in 1756.
Design by Robert Abraham (1773–1850) for a new College of Arms in Trafalgar Square, at the heart of Regency London in the 1820s; the plan was not executed due to a lack of funds.
Herald's College, Bennet's Hill. Drawn by Thomas H. Shepherd, engraved by W. Wallis. Jones & Co. Temple of the Muses, Finsbury Square, London, 17 April 1830
1862 map showing layout of the College (labelled Herald Off.). Carter Lane and Upper Thames Street can be seen running parallel to the north and south of the College, respectively. St Benet's, Paul's Wharf the official church of the College since 1555 can be seen to the south west.
Sir Algar Howard, KCB, KCVO, MC, TD, was appointed Norroy King of Arms in 1931. In 1943 he became the first Norroy and Ulster King of Arms, when the two titles were merged. He served in this office until 1944 when he was promoted to Garter King of Arms; he retired in 1950.
Main entrance to the College of Arms, 2011
The College of Arms in March 2009, with scaffolding on the west wing of the building after the 2009 fire
Heralds in procession to St George's Chapel, Windsor Castle for the annual service of the Order of the Garter, 19 June 2006
King Edward VIII surrounded by heralds of the College of Arms prior to his only State Opening of Parliament on 3 November 1936
The heraldic funeral procession of Queen Elizabeth I of England in 1603, depicting some the heralds of the College of Arms, each carrying a piece of the Sovereign's armour
A grant of Arms for Henry Draper of Colnbrook, as issued by the Clarenceux King of Arms, Robert Cooke in 1571. The grant gave him the right to use the arms shown. The blazon reads: Golde, on a ffesse betwene thre Annulettes gules, thre standing cuppes of the felde.
1602 drawing of the Shakespeare coat of arms, granted in 1596
A section of a modern grant of arms for the Rt. Rev Archibald Howard Cullen the 6th Bishop of Grahamstown. The grant was issued by the Garter King of Arms, Sir George Rothe Bellew in the 1950s.
The coat of arms of city of Bridgetown in the capital and largest city of Barbados. The arms were granted to the city on 20 September 1960 by the College of Arms.
An example of an Elizabethan pedigree of the Euery (de Euro) family of Northumberland, barons of Warkworth and Clavering. Scrivened and illuminated by Somerset Herald, Robert Glover circa 1570 to 1588
Courtroom of the Earl Marshal, Court of Chivalry, College of Arms, London
William Camden as Clarenceux King of Arms in the funeral procession of Elizabeth I in 1603. Camden is holding a "coate" possibly a royal tabard or surcoat bearing the Royal Arms of England.
Sir William Henry Weldon, the Norroy King of Arms from 1894 until 1911, wearing the tabard and donning the crown of the King of Arms at the 1902 coronation of King Edward VII
A modern-day tabard of a Herald of Arms, made of silk satin
Heraldic representation of a King of Arms's crown

The heralds are appointed by the British Sovereign and are delegated authority to act on behalf of the Crown in all matters of heraldry, the granting of new coats of arms, genealogical research and the recording of pedigrees.

Effigy of William Longespée the Younger (d.1250) in Salisbury Cathedral, showing an early triangular heater shield, the shape used as the "canvas" for the display of arms during the classical age of heraldry

Escutcheon (heraldry)

Effigy of William Longespée the Younger (d.1250) in Salisbury Cathedral, showing an early triangular heater shield, the shape used as the "canvas" for the display of arms during the classical age of heraldry
Pippa Middleton's coat of arms (granted 2011), based on those of her father. This lozenge shaped version, supported by a blue ribbon, denotes an unmarried woman.
Male (shield-shaped) and female (lozenge-shaped) coats of arms in relief in Southwark, London.
Points of an escutcheon or heraldic shield
Simple example of incorporating an heiress's arms as an escutcheon of pretense
Pelta escutcheon as used in the diplomatic emblem of France
Kite shield, 12th/13th century
"Norman" style, 13th century
"Heater" shape, 13th/14th century
Square ("Old French") shape
"Square Iberian" or Iberian style (square top, rounded base), 15th century<ref>Codex Figdor, Tiroler Landesarchiv, Innsbruck (c. 1400).</ref>
Bouched or bouché side ("German" or "Dutch" style), 15th century.{{efn |text=The gap or bouche represents the opening for the lance in specialised jousting shields, attested (in depictions of actual shields) from the mid 14th century, occasional use as a shape of heraldic escutcheons from the mid-15th century.{{sfn |Grazebrook|1890|loc=p31&ndash;35}}}}
Scroll-eared top, lobed base, 16th century
Square eared, nicked top, rounded base, 16th century
"Wedge" top
"Polish" style, 17th century <ref>{{cite book|title=Nauki Pomocnicze Historii|last= Szymański |first= Józef|orig-year=2001|year=2001|location=Warsaw}}</ref>
Eared top, French base
"French" style, 17th century{{efn|text=Used in the Armorial général de France (1696).<ref>{{cite book |title=Armorial général, ou Registres de la noblesse de France |url=https://archive.org/details/armorialgnralou03hozi/page/406 |last= d'Hozier |first=Louis Pierre |orig-year=1696 |year=1865 |location= Paris |publisher=Firmin Didot |via=Internet Archive}}</ref> The "French" shape of the base is found earlier, in French and English heraldry, from c. 1600 ("Stuart" type).}}
"Cardiodid" shape,{{Example needed|date=September 2021}} 18th century
Two engrailed top, 19th century{{efn|text=called ecu suisse in some French sources of the 19th century,{{citation needed|date=November 2018}} as this shape was used in coats of arms on some coins of the Swiss mediation period (1803&ndash;1815).}}
oval or "Iberian" shape
Lozenge shape (see Lozenge section)
Escutcheons as mobile charges, as borne by the French family of Abbeville.
Inescutcheons for style in the arms of the Swedish Collegium of Arms.
An escutcheon of pretence, as borne by the French family de Champagne-La Suze.
Inherited arms borne en surtout over territorial arms. (Arms of Eric of Pomerania as monarch of the Kalmar Union, c.15th century)

In heraldry, an escutcheon is a shield that forms the main or focal element in an achievement of arms.

A knight with an eagle crest at the Saracen Joust in Arezzo, Tuscany.

Crest (heraldry)

A knight with an eagle crest at the Saracen Joust in Arezzo, Tuscany.
Sir Geoffrey Luttrell, with fan crests displaying his arms on both his helmet and his horse's head. From the Luttrell Psalter, c. 1330.
Arms of the Margrave of Brandenburg-Ansbach, with fifteen crested helms.
Crest-badge of the Chief of Clan Douglas.
British crests in an 1817 book.

A crest is a component of a heraldic display, consisting of the device borne on top of the helm.

The flag of the International Federation of Vexillological Associations depicts a sheet bend.

Vexillology

Study of the history, symbolism and usage of flags or, by extension, any interest in flags in general.

Study of the history, symbolism and usage of flags or, by extension, any interest in flags in general.

The flag of the International Federation of Vexillological Associations depicts a sheet bend.

Before this time, study of flags was generally considered a part of heraldry, the study of armorial bearings.

Seal of the city of Berlin (1280), showing the Brandenburg coat of arms flanked by two bears

Supporter

Seal of the city of Berlin (1280), showing the Brandenburg coat of arms flanked by two bears
Standesscheibe of Solothurn, c. 1520, with two lions as supporters
Early example of the Royal Arms of England with lion and dragon as supporters, from a painting of Edward VI dated c. 1547
Two trees in the coat of arms of Rio Grande do Norte.
The two Ls in the coat of arms of Valencia (city) mark it as 'doubly loyal'.
An angel is the single supporter of this Kraków sculpture of the arms of Poland.
'Falling' whales support the arms of Zaanstad
Flags are the supporters in the arms of Supreme Headquarters Allied Powers Europe
Flags and cannons are the supporters in the arms of Kazimierz Raczyński
The coat of arms of Spain is supported by columns representing the Pillars of Hercules.
The coat of arms of Austria has one supporter, an eagle, which bears the escutcheon on its breast. This arrangement is common where eagles and other birds are used as supporters, as in the Great Seal of the United States and the coat of arms of Russia.
The allegorical figures Liberty and blindfolded Justice support a shield on the flag of the State of New York
The coat of arms of the Municipality of New Belgrade is supported by two swallows.
Badgers on the arms of County Fermanagh, Northern Ireland.
The arms of South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands feature a fur seal and macaroni penguin as supporters.
Royal arms of the United Kingdom (as used in England, Northern Ireland and Wales) has lion supporter (for England) in the dexter and unicorn supporter (for Scotland) in the sinister.
Coat of Arms of Malaysia which has two tigers as the supporters.
Arms of Margaret Thatcher, with Isaac Newton and a Royal Navy Admiral as supporters.
The coat of arms of Iceland is the only Nation to feature 4 supporters. Each supporter represents a protector and intercardinal direction. The bull is the protector of northwestern Iceland. The eagle or griffin is the protector of northeastern Iceland. The dragon is the protector of southeastern Iceland. The rock-giant is the protector of southwestern Iceland.
Flags are the supporters in the arms of Supreme Headquarters Allied Powers Europe

In heraldry, supporters, sometimes referred to as attendants, are figures or objects usually placed on either side of the shield and depicted holding it up.

Coronet of an earl (as worn by the 17th Earl of Devon at the Coronation of Elizabeth II and now on display at Powderham Castle)

Coronet

Small crown consisting of ornaments fixed on a metal ring.

Small crown consisting of ornaments fixed on a metal ring.

Coronet of an earl (as worn by the 17th Earl of Devon at the Coronation of Elizabeth II and now on display at Powderham Castle)
Depiction of a baron's coronet on a 17th-century funerary monument
The crown of the British heir apparent
The coronet of a Swedish duke (always a Swedish prince).
English King of Arms
Loyalists military coronet (Canadian)
Loyalists civil coronet (Canadian)
Non-hereditary prince or princess
Duke
Marquis
Count
Baron
Crown of Nobility
Infante or Infanta (Prince or Princess)
Infante or Infanta (Variant for the Spanish territories of the former Crown of Aragon)
Spanish Grandee
Duke
Marquess
Count
Viscount
Baron
Lord (señor)
Hidalgo (Spanish nobleman)
Spanish Officer of Arms (Herald and Pursuivant / Persevante)
Heir Apparent
Duke / Duchess
Count / Countess
Baron / Baroness
Crown of Nobility
Roi
Dauphin of France
Fils de France et Petit-Fils de France
Prince du Sang
Duc (Peer)
Duc
Marquis (Peer)
Marquis
Comte (Peer)
Comte
Comte (older variant)
Viscount
Vidame
Baron
Chevalier
Herzogskrone
Fürstenkrone
Landgrafenkrone
Grafenkrone
Freiherrnkrone
Adelskrone
Royal Crown of Portugal
Prince (Heir Apparent)
Prince of Beira
Infante (Prince)
Duke
Marquis
Count
Viscount
Baron
Knight / Fidalgo

The main use is now actually not on the head (indeed, many people entitled to a coronet never have one made; the same even applies to some monarchs' crowns, as in Belgium) but as a rank symbol in heraldry, adorning a coat of arms.