Heraldry

heraldicheraldistarmsheraldic symbolcoat of armsShieldcoats of armsHeraldic Symbolismheraldheraldic arms
Heraldry is a broad term, encompassing the design, display, and study of armorial bearings (known as armory), as well as related disciplines, such as vexillology, together with the study of ceremony, rank, and pedigree.wikipedia
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Escutcheon (heraldry)

escutcheonshieldescutcheons
The achievement, or armorial bearings usually includes a coat of arms on an shield, helmet, and crest, together with any accompanying devices, such as supporters, badges, heraldic banners, and mottoes. A heraldic achievement consists of a shield of arms the coat of arms, or simply coat, together with all of its accompanying elements, such as a crest, supporters, and other heraldic embellishments.
In heraldry, an escutcheon is a shield that forms the main or focal element in an achievement of arms.

Helmet (heraldry)

helmethelmhelmut
The achievement, or armorial bearings usually includes a coat of arms on an shield, helmet, and crest, together with any accompanying devices, such as supporters, badges, heraldic banners, and mottoes.
In heraldic achievements, the helmet or helm is situated above the shield and bears the torse and crest.

Achievement (heraldry)

achievementarmorial bearingsheraldic achievement
Armory, the best-known branch of heraldry, concerns the design and transmission of the heraldic achievement.

Heraldic flag

standardguidonstandards
The achievement, or armorial bearings usually includes a coat of arms on an shield, helmet, and crest, together with any accompanying devices, such as supporters, badges, heraldic banners, and mottoes. Some arms, particularly those of the nobility, are further embellished with supporters, heraldic figures standing alongside or behind the shield; often these stand on a compartment, typically a mound of earth and grass, on which other badges, symbols, or heraldic banners may be displayed.
In heraldry and vexillology, a heraldic flag is a flag containing coats of arms, heraldic badges, or other devices used for personal identification.

Serekh

serekh nameserekh-nameHorus-name
The earliest representations of distinct persons and regions in Egyptian art show the use of standards topped with the images or symbols of various gods, and the names of kings appear upon emblems known as serekhs, representing the king's palace, and usually topped with a falcon representing the god Horus, of whom the king was regarded as the earthly incarnation.
A serekh was a specific important type of heraldic crest used in ancient Egypt.

Attributed arms

attributedarmsArms were attributed
The medieval heralds also devised arms for various knights and lords from history and literature.
Attributed arms are Western European coats of arms given retrospectively to persons real or fictitious who died before the start of the age of heraldry in the latter half of the 12th century.

Griffin

gryphongriffinsgriffon
Similar emblems and devices are found in ancient Mesopotamian art of the same period, and the precursors of heraldic beasts such as the griffin can also be found.
In 15th-century and later heraldry, such a beast may be called an alce or a keythong.

Motto

heraldic mottomottosmottoes
The achievement, or armorial bearings usually includes a coat of arms on an shield, helmet, and crest, together with any accompanying devices, such as supporters, badges, heraldic banners, and mottoes.
In heraldry, a motto is often found below the shield in a banderole; this placement stems from the Middle Ages, in which the vast majority of nobles possessed a coat of arms and a motto.

Book of Saint Albans

The Book of Saint AlbansBoke of St AlbansBoke of Saint Albans
The Book of Saint Albans, compiled in 1486, declares that Christ himself was a gentleman of coat armour.
It contains three essays, on hawking, hunting, and heraldry.

Genealogy

genealogistgenealogicalfamily history
Heraldry is a broad term, encompassing the design, display, and study of armorial bearings (known as armory), as well as related disciplines, such as vexillology, together with the study of ceremony, rank, and pedigree.
The term often overlapped with heraldry, in which the ancestry of royalty was reflected in their coats of arms.

King of Arms

Kings of ArmsBritish heraldic authoritiesChronicler King of Arms
As early as the late thirteenth century, certain heralds in the employ of monarchs were given the title "King of Heralds", which eventually became "King of Arms."
In many heraldic traditions, only a king of arms has the authority to grant armorial bearings and sometimes certify genealogies and noble titles.

Scrope v Grosvenor

Scrope v. GrosvenorScropeBendor
The most celebrated armorial dispute in English heraldry is that of Scrope v Grosvenor (1390), in which two different men claimed the right to bear azure, a bend or.
Scrope v Grosvenor (1389) was one of the earliest heraldic law cases brought in England.

College of Arms

College of HeraldsRoyal LicenceDerby House
In 1484, during the reign of Richard III, the various heralds employed by the crown were incorporated into England’s College of Arms, through which all new grants of arms would eventually be issued.
The heralds are appointed by the British Sovereign and are delegated authority to act on behalf of the Crown in all matters of heraldry, the granting of new coats of arms, genealogical research and the recording of pedigrees.

Pursuivant

pursuivant of armsPursuivantsPursuivants of Arms
The college currently consists of three Kings of Arms, assisted by six Heralds, and four Pursuivants, or junior officers of arms, all under the authority of the Earl Marshal; but all of the arms granted by the college are granted by the authority of the crown.
Most pursuivants are attached to official heraldic authorities, such as the College of Arms in London or the Court of the Lord Lyon in Edinburgh.

Coat of arms

armscoats of armscoat-of-arms
The term "coat of arms" technically refers to the shield of arms itself, but the phrase is commonly used to refer to the entire achievement.
A coat of arms is a heraldic visual design on an escutcheon (i.e., shield), surcoat, or tabard.

Crest (heraldry)

crestheraldic crestcrests
A heraldic achievement consists of a shield of arms the coat of arms, or simply coat, together with all of its accompanying elements, such as a crest, supporters, and other heraldic embellishments.
A crest is a component of a heraldic display, consisting of the device borne on top of the helm.

Tincture (heraldry)

tincturetincturesproper
One of the most distinctive qualities of heraldry is the use of a limited palette of colours and patterns, usually referred to as tinctures. The field of a shield in heraldry can be divided into more than one tincture, as can the various heraldic charges.
Tinctures constitute the limited palette of colours and patterns used in heraldry.

Compartment (heraldry)

compartmentcompartmentsgrassy mount
Some arms, particularly those of the nobility, are further embellished with supporters, heraldic figures standing alongside or behind the shield; often these stand on a compartment, typically a mound of earth and grass, on which other badges, symbols, or heraldic banners may be displayed.
In heraldry, a compartment is a design placed under the shield, usually rocks, a grassy mount (mount vert), or some sort of other landscape upon which the supporters are depicted as standing.

Mantling

lambrequinlambrequinsmantle
These in turn came to be decorated with fan-shaped or sculptural crests, often incorporating elements from the shield of arms; as well as a wreath or torse, or sometimes a coronet, from which depended the lambrequin or mantling.
In heraldry, mantling or lambrequin is drapery tied to the helmet above the shield.

Rule of tincture

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One of the most important conventions of heraldry is the so-called "rule of tincture".
The most basic rule of heraldic design is the rule of tincture: metal should not be put on metal, nor colour on colour (Humphrey Llwyd, 1568).

Charge (heraldry)

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The field of a shield in heraldry can be divided into more than one tincture, as can the various heraldic charges.
In heraldry, a charge is any emblem or device occupying the field of an escutcheon (shield).

Henry II of England

Henry IIKing Henry IIHenry Plantagenet
The earlier heraldic writers attributed the lions of England to William the Conqueror, but the earliest evidence of the association of lions with the English crown is a seal bearing two lions passant, used by the future King John during the lifetime of his father, Henry II, who died in 1189.
He was probably the first king of England to use a heraldic design: a signet ring with either a leopard or a lion engraved on it.

Coronet

Coronet of a BaronCoronet of an EarlCoronet of a Viscount
These in turn came to be decorated with fan-shaped or sculptural crests, often incorporating elements from the shield of arms; as well as a wreath or torse, or sometimes a coronet, from which depended the lambrequin or mantling.
The main use is now actually not on the head (indeed, many people entitled to a coronet never have one made; the same even applies to some monarchs' crowns, as in Belgium) but as a rank symbol in heraldry, adorning a coat of arms.

Herald

heraldsherald of armsChief Herald
The spread of armorial bearings across Europe soon gave rise to a new occupation: the herald, originally a type of messenger employed by noblemen, assumed the responsibility of learning and knowing the rank, pedigree, and heraldic devices of various knights and lords, as well as the rules and protocols governing the design and description, or blazoning of arms, and the precedence of their bearers.
This practice of heraldry became increasingly important and further regulated over the years, and in several countries around the world it is still overseen by heralds.

Ermine (heraldry)

ermineerminoisermines
There are two basic types of heraldic fur, known as ermine and vair, but over the course of centuries each has developed a number of variations.
Ermine in heraldry is a "fur", a type of tincture, consisting of a white background with a pattern of black shapes representing the winter coat of the stoat (a species of weasel with white fur and a black-tipped tail).