Herbert Kitchener, 1st Earl Kitchener

Lord KitchenerKitchenerHerbert KitchenerGeneral KitchenerEarl KitchenerHoratio KitchenerSir Herbert KitchenerThe Earl KitchenerEarl Kitchener of KhartoumField Marshal Kitchener
Field Marshal Horatio Herbert Kitchener, 1st Earl Kitchener, (24 June 1850 – 5 June 1916), was a senior British Army officer and colonial administrator who won notoriety for his imperial campaigns, most especially his scorched earth policy against the Boers and his establishment of concentration camps during the Second Boer War, and later played a central role in the early part of the First World War.wikipedia
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Scorched earth

scorched-earthscorched earth policyscorched earth tactics
Field Marshal Horatio Herbert Kitchener, 1st Earl Kitchener, (24 June 1850 – 5 June 1916), was a senior British Army officer and colonial administrator who won notoriety for his imperial campaigns, most especially his scorched earth policy against the Boers and his establishment of concentration camps during the Second Boer War, and later played a central role in the early part of the First World War.
Notable historic examples of scorched-earth tactics include the Russian army's strategy during the failed Swedish invasion of Russia, the failed Napoleonic invasion of Russia, William Tecumseh Sherman's March to the Sea in the American Civil War, colonel Kit Carson's subjugation of the American Navajo Indians, Lord Kitchener's advance against the Boers, the initial Soviet retreat commanded by Joseph Stalin during the German Army's invasion of the Soviet Union in the Second World War, and the subsequent Nazi German retreat on the Eastern Front.

Battle of Omdurman

OmdurmanKhartoumcampaign at the Sudan in 1898
Kitchener was credited in 1898 for winning the Battle of Omdurman and securing control of the Sudan for which he was made Lord Kitchener of Khartoum, becoming a qualifying peer and of mid-rank as an Earl. Kitchener achieved further successes at the Battle of Atbara in April 1898, and then the Battle of Omdurman in September 1898.
At the Battle of Omdurman (2 September 1898), an army commanded by the British General Sir Herbert Kitchener defeated the army of Abdullah al-Taashi, the successor to the self-proclaimed Mahdi, Muhammad Ahmad.

Second Boer War

Boer WarAnglo-Boer WarSouth African War
Field Marshal Horatio Herbert Kitchener, 1st Earl Kitchener, (24 June 1850 – 5 June 1916), was a senior British Army officer and colonial administrator who won notoriety for his imperial campaigns, most especially his scorched earth policy against the Boers and his establishment of concentration camps during the Second Boer War, and later played a central role in the early part of the First World War. As Chief of Staff (1900–1902) in the Second Boer War he played a key role in Lord Roberts' conquest of the Boer Republics, then succeeded Roberts as commander-in-chief – by which time Boer forces had taken to guerrilla fighting and British forces imprisoned Boer civilians in concentration camps.
General Redvers Buller was replaced by Lord Roberts and Lord Kitchener.

HMS Hampshire (1903)

HMS ''HampshireHampshireHMS Hampshire
On 5 June 1916, Kitchener was making his way to Russia to attend negotiations, on HMS Hampshire, when it struck a German mine 1.5 mi west of the Orkney, Scotland, and sank.
Several days later she was sailing to Russia, carrying the Secretary of State for War, Field Marshal Lord Kitchener, when she is believed to have struck a mine laid by a German submarine on 5 June.

Earl Kitchener

Countess KitchenerGeneral KitchenerLord Kitchener
Kitchener was credited in 1898 for winning the Battle of Omdurman and securing control of the Sudan for which he was made Lord Kitchener of Khartoum, becoming a qualifying peer and of mid-rank as an Earl.
It was created in 1914 for the famous soldier Field Marshal Herbert Kitchener, 1st Viscount Kitchener of Khartoum.

Walter Kitchener

Frederick Walter KitchenerSir Walter KitchenerF. W. Kitchener
His brother, Lt. Gen. Sir Walter Kitchener, had also entered the army, and was Governor of Bermuda from 1908 to 1912.
In 1876 he followed his older brother Herbert Kitchener, 1st Earl Kitchener in taking up a career in the British Army.

Sudan

🇸🇩SudaneseRepublic of the Sudan
Kitchener was credited in 1898 for winning the Battle of Omdurman and securing control of the Sudan for which he was made Lord Kitchener of Khartoum, becoming a qualifying peer and of mid-rank as an Earl.
Herbert Kitchener led military campaigns against the Mahdist Sudan from 1896 to 1898.

Shell Crisis of 1915

Shell Crisiscrisis in inadequate artillery shell productionshell shortage
Despite having warned of the difficulty of provisioning for a long war, he was blamed for the shortage of shells in the spring of 1915 – one of the events leading to the formation of a coalition government – and stripped of his control over munitions and strategy.
Lord Northcliffe, the owner of The Times and the Daily Mail, blamed Herbert Kitchener, then Secretary of State for War, for the recent death in action of his nephew.

Frederick Roberts, 1st Earl Roberts

Lord RobertsFrederick RobertsRoberts
As Chief of Staff (1900–1902) in the Second Boer War he played a key role in Lord Roberts' conquest of the Boer Republics, then succeeded Roberts as commander-in-chief – by which time Boer forces had taken to guerrilla fighting and British forces imprisoned Boer civilians in concentration camps.
For his headquarters staff, he appointed military men from far and wide: Lord Kitchener (Chief of Staff) from the Sudan, Frederick Burnham (Chief of Scouts), the American scout, from the Klondike, George Henderson from the Staff College, Neville Chamberlain from Afghanistan and William Nicholson (Military Secretary) from Calcutta.

Sudan Military Railroad

railway-building drive through Sudansupply railway
Kitchener wanted to build a railroad to supply the Anglo-Egyptian army, and assigned the task of constructing the Sudan Military Railroad to a Canadian railroad builder, Percy Girouard, for whom he had specifically asked.
The Sudan Military Railroad was a military railway constructed from Wadi Halfa to Abu Hamed during 1896–97 by Sirdar Horatio Kitchener in order to supply the Anglo-Egyptian army prosecuting the Mahdist War.

Battle of Ferkeh

Dongola-ExpeditionFerkehFirket
Kitchener won victories at the Battle of Ferkeh in June 1896 and the Battle of Hafir in September 1896, earning him national fame in the United Kingdom and promotion to major-general on 25 September 1896.
The Battle of Ferkeh (or Firket) occurred during the Mahdist War when an army of the Mahdist Sudanese was surprised and routed by British-led Egyptian forces under Sir Herbert Kitchener on 7 June 1896.

Daily Mail

The Daily MailMail on SundayThe Mail on Sunday
The journalist G. W. Steevens wrote in the Daily Mail that "He [Kitchener] is more like a machine than a man. You feel that he ought to be patented and shown with pride at the Paris International Exhibition. British Empire: Exhibit No. 1 hors concours, the Sudan Machine".
On 21 May 1915, Northcliffe criticised Lord Kitchener, the Secretary of State for War, regarding weapons and munitions.

George Curzon, 1st Marquess Curzon of Kedleston

Lord CurzonGeorge CurzonCurzon
His term as Commander-in-Chief (1902–09) of the Army in India saw him quarrel with another eminent proconsul, the Viceroy Lord Curzon, who eventually resigned.
It often involved petty issues that had much to do with clashes of personality: Curzon once wrote on a document "I rise from the perusal of these papers filled with the sense of the ineptitude of my military advisers", and once wrote to the Commander-in-Chief in India, Kitchener, advising him that signing himself "Kitchener of Khartoum" took up too much time and space, which Kitchener thought petty (Curzon simply signed himself "Curzon" as if he were a hereditary peer, although he later took to signing himself "Curzon of Kedleston").

Winston Churchill

ChurchillSir Winston ChurchillChurchill, Winston
A young Winston Churchill, serving as an army officer, wrote of what he saw: "A ragged line of men were coming on desperately, struggling forward in the face of the pitiless fire-black banners tossing and collapsing; white figures subsiding in dozens to the ground...valiant men were struggling on through a hell of whistling metal, exploding shells, and spurting dust—suffering, despairing, dying".
While staying in Bangalore in the first half of 1898, Churchill explored the possibility of joining Herbert Kitchener's military campaign in the Sudan.

Secretary of State for War

War SecretarySecretaries of State for WarWar Minister
In 1914, at the start of the First World War, Kitchener became Secretary of State for War, a Cabinet Minister.

Palestine Exploration Fund

PEFPalestine Exploration QuarterlySurvey of Western Palestine
In 1874, aged 24, Kitchener was assigned by the Palestine Exploration Fund to a mapping-survey of the Holy Land, replacing Charles Tyrwhitt-Drake, who had died of malaria.
Horatio Kitchener

Gordon Memorial College

Gordon College Gordon CollegeUniversity College of Khartoum
The programme had a strong foundation, based on education at Gordon Memorial College as its centrepiece—and not simply for the children of the local elites, for children from anywhere could apply to study.
It was built between 1899 and 1902 as part of Lord Kitchener's wide-ranging educational reforms.

Claude Reignier Conder

ConderC.R. ConderC. R. Conder
By then an officer in the Royal Engineers, Kitchener joined fellow officer Claude R. Conder; between 1874 and 1877 they surveyed Palestine, returning to England only briefly in 1875 after an attack by locals at Safed, in Galilee.
He carried out survey work in Palestine in 1872–1874, latterly in conjunction with Lt Kitchener, later Lord Kitchener, whom he had met at school, and was seconded to the Palestine Exploration Fund from 1875 to 1878 and again in 1881 and 1882, when he was promoted captain.

British concentration camps

concentration campconcentration campsBritish operated such camps
Conditions in the concentration camps, which had been conceived by Roberts as a form of control of the families whose farms he had destroyed, began to degenerate rapidly as the large influx of Boers outstripped the ability of the minuscule British force to cope.
However, when the Earl Kitchener took over in late 1900, he introduced new tactics in an attempt to break the guerrilla campaign and the influx of civilians grew dramatically as a result.

Percy Girouard

Sir Percy Girouard Sir '''Percy GirouardLieutenant Percy Girouard
Kitchener wanted to build a railroad to supply the Anglo-Egyptian army, and assigned the task of constructing the Sudan Military Railroad to a Canadian railroad builder, Percy Girouard, for whom he had specifically asked.
From 1890–1895 he was in charge of the Woolwich Arsenal Railway before he joined the Dongola Expedition in 1896 and was asked by Kitchener to supervise the extension of the old Wadi-Halfa to Akasha railroad, which marked the beginning of the Sudan Military Railroad.

Khartoum

Khartoum, SudanKhartoum-basedKhartuom
He was created Baron Kitchener, of Khartoum and of Aspall in the County of Suffolk, on 31 October 1898.
On 2 September 1898, Omdurman was the scene of the bloody Battle of Omdurman, during which British forces under Herbert Kitchener defeated the Mahdist forces defending the city.

Battle of Atbara

AtbaraAtbarahbattle
Kitchener achieved further successes at the Battle of Atbara in April 1898, and then the Battle of Omdurman in September 1898.
The Sudanese Mahdist leader, the Khalifa Abdallahi ibn Muhammad ordered the Emir Mahmud Ahmad and his 10,000 strong army of western Sudan northward towards the junction of the Nile and River Atbara rivers to engage the British and Egyptian army led by Herbert Kitchener.

Rawalpindi Parade 1905

Rawalpindi Parade
Kitchener presided over the Rawalpindi Parade in 1905 to honour the Prince and Princess of Wales's visit to India.
The troops were under the Command of Horatio Herbert, Viscount Kitchener of Khartoum, G.C.B., O.M., G.C.M.G., Commander-in-Chief India.

British Indian Army

Indian ArmyIndianreforms
He immediately began the task of reorganising the Indian Army.
The Kitchener reforms began in 1903 when Lord Kitchener of Khartoum, newly appointed Commander-in-Chief, India, completed the unification of the three former Presidency armies, and also the Punjab Frontier Force, the Hyderabad Contingent and other local forces, into one Indian Army; see Army of India (including also units of the British Army stationed in India).

Battle of Paardeberg

PaardebergPaardeberg DayBattle of Paardeberg Drift
Officially holding the title of chief of staff, he was in practice a second-in-command and was present at the relief of Kimberley before leading an unsuccessful frontal assault at the Battle of Paardeberg in February 1900.
Cronjé's slow-moving column was intercepted by French at Paardeberg, where the Boer general eventually surrendered after a prolonged siege, having fought off an attempted direct assault by Lieutenant General Horatio Kitchener.