Herbert Spencer

SpencerSpencerianSpencer, HerbertMr. SpencerPrinciples of Biology (1898)synthetic philosophy
Herbert Spencer (27 April 1820 – 8 December 1903) was an English philosopher, biologist, anthropologist, sociologist, and prominent classical liberal political theorist of the Victorian era.wikipedia
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Survival of the fittest

survivalstruggle for existenceDarwinian struggle
Spencer is best known for the expression "survival of the fittest", which he coined in Principles of Biology (1864), after reading Charles Darwin's On the Origin of Species.
Herbert Spencer first used the phrase, after reading Charles Darwin's On the Origin of Species, in his Principles of Biology (1864), in which he drew parallels between his own economic theories and Darwin's biological ones: "This survival of the fittest, which I have here sought to express in mechanical terms, is that which Mr. Darwin has called 'natural selection', or the preservation of favoured races in the struggle for life."

Sociology

sociologistsociologicalsociologists
Herbert Spencer (27 April 1820 – 8 December 1903) was an English philosopher, biologist, anthropologist, sociologist, and prominent classical liberal political theorist of the Victorian era.
Herbert Spencer (27 April 1820 – 8 December 1903) was one of the most popular and influential 19th-century sociologists.

Social Statics

From 1848 to 1853 he served as sub-editor on the free-trade journal The Economist, during which time he published his first book, Social Statics (1851), which predicted that humanity would eventually become completely adapted to the requirements of living in society with the consequential withering away of the state.
Social Statics, or The Conditions essential to Happiness specified, and the First of them Developed is an 1851 book by the British polymath Herbert Spencer.

Evolutionism

evolutionistevolutionistsevolution
Spencer developed an all-embracing conception of evolution as the progressive development of the physical world, biological organisms, the human mind, and human culture and societies.
By then, Herbert Spencer had developed the concept theory that organisms strive to evolve due to an internal "driving force" (orthogenesis) in 1862.

Natural selection

selectionselectiveselected
This term strongly suggests natural selection, yet as Spencer extended evolution into realms of sociology and ethics, he also made use of Lamarckism.
However, some thinkers enthusiastically embraced natural selection; after reading Darwin, Herbert Spencer introduced the phrase survival of the fittest, which became a popular summary of the theory.

Auguste Comte

ComteComteanComtian
However it was the friendship of Evans and Lewes that acquainted him with John Stuart Mill's A System of Logic and with Auguste Comte's positivism and which set him on the road to his life's work.
His concept of sociologie and social evolutionism set the tone for early social theorists and anthropologists such as Harriet Martineau and Herbert Spencer, evolving into modern academic sociology presented by Émile Durkheim as practical and objective social research.

X Club

a club
He also became a member of the Athenaeum, an exclusive Gentleman's Club in London open only to those distinguished in the arts and sciences, and the X Club, a dining club of nine founded by T.H. Huxley that met every month and included some of the most prominent thinkers of the Victorian age (three of whom would become presidents of the Royal Society).
The members of the club were George Busk, Edward Frankland, Thomas Archer Hirst, Joseph Dalton Hooker, Thomas Henry Huxley, John Lubbock, Herbert Spencer, William Spottiswoode, and John Tyndall, united by a "devotion to science, pure and free, untrammelled by religious dogmas."

The Economist

EconomistEconomist magazineEconomist Intelligence Unit
From 1848 to 1853 he served as sub-editor on the free-trade journal The Economist, during which time he published his first book, Social Statics (1851), which predicted that humanity would eventually become completely adapted to the requirements of living in society with the consequential withering away of the state.
James Wilson 1843–1857 (Herbert Spencer was sub-editor from 1848 to 1853)

Lamarckism

Lamarckianinheritance of acquired characteristicsneo-Lamarckism
This term strongly suggests natural selection, yet as Spencer extended evolution into realms of sociology and ethics, he also made use of Lamarckism. Given the primacy which Spencer placed on evolution, his sociology might be described as social Darwinism mixed with Lamarckism.
Lamarckism also appealed to those, like the philosopher Herbert Spencer and the German anatomist Ernst Haeckel, who saw evolution as an inherently progressive process.

Classical liberalism

classical liberalliberalclassical liberals
Herbert Spencer (27 April 1820 – 8 December 1903) was an English philosopher, biologist, anthropologist, sociologist, and prominent classical liberal political theorist of the Victorian era.
By the 1870s, Herbert Spencer and other classical liberals concluded that historical development was turning against them.

George Eliot

EliotEliot, GeorgeGeorge Elliot
Its publisher, John Chapman, introduced Spencer to his salon which was attended by many of the leading radical and progressive thinkers of the capital, including John Stuart Mill, Harriet Martineau, George Henry Lewes and Mary Ann Evans (George Eliot), with whom he was briefly romantically linked.
The people whom the young woman met at the Brays' house included Robert Owen, Herbert Spencer, Harriet Martineau, and Ralph Waldo Emerson.

Shyamji Krishna Varma

Shyamji Krishnavarma
At Spencer's funeral the Indian nationalist leader Shyamji Krishnavarma announced a donation of £1,000 to establish a lectureship at Oxford University in tribute to Spencer and his work.
An admirer of Dayanand Saraswati's approach of cultural nationalism, and of Herbert Spencer, Krishna Varma believed in Spencer's dictum: "Resistance to aggression is not simply justified, but imperative".

Paper clip

paperclippaper clipsclip
Spencer also invented a precursor to the modern paper clip, though it looked more like a modern cotter pin.
It has been claimed, though apparently without evidence, that Herbert Spencer, the originator of the term "survival of the fittest", invented the paper clip.

Beatrice Webb

BeatriceBeatrice Webb, Baroness PassfieldBeatrice Potter
Bertrand Russell stated in a letter to Beatrice Webb in 1923: 'I don't know whether [Spencer] was ever made to realize the implications of the second law of thermodynamics; if so, he may well be upset.
From an early age Beatrice was self-taught and cited as important influences the cooperative movement and the philosopher Herbert Spencer.

John Chapman (publisher)

John Chapman
Its publisher, John Chapman, introduced Spencer to his salon which was attended by many of the leading radical and progressive thinkers of the capital, including John Stuart Mill, Harriet Martineau, George Henry Lewes and Mary Ann Evans (George Eliot), with whom he was briefly romantically linked.
His assistant Mary Anne Evans brought together authors including Francis William Newman, W. R. Greg, Harriet Martineau and the young journalist Herbert Spencer, and later John Stuart Mill, William Carpenter, Robert Chambers, George Holyoake and Thomas Huxley.

Sociocultural evolution

social evolutionismsocioculturalcultural development
A philosopher of science, Comte had proposed a theory of sociocultural evolution that society progresses by a general law of three stages.
Early sociocultural evolution theories – the ideas of Auguste Comte (1798–1857), Herbert Spencer (1820–1903) and Lewis Henry Morgan (1818–1881) – developed simultaneously with, but independently of, Charles Darwin's works and were popular from the late 19th century to the end of World War I.

Social Darwinism

social DarwinistSocial Darwiniansocial Darwinists
Given the primacy which Spencer placed on evolution, his sociology might be described as social Darwinism mixed with Lamarckism.
But some scholars argue that Darwin's view gradually changed and came to incorporate views from other theorists such as Herbert Spencer.

Structural functionalism

functionalismfunctionalistsocial function
Though Spencer made some valuable contributions to early sociology, not least in his influence on structural functionalism, his attempt to introduce Lamarckian or Darwinian ideas into the realm of sociology was unsuccessful.
A common analogy, popularized by Herbert Spencer, presents these parts of society as "organs" that work toward the proper functioning of the "body" as a whole.

Thomas Henry Huxley

HuxleyThomas HuxleyT. H. Huxley
He also became a member of the Athenaeum, an exclusive Gentleman's Club in London open only to those distinguished in the arts and sciences, and the X Club, a dining club of nine founded by T.H. Huxley that met every month and included some of the most prominent thinkers of the Victorian age (three of whom would become presidents of the Royal Society). Spencer himself introduced the biologist Thomas Henry Huxley, who would later win fame as 'Darwin's Bulldog' and who remained his lifelong friend.
The members were: Huxley, John Tyndall, J. D. Hooker, John Lubbock (banker, biologist and neighbour of Darwin), Herbert Spencer (social philosopher and sub-editor of the Economist), William Spottiswoode (mathematician and the Queen's Printer), Thomas Hirst (Professor of Physics at University College London), Edward Frankland (the new Professor of Chemistry at the Royal Institution) and George Busk, zoologist and palaeontologist (formerly surgeon for HMS Dreadnought).

Highgate Cemetery

cemeteryHighgate
He continued writing all his life, in later years often by dictation, until he succumbed to poor health at the age of 83. His ashes are interred in the eastern side of London's Highgate Cemetery facing Karl Marx's grave.
Herbert Spencer, evolutionary biologist, sociologist, and laissez-faire economic philosopher

Talcott Parsons

ParsonsParsonianParsons, Talcot
asked Talcott Parsons in 1937.
Although Parsons assessed that Weber rejected the linear evolutionary approaches of Marx and Herbert Spencer, Weber may not have rejected the question of evolution as a generalized question.

Derby

City of DerbyWest EndDerby, England
Spencer was born in Derby, England, on 27 April 1820, the son of William George Spencer (generally called George).
Herbert Spencer (1820–1903), philosopher, biologist, anthropologist, sociologist, and classical liberal political theorist

William Ewart Gladstone

GladstoneWilliam GladstoneW. E. Gladstone
Whereas Social Statics had been the work of a radical democrat who believed in votes for women (and even for children) and in the nationalisation of the land to break the power of the aristocracy, by the 1880s he had become a staunch opponent of female suffrage and made common cause with the landowners of the Liberty and Property Defence League against what they saw as the drift towards 'socialism' of elements (such as Sir William Harcourt) within the administration of William Ewart Gladstone – largely against the opinions of Gladstone himself.
Gladstone wrote to Herbert Spencer, who contributed the introduction to a collection of anti-socialist essays (A Plea for Liberty, 1891), that "I ask to make reserves, and of one passage, which will be easily guessed, I am unable even to perceive the relevancy. But speaking generally, I have read this masterly argument with warm admiration and with the earnest hope that it may attract all the attention which it so well deserves".

Émile Durkheim

DurkheimEmile DurkheimDurkheimian
In the 1890s, Émile Durkheim established formal academic sociology with a firm emphasis on practical social research.
At the same time, he read Auguste Comte and Herbert Spencer.

Charles Darwin

DarwinDarwinianCharles
Spencer is best known for the expression "survival of the fittest", which he coined in Principles of Biology (1864), after reading Charles Darwin's On the Origin of Species.
Evolution was by then seen as having social implications, and Herbert Spencer's 1851 book Social Statics based ideas of human freedom and individual liberties on his Lamarckian evolutionary theory.