Herbivore

herbivorousherbivoresherbivoryphytophagousplant-eatingbrowserbrowsingprimary consumerprimary consumersherbivorous fish
A herbivore is an animal anatomically and physiologically adapted to eating plant material, for example foliage or marine algae, for the main component of its diet.wikipedia
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Animal

Animaliaanimalsmetazoa
A herbivore is an animal anatomically and physiologically adapted to eating plant material, for example foliage or marine algae, for the main component of its diet.
Animals are categorised into ecological groups depending on how they obtain or consume organic material, including carnivores, herbivores, omnivores, detritivores, and parasites.

Eating

ediblefeedingeat
Herbivory is a form of consumption in which an organism principally eats autotrophs such as plants, algae and photosynthesizing bacteria.
Animals and other heterotrophs must eat in order to survive — carnivores eat other animals, herbivores eat plants, omnivores consume a mixture of both plant and animal matter, and detritivores eat detritus.

Tooth

teethdentalmaxillary teeth
Horses and other herbivores have wide flat teeth that are adapted to grinding grass, tree bark, and other tough plant material.
For example, plant matter is hard to digest, so herbivores have many molars for chewing and grinding.

Horse

horsesracehorseEquus caballus
Horses and other herbivores have wide flat teeth that are adapted to grinding grass, tree bark, and other tough plant material.
Horses are herbivores with a digestive system adapted to a forage diet of grasses and other plant material, consumed steadily throughout the day.

Ornithischia

ornithischianpredentaryornithischians
The entire dinosaur order ornithischia was composed with herbivores dinosaurs.
Ornithischia is an extinct clade of mainly herbivorous dinosaurs characterized by a pelvic structure superficially similar to that of birds.

Dinosaur

dinosaursDinosaurianon-avian dinosaurs
The entire dinosaur order ornithischia was composed with herbivores dinosaurs.
Some were herbivorous, others carnivorous.

Piscivore

piscivorouspiscivorespiscivory
Early tetrapods were large amphibious piscivores.
Fish were the diet of early tetrapods (amphibians); insectivory came next, then in time, reptiles added herbivory.

Bark (botany)

barktree barkperiderm
Horses and other herbivores have wide flat teeth that are adapted to grinding grass, tree bark, and other tough plant material.
It serves as protection against damage from parasites, herbivorous animals and diseases, as well as dehydration and fire.

Browsing (herbivory)

browsingbrowsersbrowse
Two herbivore feeding strategies are grazing (e.g. cows) and browsing (herbivory) (e.g. moose).
Browsing is a type of herbivory in which a herbivore (or, more narrowly defined, a folivore) feeds on leaves, soft shoots, or fruits of high-growing, generally woody plants such as shrubs.

Coprolite

coprolitescoprolithscoprolitic
Our understanding of herbivory in geological time comes from three sources: fossilized plants, which may preserve evidence of defence (such as spines), or herbivory-related damage; the observation of plant debris in fossilised animal faeces; and the construction of herbivore mouthparts.
By examining coprolites, paleontologists are able to find information about the diet of the animal (if bones or other food remains are present), such as whether it was a herbivorous or carnivorous, and the taphonomy of the coprolites, although the producer is rarely identified unambiguously, especially with more ancient examples.

Omnivore

omnivorousomnivoresomnivory
Carnivores in turn consume herbivores for the same reason, while omnivores can obtain their nutrients from either plants or animals.
For instance, dogs evolved from primarily carnivorous organisms (Carnivora) while pigs evolved from primarily herbivorous organisms (Artiodactyla).

Plant

Plantaeplantsflora
Herbivory is a form of consumption in which an organism principally eats autotrophs such as plants, algae and photosynthesizing bacteria. A large percentage of herbivores have mutualistic gut flora that help them digest plant matter, which is more difficult to digest than animal prey.
In exchange, the ants defend the plant from herbivores and sometimes competing plants.

Richard Owen

OwenSir Richard OwenProfessor Owen
Herbivore is the anglicized form of a modern Latin coinage, herbivora, cited in Charles Lyell's 1830 Principles of Geology. Richard Owen employed the anglicized term in an 1854 work on fossil teeth and skeletons.
Toxodon, from the pampas, was then described and gave the earliest clear evidence of an extinct generalized hoof animal, a pachyderm with affinities to the Rodentia, Edentata and herbivorous Cetacea.

Frugivore

frugivorousfrugivoresfrugivory
It can be any type of herbivore or omnivore where fruit is a preferred food type.

Carnivore

carnivorouscarnivorescarnivory
Carnivores in turn consume herbivores for the same reason, while omnivores can obtain their nutrients from either plants or animals.
For example, while the Arctic polar bear eats meat almost exclusively (more than 90% of its diet is meat), most species of bears are actually omnivorous, and the giant panda is exclusively herbivorous.

Koala

koalasPhascolarctos cinereuskoala bear
The koala (Phascolarctos cinereus, or, inaccurately, koala bear) is an arboreal herbivorous marsupial native to Australia.

Folivore

folivorousfolivoryleaf-eating
In zoology, a folivore is a herbivore that specializes in eating leaves.

Palynivore

pollenPalynivory
In zoology, a palynivore /pəˈlɪnəvɔːɹ/, meaning "pollen eater" (from Greek παλύνω palunō, "strew, sprinkle", and Latin, vorare, meaning "to devour") is an herbivorous animal which selectively eats the nutrient-rich pollen produced by angiosperms and gymnosperms.

Protozoa

protozoanprotozoanspellicle
This flora is made up of cellulose-digesting protozoans or bacteria.
Protozoan species include both herbivores and consumers in the decomposer link of the food chain.

Xylophagy

xylophagoussaproxylicwood-eating
Xylophagy is a term used in ecology to describe the habits of an herbivorous animal whose diet consists primarily (often solely) of wood.

Parrotfish

Scaridaeparrot fishparrot-fish
Most parrotfish species are herbivores, feeding mainly on epilithic algae.

Arthropod

ArthropodaarthropodsEuarthropoda
Arthropods evolved herbivory in four phases, changing their approach to it in response to changing plant communities.
The Mazon Creek lagerstätten from the Late Carboniferous, about, include about 200 species, some gigantic by modern standards, and indicate that insects had occupied their main modern ecological niches as herbivores, detritivores and insectivores.

Permian

Permian PeriodUpper PermianLower Permian
Hole feeding and skeletonisation are recorded in the early Permian, with surface fluid feeding evolving by the end of that period.
The Permian period saw the development of a fully terrestrial fauna and the appearance of the first large herbivores and carnivores.

Sea urchin

Echinoideasea urchinsechinoid
Sea urchins feed mainly on algae, so they are primarily herbivores, but can feed on sea cucumbers and a wide range of invertebrates, such as mussels, polychaetes, sponges, brittle stars, and crinoids, making them omnivores, consumers at a range of trophic levels.

Thorns, spines, and prickles

spinesthornthorns
Thorns such as those found on roses or acacia trees are one example, as are the spines on a cactus.
The predominant function of thorns, spines and prickles is deterring herbivory in a mechanical form.