Hercynian Forest

Hercynia SilvaHercynianHercyniaHercynian valleyHercynium jugumPerkunia (Aryan), Orkynia (Greek) or Hercynia (Latin)
The Hercynian Forest was an ancient and dense forest that stretched eastward from the Rhine River across southern Germany and formed the northern boundary of that part of Europe known to writers of antiquity.wikipedia
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Black Forest

SchwarzwaldThe Black ForestBlack Forest Mountains
All agree that the Black Forest, which extended east from the Rhine valley, formed the western side of the Hercynian. Relict tracts of this once-continuous forest exist with many local names: the Schwarzwald ("Black Forest"), Odenwald, Spessart Rhön, Thüringerwald (Thuringian Forest), Harz, Rauhe Alb, Steigerwald, Fichtelgebirge, Erzgebirge, Riesengebirge, the Bohemian Forest, and the forested Carpathians.
The Black Forest is the highest part of the South German Scarplands and much of it is densely wooded, a fragment of the Hercynian Forest of Antiquity.

Proto-Celtic language

Proto-CelticCelticCommon Celtic
Hercynian has a Proto-Celtic derivation, from ɸerkuniā, later erkunia.
Proto-Indo-European * was lost in Proto-Celtic, apparently going through the stages * (as in the table above) and * (perhaps attested by the toponym Hercynia if this is of Celtic origin) before being lost completely word-initially and between vowels.

Rhine

Rhine RiverRiver RhineRhine Valley
The Hercynian Forest was an ancient and dense forest that stretched eastward from the Rhine River across southern Germany and formed the northern boundary of that part of Europe known to writers of antiquity.
In Roman geography, the Rhine and Hercynia Silva were considered the boundary of the civilized world;

Helvetii

HelvetiansHelvetianHelveti
In De Bello Gallico he says that the forest stretches along the Danube from the territory of the Helvetii (present-day Switzerland) to Dacia (present-day Romania).
Tacitus knows that the Helvetians once settled in the swath between Rhine, Main, and the Hercynian forest.

Pannonia

PanoniaPannonianPannonia province
Pliny the Elder, in Natural History, places the eastern regions of the Hercynium jugum, the "Hercynian mountain chain", in Pannonia (present-day Hungary) and Dacia (present-day Romania).
Pliny the Elder, in Natural History, places the eastern regions of the Hercynium jugum, the "Hercynian mountain chain", in Pannonia (present-day Hungary) and Dacia (present-day Romania).

Bavarian Forest

BavarianBayerischer WaldRear Bavarian Forest
Monks sent out from Niederaltaich Abbey (founded in the eighth century) brought under cultivation for the first time great forested areas of Lower Bavaria as far as the territory of the present Czech Republic, and founded 120 settlements in the Bavarian Forest, as that stretch of the ancient forest came to be known.
The Bavarian Forest is a remnant of the Hercynian Forest that stretched across southern Germania in Roman times.

Dacia

Dacian KingdomKingdom of DaciaGetae
In De Bello Gallico he says that the forest stretches along the Danube from the territory of the Helvetii (present-day Switzerland) to Dacia (present-day Romania). Pliny the Elder, in Natural History, places the eastern regions of the Hercynium jugum, the "Hercynian mountain chain", in Pannonia (present-day Hungary) and Dacia (present-day Romania).
In 53 BC, Caesar stated that the Dacian territory was on the eastern border of the Hercynian Forest.

Bohemia

BohemianBöhmenAustrian Bohemia
There is an indication that this circumstance was fairly recent; that is, Posidonius states that the Boii, were once there (as well as in Bohemia which is named for them).
Boiohaemum was apparently isolated to the area where King Marobod's kingdom was centred, within the Hercynian forest.

Reindeer

caribouRangifer tarandusRangifer
The concept fascinated him, even the old tales of unicorns (which may have represented reindeer).
350 BC A deer-like animal described by Julius Caesar in his Commentarii de Bello Gallico (chapter 6.26) from the Hercynian Forest in the year 53 BC is most certainly to be interpreted as reindeer:

Silva Carbonaria

CarbonariaCarbonaria SilvaChausee Brunehaut
Across the Rhine to the west extended the Silva Carbonaria and the forest of the Ardennes.

Ardennes

Ardennes ForestThe ArdennesArdenne
Across the Rhine to the west extended the Silva Carbonaria and the forest of the Ardennes.

Old-growth forest

primary forestold growth forestold-growth
All these old-growth forests of antiquity represented the original post-glacial temperate broadleaf forest ecosystem of Europe.

Temperate broadleaf and mixed forest

mixed forestTemperate broadleaf and mixed forestshardwood forest
All these old-growth forests of antiquity represented the original post-glacial temperate broadleaf forest ecosystem of Europe.

Ecosystem

ecosystemsenvironmenteco-system
All these old-growth forests of antiquity represented the original post-glacial temperate broadleaf forest ecosystem of Europe.

Relict

relictualrelict speciesrelicts
Relict tracts of this once-continuous forest exist with many local names: the Schwarzwald ("Black Forest"), Odenwald, Spessart Rhön, Thüringerwald (Thuringian Forest), Harz, Rauhe Alb, Steigerwald, Fichtelgebirge, Erzgebirge, Riesengebirge, the Bohemian Forest, and the forested Carpathians.

Odenwald

Little OdenwaldOdenwald mountains
Relict tracts of this once-continuous forest exist with many local names: the Schwarzwald ("Black Forest"), Odenwald, Spessart Rhön, Thüringerwald (Thuringian Forest), Harz, Rauhe Alb, Steigerwald, Fichtelgebirge, Erzgebirge, Riesengebirge, the Bohemian Forest, and the forested Carpathians.

Spessart

VorspessartBavarian SpessartSandstone Spessart
Relict tracts of this once-continuous forest exist with many local names: the Schwarzwald ("Black Forest"), Odenwald, Spessart Rhön, Thüringerwald (Thuringian Forest), Harz, Rauhe Alb, Steigerwald, Fichtelgebirge, Erzgebirge, Riesengebirge, the Bohemian Forest, and the forested Carpathians.

Rhön Mountains

RhönHigh RhönKuppen Rhön
Relict tracts of this once-continuous forest exist with many local names: the Schwarzwald ("Black Forest"), Odenwald, Spessart Rhön, Thüringerwald (Thuringian Forest), Harz, Rauhe Alb, Steigerwald, Fichtelgebirge, Erzgebirge, Riesengebirge, the Bohemian Forest, and the forested Carpathians.

Thuringian Forest

Thüringer WaldThuringer WaldThüringerwald
Relict tracts of this once-continuous forest exist with many local names: the Schwarzwald ("Black Forest"), Odenwald, Spessart Rhön, Thüringerwald (Thuringian Forest), Harz, Rauhe Alb, Steigerwald, Fichtelgebirge, Erzgebirge, Riesengebirge, the Bohemian Forest, and the forested Carpathians.

Geography of Württemberg

Rauhe AlbWürttemberg
Relict tracts of this once-continuous forest exist with many local names: the Schwarzwald ("Black Forest"), Odenwald, Spessart Rhön, Thüringerwald (Thuringian Forest), Harz, Rauhe Alb, Steigerwald, Fichtelgebirge, Erzgebirge, Riesengebirge, the Bohemian Forest, and the forested Carpathians.

Steigerwald

Stiegerwald
Relict tracts of this once-continuous forest exist with many local names: the Schwarzwald ("Black Forest"), Odenwald, Spessart Rhön, Thüringerwald (Thuringian Forest), Harz, Rauhe Alb, Steigerwald, Fichtelgebirge, Erzgebirge, Riesengebirge, the Bohemian Forest, and the forested Carpathians.

Fichtel Mountains

FichtelgebirgeFichtelFichtelgebirge Mountains
Relict tracts of this once-continuous forest exist with many local names: the Schwarzwald ("Black Forest"), Odenwald, Spessart Rhön, Thüringerwald (Thuringian Forest), Harz, Rauhe Alb, Steigerwald, Fichtelgebirge, Erzgebirge, Riesengebirge, the Bohemian Forest, and the forested Carpathians.

Ore Mountains

ErzgebirgeOre MountainKrušné hory
Relict tracts of this once-continuous forest exist with many local names: the Schwarzwald ("Black Forest"), Odenwald, Spessart Rhön, Thüringerwald (Thuringian Forest), Harz, Rauhe Alb, Steigerwald, Fichtelgebirge, Erzgebirge, Riesengebirge, the Bohemian Forest, and the forested Carpathians.

Krkonoše

Giant MountainsKarkonoszeRiesengebirge
Relict tracts of this once-continuous forest exist with many local names: the Schwarzwald ("Black Forest"), Odenwald, Spessart Rhön, Thüringerwald (Thuringian Forest), Harz, Rauhe Alb, Steigerwald, Fichtelgebirge, Erzgebirge, Riesengebirge, the Bohemian Forest, and the forested Carpathians.