Hereditary peer

Hereditary Peeragewrit of summonswrithereditary peerssummonedpeerextincthereditaryin remaindertitle
The hereditary peers form part of the peerage in the United Kingdom.wikipedia
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Life peer

Life Peeragelife peerspeerage
Conversely, the holder of a non-hereditary title may belong to the peerage, as with life peers.
In the United Kingdom, life peers are appointed members of the peerage whose titles cannot be inherited, in contrast to hereditary peers.

House of Lords

LordsBritish House of LordsThe House of Lords
From 1963 to 1999, all (non-Irish) peers were entitled to sit in the House of Lords, but since the House of Lords Act 1999 was passed, only 92 are permitted to do so, unless they are also life peers.
Unlike the elected House of Commons, members of the House of Lords (excluding 90 hereditary peers elected among themselves and two peers who are ex officio members) are appointed.

Peerage Act 1963

disclaimedPeerage Act1963
From 1963 to 1999, all (non-Irish) peers were entitled to sit in the House of Lords, but since the House of Lords Act 1999 was passed, only 92 are permitted to do so, unless they are also life peers.
The Peerage Act 1963 (1963 c. 48) is the Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom that permitted women peeresses and all Scottish hereditary peers to sit in the House of Lords, and which allows newly inherited hereditary peerages to be disclaimed.

House of Lords Act 1999

House of Lords ActHouse of Lords Act of 1999seat abolished
From 1963 to 1999, all (non-Irish) peers were entitled to sit in the House of Lords, but since the House of Lords Act 1999 was passed, only 92 are permitted to do so, unless they are also life peers. However, until the House of Lords Act 1999 it was possible for one of the peer's subsidiary titles to be passed to his heir before his death by means of a writ of acceleration, in which case the peer and his heir would have one vote each.
For centuries, the House of Lords had included several hundred members who inherited their seats; the Act removed such a right.

Baronet

baronetcyBtBt.
For instance, baronets and baronetesses may pass on their titles, but they are not peers.
The title of baronet was initially conferred upon noblemen who lost the right of individual summons to Parliament, and was used in this sense in a statute of Richard II.

Peerage of the United Kingdom

peeragepeerUnited Kingdom
The Acts of Union 1800 changed this to peers of the United Kingdom, but provided that Irish peerages could still be created; but the Irish peers were concerned that their honours would be diluted as cheap prizes, and insisted that an Irish peerage could be created only when three Irish peerages had gone extinct (until there were only a hundred Irish peers left).
However, from that date, most of the hereditary peers ceased to be members, whereas the life peers retained their seats.

Peerages in the United Kingdom

British peerpeerpeerage
The hereditary peers form part of the peerage in the United Kingdom.
Hereditary peerage dignities may be created with writs of summons or by letters patent; the former method is now obsolete.

Writ of acceleration

writ in accelerationcalled up to the House of Lordscalled to the House of Lords
However, until the House of Lords Act 1999 it was possible for one of the peer's subsidiary titles to be passed to his heir before his death by means of a writ of acceleration, in which case the peer and his heir would have one vote each.
A writ in acceleration, commonly called a writ of acceleration, was a type of writ of summons that enabled the eldest son and heir apparent of a peer with multiple peerage titles to attend the British or Irish House of Lords, using one of his father's subsidiary titles.

Writ

writswrit petitionwarrant
This order, called a writ, was not originally hereditary, or even a privilege; the recipient had to come to the Great Council at his own expense, vote on taxes on himself and his neighbours, acknowledge that he was the king's tenant-in-chief (which might cost him special taxes), and risk involvement in royal politics – or a request from the king for a personal loan (benevolence).
Writs were used by the medieval English kings to summon persons to Parliament, (then consisting primarily of the House of Lords) whose advice was considered valuable or who were particularly influential, and who were thereby deemed to have been created "barons by writ".

English feudal barony

honourfeudal baronfeudal barony
The barony by tenure or feudal barony in England and Wales was similar to a Scottish feudal barony, in being hereditary, but is long obsolete, the last full summons of the English feudal barons to military service having occurred in 1327.
Under the Tenures Abolition Act 1660, many baronies by tenure were converted into baronies by writ.

Abeyance

abeyantin abeyanceco-heiress
In the 13th century, the husband of the eldest daughter inherited the earldom automatically; in the 15th century, the earldom reverted to the Crown, who might re-grant it (often to the eldest son-in-law); in the 17th century, it would not be inherited by anybody unless all but one of the daughters died and left no descendants, in which case the remaining daughter (or her heir) would inherit.
Most such peerages pass to heirs-male, but the ancient baronies created by writ, as well as some very old earldoms, pass instead to heirs-general (by cognatic primogeniture).

Prince of Wales

The Prince of WalesPrinces of WalesPrince
In England and Northern Ireland, the title Duke of Cornwall is used until the heir-apparent is created Prince of Wales.
The title is granted to the heir apparent as a personal honour or dignity, and is not heritable, merging with the Crown on accession to the throne.

Lord Chancellor

Lord High Chancellor of Great BritainLord Chancellor of EnglandChancellor
To do so, the peer must deliver an instrument of disclaimer to the Lord Chancellor within 12 months of succeeding to the peerage, or, if under the age of 21 at the time of succession, within 12 months of becoming 21 years old.
If a bishop, the Lord Chancellor received a writ of summons; if an ecclesiastic of a lower degree or, if a layman, he attended without any summons.

Edward III of England

Edward IIIKing Edward IIIKing Edward III of England
But when Edward III of England declared himself King of France, he made his sons Dukes, to distinguish them from other noblemen, much as Royal Dukes are now distinguished from other Dukes.
During this period, membership in the English baronage, formerly a somewhat indistinct group, became restricted to those who received a personal summons to parliament.

Subsidiary title

subsidiary titlesall other titlescourtesy title
As of 2019 there are 814 hereditary peers: 31 dukes (including 7 royal dukes), 34 marquesses, 193 earls, 112 viscounts, and 444 barons (disregarding subsidiary titles).
Before the House of Lords Act 1999, which abolished the automatic right of hereditary peers to sit in the House of Lords, an heir apparent could be summoned to the Lords, before his parent's death, by a writ of acceleration – that is, by accelerating the inheritance of a junior title (usually a barony).

Baron

Baronessbaronsbarony
The English Order of Barons evolved from those men who were individually ordered to attend Parliament, but held no other title; the chosen representatives, on the other hand, became the House of Commons. By modern English law, if a writ of summons was issued to a person who was not a peer, that person took his seat in Parliament, and the parliament was a parliament in the modern sense (including representatives of the Commons), that single writ created a barony, a perpetual peerage inheritable by male-preference primogeniture.
Later, the king started to create new baronies in one of two ways: by a writ of summons directing a chosen man to attend Parliament, and in an even later development by letters patent.

Baron La Poer

Baron De la PoerBaroness de la PoerLa Poer
Furthermore, there is only one extant barony by writ in the Peerage of Ireland, that of La Poer, now held by the Marquess of Waterford.
Its creation is the sole instance in the law of the Kingdom of Ireland recognising a peerage by writ.

Lord of Parliament

Lordship of ParliamentLords of Parliamentlordships of Parliament
The Parliament of Scotland is as old as the English; the Scottish equivalent of baronies are called lordships of Parliament.
However, the House of Lords Act 1999 removed the right of hereditary peers, including Lords of Parliament, to sit in the House of Lords, except that a number of hereditary peers do still sit, following election by hereditary peers.

Magnum Concilium

Great Councilgreat council of peersGreat Councils
When Henry III or Edward I wanted money or advice from his subjects, he would order great churchmen, earls, and other great men to come to his Great Council (some of these are now considered the first parliaments); he would generally order lesser men from towns and counties to gather and pick some men to represent them.
In 2008 Christopher Russell Bailey, 5th Baron Glanusk, suggested that the time had come for a recall of the Magnum Concilium, since hereditary peers had lost their right to sit in the House of Lords under the House of Lords Act 1999.

Primogeniture

agnatic primogenitureabsolute primogenituremale-preference primogeniture
By modern English law, if a writ of summons was issued to a person who was not a peer, that person took his seat in Parliament, and the parliament was a parliament in the modern sense (including representatives of the Commons), that single writ created a barony, a perpetual peerage inheritable by male-preference primogeniture.
With respect to hereditary titles, it is usually the rule for Scotland and baronies by writ in the United Kingdom, but baronies by writ go into abeyance when the last male titleholder dies leaving more than one surviving sister or more than one descendant in the legitimate female line of the original titleholder.

Tony Benn

Anthony Wedgwood BennBenniteAnthony Wedgewood Benn
The law changed due to an agreement that the Labour MP Tony Benn having been deprived of his seat due to an inadvertent inheritance was undemocratic; and the desire of the Conservatives to put their choice of Prime Minister (ultimately Alec Douglas-Home) into the House of Commons, which by that time was deemed politically necessary.
Benn inherited a peerage on his father's death (as 2nd Viscount Stansgate), which prevented him from continuing to serve as an MP.

By-elections to the House of Lords

by-electioncrossbench hereditary peers' by-electionhereditary peers' by-election
Hereditary peers elected hold their seats until their death, resignation or exclusion for non-attendance (the latter two means introduced by the House of Lords Reform Act 2014), at which point by-elections are held to maintain the number at 92.
Following the passing of the House of Lords Act 1999, the number of hereditary peers entitled to sit in the House of Lords was reduced to ninety-two.

Alec Douglas-Home

Sir Alec Douglas-HomeLord HomeThe Earl of Home
The law changed due to an agreement that the Labour MP Tony Benn having been deprived of his seat due to an inadvertent inheritance was undemocratic; and the desire of the Conservatives to put their choice of Prime Minister (ultimately Alec Douglas-Home) into the House of Commons, which by that time was deemed politically necessary.
By the 1960s, it was unacceptable for a Prime Minister to sit in the Lords, so Home renounced his peerage and successfully stood for election to Parliament as Sir Alec Douglas-Home.

Duke of Marlborough (title)

Duke of MarlboroughDukes of MarlboroughDukedom of Marlborough
For example, Parliament amended the letters patent creating the Dukedom of Marlborough in 1706.
However, unlike the remainder to heirs general found in most other peerages that allow male-preference primogeniture, the grant does not allow for abeyance and follows a more restrictive Semi-Salic formula designed to keep succession wherever possible in the male line.

Marquess of Salisbury

Marquis of SalisburyViscount CranborneMarquesses of Salisbury
The only individual who recently sat in the House of Lords by writ of acceleration is Viscount Cranborne in 1992, through the Barony of Cecil which was actually being held by his father, the Marquess of Salisbury.
As Leader of the Opposition in the House of Lords after 1997 he played a leading role in negotiating the terms of the House of Lords Act 1999, in which the automatic right of hereditary peers to sit in the upper chamber of Parliament was abolished.