Heredity

hereditaryinheritedinheritanceheritablebloodlinegeneticinherited from a person's parentsbiological inheritanceinheritgenetic inheritance
Heredity, also called inheritance or biological inheritance, is the passing on of traits from parents to their offspring; either through asexual reproduction or sexual reproduction, the offspring cells or organisms acquire the genetic information of their parents.wikipedia
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Phenotypic trait

traittraitscharacters
Heredity, also called inheritance or biological inheritance, is the passing on of traits from parents to their offspring; either through asexual reproduction or sexual reproduction, the offspring cells or organisms acquire the genetic information of their parents. Darwin believed in a mix of blending inheritance and the inheritance of acquired traits (pangenesis).
A phenotypic trait, simply trait, or character state is a distinct variant of a phenotypic characteristic of an organism; it may be either inherited or determined environmentally, but typically occurs as a combination of the two.

Evolution

evolvedtheory of evolutionevolutionary
Through heredity, variations between individuals can accumulate and cause species to evolve by natural selection. When Charles Darwin proposed his theory of evolution in 1859, one of its major problems was the lack of an underlying mechanism for heredity.
Evolution is change in the heritable characteristics of biological populations over successive generations.

Natural selection

selectionselectiveselected
Through heredity, variations between individuals can accumulate and cause species to evolve by natural selection.
It is a key mechanism of evolution, the change in the heritable traits characteristic of a population over generations.

Genetics

geneticgeneticistgenetically
The study of heredity in biology is genetics.
Genetics is a branch of biology concerned with the study of genes, genetic variation, and heredity in organisms.

Biology

biologicalBiological Sciencesbiologist
The study of heredity in biology is genetics.
Biology recognizes the cell as the basic unit of life, genes as the basic unit of heredity, and evolution as the engine that propels the creation and extinction of species.

Phenotype

phenotypicphenotypesphenotypically
The complete set of observable traits of the structure and behavior of an organism is called its phenotype.
Wilhelm Johannsen proposed the genotype-phenotype distinction in 1911 to make clear the difference between an organism's heredity and what that heredity produces.

Homologous chromosome

homologshomologous chromosomeshomologous
Organisms inherit genetic material from their parents in the form of homologous chromosomes, containing a unique combination of DNA sequences that code for genes.
Early in the 1900s William Bateson and Reginald Punnett were studying genetic inheritance and they noted that some combinations of alleles appeared more frequently than others.

Pangenesis

gemmulespangenegemmae
Darwin believed in a mix of blending inheritance and the inheritance of acquired traits (pangenesis).
Pangenesis was Charles Darwin's hypothetical mechanism for heredity, in which he proposed that each part of the body continually emitted its own type of small organic particles called gemmules that aggregated in the gonads, contributing heritable information to the gametes.

Sex linkage

X-linkedsex-linkedX-linked trait
Darwin's primary approach to heredity was to outline how it appeared to work (noticing that traits that were not expressed explicitly in the parent at the time of reproduction could be inherited, that certain traits could be sex-linked, etc.) rather than suggesting mechanisms.
Sex linkage is the patterns of inheritance and presentation when a gene mutation (allele) is present on a sex chromosome (allosome) rather than a non-sex chromosome (autosome).

On the Origin of Species

The Origin of SpeciesOrigin of SpeciesOn the Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection
This led to Darwin adopting some Lamarckian ideas in later editions of On the Origin of Species and his later biological works.
In Darwin's time there was no agreed-upon model of heredity; in Chapter I Darwin admitted, "The laws governing inheritance are quite unknown."

DNA

deoxyribonucleic aciddouble-stranded DNAdsDNA
Heritable traits are known to be passed from one generation to the next via DNA, a molecule that encodes genetic information.
A gene is a unit of heredity and is a region of DNA that influences a particular characteristic in an organism.

Blending inheritance

blendingapparent blendingLamarkian evolution
Various hereditary mechanisms, including blending inheritance were also envisaged without being properly tested or quantified, and were later disputed.
The theory is that the progeny inherits any characteristic as the average of the parents' values of that characteristic.

Mendelian inheritance

Mendelian geneticsMendelianMendel's laws
It was initially assumed that Mendelian inheritance only accounted for large (qualitative) differences, such as those seen by Mendel in his pea plants – and the idea of additive effect of (quantitative) genes was not realised until R.A. Fisher's (1918) paper, "The Correlation Between Relatives on the Supposition of Mendelian Inheritance" Mendel's overall contribution gave scientists a useful overview that traits were inheritable.
Mendelian inheritance is a type of biological inheritance that follows the principles originally proposed by Gregor Mendel in 1865 and 1866, re-discovered in 1900 and popularised by William Bateson.

Gregor Mendel

MendelGregor Johann MendelMendelian
The idea of particulate inheritance of genes can be attributed to the Moravian monk Gregor Mendel who published his work on pea plants in 1865.
Though farmers had known for millennia that crossbreeding of animals and plants could favor certain desirable traits, Mendel's pea plant experiments conducted between 1856 and 1863 established many of the rules of heredity, now referred to as the laws of Mendelian inheritance.

Eye color

BrownBlueGreen
In humans, eye color is an example of an inherited characteristic: an individual might inherit the "brown-eye trait" from one of the parents.
It is a result of the relative excess or lack of pigment within an iris or part of an iris, which may be inherited or acquired by disease or injury.

Sickle cell disease

sickle cell anemiasickle-cell diseasesickle-cell anemia
Sickle cell disease (SCD) is a group of blood disorders typically inherited from a person's parents.

Haemophilia

hemophiliahemophiliachaemophiliac
Haemophilia is a mostly inherited genetic disorder that impairs the body's ability to make blood clots, a process needed to stop bleeding.

Francis Galton

Sir Francis GaltonGaltonGalton, Francis
Darwin's initial model of heredity was adopted by, and then heavily modified by, his cousin Francis Galton, who laid the framework for the biometric school of heredity.
Galton was interested at first in the question of whether human ability was hereditary, and proposed to count the number of the relatives of various degrees of eminent men.

Phenylketonuria

PKUphenylketonuria, maternalphenylketonurias
Phenylketonuria is a genetic disorder inherited from a person's parents.

Allele

allelesallelicmultiple alleles
If the DNA sequence at a particular locus varies between individuals, the different forms of this sequence are called alleles.
While heritable traits are typically studied in terms of genetic alleles, epigenetic marks such as DNA methylation can be inherited at specific genomic regions in certain species, a process termed transgenerational epigenetic inheritance.

Charles Darwin

DarwinDarwinianCharles Robert Darwin
When Charles Darwin proposed his theory of evolution in 1859, one of its major problems was the lack of an underlying mechanism for heredity.
Darwin's book The Variation of Animals and Plants under Domestication (1868) was the first part of his planned "big book", and included his unsuccessful hypothesis of pangenesis attempting to explain heredity.

Evolutionary developmental biology

evo-devoevolutionary developmental biologistevolutionary development
The traditional view is that developmental biology ('evo-devo') played little part in the synthesis, but an account of Gavin de Beer's work by Stephen Jay Gould suggests he may be an exception.
In the so-called modern synthesis of the early 20th century, Ronald Fisher brought together Darwin's theory of evolution, with its insistence on natural selection, heredity, and variation, and Gregor Mendel's laws of genetics into a coherent structure for evolutionary biology.

Dominance (genetics)

autosomal recessiverecessiveautosomal dominant
This state of having two different variants of the same gene on each chromosome is originally caused by a mutation in one of the genes, either new (de novo) or inherited.

Asexual reproduction

asexualasexuallyreproduce asexually
Heredity, also called inheritance or biological inheritance, is the passing on of traits from parents to their offspring; either through asexual reproduction or sexual reproduction, the offspring cells or organisms acquire the genetic information of their parents.

Sexual reproduction

sexuallysexualreproduce sexually
Heredity, also called inheritance or biological inheritance, is the passing on of traits from parents to their offspring; either through asexual reproduction or sexual reproduction, the offspring cells or organisms acquire the genetic information of their parents.