Heresy

hereticalheretichereticsheresiesheterodoxheretical cultsheretical movementssacrilegious hereticalChristian heretics
Heresy is any belief or theory that is strongly at variance with established beliefs or customs, in particular the accepted beliefs of a church or religious organization.wikipedia
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Heresy in Christianity

heresyhereticalheretics
It is used in particular in reference to Christianity, Judaism, and Islam.
In Western Christianity, heresy most commonly refers to those beliefs which were declared to be anathema by any of the ecumenical councils recognized by the Catholic Church.

Heresy in Judaism

minimMinuthheresy
It is used in particular in reference to Christianity, Judaism, and Islam.
Jewish heretics (Hebrew minim, מינים) are Jewish individuals (often historically, philosophers) whose works have, in part or in whole, been condemned as heretical by significant persons or groups in the larger Jewish community based on the classical teachings of Rabbinic Judaism and derived from halakha (Jewish religious law).

Bid‘ah

bid'ahbidahinnovation
It is used in particular in reference to Christianity, Judaism, and Islam.
Linguistically the term means "innovation, novelty, heretical doctrine, heresy".

Irenaeus

Irenaeus of LyonsSt. IrenaeusIrenæus
The use of the word heresy was given wide currency by Irenaeus in his 2nd century tract Contra Haereses (Against Heresies) to describe and discredit his opponents during the early centuries of the Christian community.
Irenaeus ( Eirēnaios; c. 130 – c. 202 AD) was a Greek bishop noted for his role in guiding and expanding Christian communities in what is now the south of France and, more widely, for the development of Christian theology by combating heresy and defining orthodoxy.

Tertullian

Quintus Septimius Florens Tertullianusintersection of Athens and JerusalemQ. Septimius Florens Tertullianus
Tertullian implied that it was the Jews who most inspired heresy in Christianity: "From the Jew the heretic has accepted guidance in this discussion [that Jesus was not the Christ]."
He also was an early Christian apologist and a polemicist against heresy, including contemporary Christian Gnosticism.

Gnosticism

GnosticGnosticsGnostic Christianity
He described the community's beliefs and doctrines as orthodox (from ὀρθός, orthos 'straight' + δόξα, doxa 'belief') and the Gnostics' teachings as heretical. The Orthodox Church also rejects the early Christian heresies such as Arianism, Gnosticism, Origenism, Montanism, Judaizers, Marcionism, Docetism, Adoptionism, Nestorianism, Monophysitism, Monothelitism and Iconoclasm.
Gnostic writings flourished among certain Christian groups in the Mediterranean world until about the second century, when the Fathers of the early church denounced them as heresy.

Heresiarch

Haeresiarcha
The founder or leader of a heretical movement is called a heresiarch, while individuals who espouse heresy or commit heresy are known as heretics.
In Christian theology, a heresiarch (also hæresiarch, according to the Oxford English Dictionary; from Greek: αἱρεσιάρχης, hairesiárkhēs via the late Latin haeresiarcha ) or arch-heretic is an originator of heretical doctrine, or the founder of a sect that sustains such a doctrine.

Blasphemy

blasphemousblasphemeblasphemer
Heresy is distinct from both apostasy, which is the explicit renunciation of one's religion, principles or cause, and blasphemy, which is an impious utterance or action concerning God or sacred things.

Excommunication

excommunicatedexcommunicateexcommunicating
In certain historical Christian, Muslim and Jewish cultures, among others, espousing ideas deemed heretical has been and in some cases still is met with censure ranging from excommunication to the death penalty. In the Catholic Church, obstinate and willful manifest heresy is considered to spiritually cut one off from the Church, even before excommunication is incurred.

Donatism

DonatistDonatistsDonatist controversy
The Church had always dealt harshly with strands of Christianity that it considered heretical, but before the 11th century these tended to centre on individual preachers or small localised sects, like Arianism, Pelagianism, Donatism, Marcionism and Montanism.
Donatism (Donatismus, Δονατισμός Donatismós) was a heresy leading to schism in the Church of Carthage from the fourth to the sixth centuries AD.

Heresiology

heresiologicalheresiologistheresiologists
Heresiology is the study of heresy.
In theology or the history of religion, heresiology is the study of heresy, and heresiographies are writings about the topic.

Arianism

ArianAriansArian Christianity
The Church had always dealt harshly with strands of Christianity that it considered heretical, but before the 11th century these tended to centre on individual preachers or small localised sects, like Arianism, Pelagianism, Donatism, Marcionism and Montanism. The Orthodox Church also rejects the early Christian heresies such as Arianism, Gnosticism, Origenism, Montanism, Judaizers, Marcionism, Docetism, Adoptionism, Nestorianism, Monophysitism, Monothelitism and Iconoclasm.
As such, all mainstream branches of Christianity now consider Arianism to be heterodox and heretical.

Montanism

MontanistsMontanistMontanus
The Church had always dealt harshly with strands of Christianity that it considered heretical, but before the 11th century these tended to centre on individual preachers or small localised sects, like Arianism, Pelagianism, Donatism, Marcionism and Montanism. The Orthodox Church also rejects the early Christian heresies such as Arianism, Gnosticism, Origenism, Montanism, Judaizers, Marcionism, Docetism, Adoptionism, Nestorianism, Monophysitism, Monothelitism and Iconoclasm.
Montanism held similar views about the basic tenets of Christian doctrine to those of the wider Christian Church, but it was labelled a heresy for its belief in new prophetic revelations.

Arius

Arius of AlexandriaArius sp.
To put an end to the doctrinal debate initiated by Arius, Constantine called the first of what would afterwards be called the ecumenical councils and then enforced orthodoxy by Imperial authority.
Those works which have survived are quoted in the works of churchmen who denounced him as a heretic.

Waldensians

WaldensianWaldensesVaudois
By the 11th century, more organised groups such as the Patarini, the Dulcinians, the Waldensians and the Cathars were beginning to appear in the towns and cities of northern Italy, southern France and Flanders.
By 1215, the Waldensians were declared heretical and subject to intense persecution; the group was nearly annihilated in the 17th century and was confronted with organised and general discrimination in the centuries that followed.

Dulcinians

DulcinianDulcinian movementDulcinian heretics
By the 11th century, more organised groups such as the Patarini, the Dulcinians, the Waldensians and the Cathars were beginning to appear in the towns and cities of northern Italy, southern France and Flanders.
The Dulcinians, or Dulcinites, and Apostolics were inspired by Franciscan ideals and influenced by the Joachimites, but were considered heretical by the Catholic Church.

Albigensian Crusade

crusadeCathar Crusadecrusade against the Albigensians
The Cathar Crusade was initiated by the Catholic Church to eliminate the Cathar heresy in Languedoc.
He offered the lands of the Cathar heretics to any French nobleman willing to take up arms.

Paulicianism

PauliciansPaulicianPaulicianists
The diffusion of the almost Manichaean sect of Paulicians westwards gave birth to the famous 11th and 12th century heresies of Western Europe.
In Armenia the movement evolved into Tondrakism, while in Europe influenced the formation of Bogomilism, Catharism and other heretic movements.

Marcionism

MarcionitesMarcioniteMarcionist
The Church had always dealt harshly with strands of Christianity that it considered heretical, but before the 11th century these tended to centre on individual preachers or small localised sects, like Arianism, Pelagianism, Donatism, Marcionism and Montanism. The Orthodox Church also rejects the early Christian heresies such as Arianism, Gnosticism, Origenism, Montanism, Judaizers, Marcionism, Docetism, Adoptionism, Nestorianism, Monophysitism, Monothelitism and Iconoclasm.
Marcionism was denounced by its opponents as heresy and written against – notably by Tertullian in a five-book treatise, Adversus Marcionem (Against Marcion), in about 208.

Galileo affair

trial of GalileoGalileomedia
Galileo Galilei was brought before the Inquisition for heresy, but abjured his views and was sentenced to house arrest, under which he spent the rest of his life.
Responding to mounting controversy over theology, astronomy and philosophy, the Roman Inquisition tried Galileo in 1633 and found him "vehemently suspect of heresy", sentencing him to indefinite imprisonment.

Catholic Church

Roman CatholicCatholicRoman Catholic Church
In the Catholic Church, obstinate and willful manifest heresy is considered to spiritually cut one off from the Church, even before excommunication is incurred.
While the Catholic Church teaches that it alone possesses the full means of salvation, it also acknowledges that the Holy Spirit can make use of Christian communities separated from itself to "impel towards Catholic unity" and "tend and lead toward the Catholic Church", and thus bring people to salvation, because these separated communities contain some elements of proper doctrine, albeit admixed with errors.

Monothelitism

MonotheliteMonothelitesmonotheletism
The Orthodox Church also rejects the early Christian heresies such as Arianism, Gnosticism, Origenism, Montanism, Judaizers, Marcionism, Docetism, Adoptionism, Nestorianism, Monophysitism, Monothelitism and Iconoclasm.
Formulated in 638, it enjoyed considerable popularity, even garnering patriarchal support, before being rejected and denounced as heretical in 681, at the Third Council of Constantinople.

Eastern Orthodox Church

Eastern OrthodoxOrthodoxOrthodox Church
The Orthodox Church also rejects the early Christian heresies such as Arianism, Gnosticism, Origenism, Montanism, Judaizers, Marcionism, Docetism, Adoptionism, Nestorianism, Monophysitism, Monothelitism and Iconoclasm. In Eastern Orthodox Christianity heresy most commonly refers to those beliefs declared heretical by the first seven Ecumenical Councils.
The Orthodox Church asserts that apostolic succession requires apostolic faith, and bishops without apostolic faith, who are in heresy, forfeit their claim to apostolic succession.

Nestorianism

NestorianNestorian ChristianNestorians
The Orthodox Church also rejects the early Christian heresies such as Arianism, Gnosticism, Origenism, Montanism, Judaizers, Marcionism, Docetism, Adoptionism, Nestorianism, Monophysitism, Monothelitism and Iconoclasm.
Nestorius and his teachings were eventually condemned as heretical at the Council of Ephesus in 431, and again at the Council of Chalcedon in 451, which led to the Nestorian Schism; churches supporting Nestorian teachings broke with the rest of the Christian Church.

Spanish Inquisition

InquisitionSpanishthe Inquisition
The trial and subsequent execution of heretics under the banner of Christianity came to an end in 1826 with the last execution of a "heretic", Cayetano Ripoll, by the Spanish Inquisition.
The Inquisition was originally intended primarily to identify heretics among those who converted from Judaism and Islam to Catholicism.