Herodotus

HerodotosHerodotus of HalicarnassusHerod.HerodoteanFather of Historygold-digging antsHerodotiHerotodushistoriography
Herodotus (, Hēródotos, ; c. 484 BC) was an ancient Greek historian who was born in Halicarnassus in the Persian Empire (modern-day Bodrum, Turkey).wikipedia
2,231 Related Articles

Histories (Herodotus)

HistoriesThe Histories(The) Histories
He is known for having written the book The Histories (Greek: Ἱστορίαι - Historíai), a detailed record of his "inquiry" (ἱστορία historía) on the origins of the Greco-Persian Wars.
The Histories (Ἱστορίαι; ; also known as The Histories ) of Herodotus is considered the founding work of history in Western literature.

History

historical recordshistoricalhistoric
He is known for having written the book The Histories (Greek: Ἱστορίαι - Historíai), a detailed record of his "inquiry" (ἱστορία historía) on the origins of the Greco-Persian Wars.
Herodotus, a 5th-century BC Greek historian is often considered within the Western tradition to be the "father of history", or by some the "father of lies", and, along with his contemporary Thucydides, helped form the foundations for the modern study of human history.

Achaemenid Empire

AchaemenidPersianPersian Empire
484 BC) was an ancient Greek historian who was born in Halicarnassus in the Persian Empire (modern-day Bodrum, Turkey). The town was within the Persian Empire at that time, making Herodotus a Persian subject, and it may be that the young Herodotus heard local eyewitness accounts of events within the empire and of Persian preparations for the invasion of Greece, including the movements of the local fleet under the command of Artemisia I of Caria.
In Herodotus' Histories, he writes that Cyrus the Great was the son of Cambyses I and Mandane of Media, the daughter of Astyages, the king of the Median Empire.

Croesus

Croesus of LydiaKroisos Croesus, King of the Lydians
His Histories primarily deals with the lives of Croesus, Cyrus, Cambyses, Smerdis, Darius, and Xerxes and the battles of Marathon, Thermopylae, Artemisium, Salamis, Plataea, and Mycale; however, his many cultural, ethnographical, geographical, historiographical, and other digressions form a defining and essential part of the Histories and contain a wealth of information.
Croesus (, Kroisos; 595 BC – c. 546 BC) was the king of Lydia who, according to Herodotus, reigned for 14 years: from 560 BC until his defeat by the Persian king Cyrus the Great in 546 BC (sometimes given as 547 BC).

Battle of Marathon

MarathonGreek victory over the Persians10000 metres and set a new
His Histories primarily deals with the lives of Croesus, Cyrus, Cambyses, Smerdis, Darius, and Xerxes and the battles of Marathon, Thermopylae, Artemisium, Salamis, Plataea, and Mycale; however, his many cultural, ethnographical, geographical, historiographical, and other digressions form a defining and essential part of the Histories and contain a wealth of information.
According to Herodotus, Darius had his bow brought to him and then shot an arrow "upwards towards heaven", saying as he did so: "Zeus, that it may be granted me to take vengeance upon the Athenians!"

Historiography

historiographicalhistoriographerhistoriographic
His Histories primarily deals with the lives of Croesus, Cyrus, Cambyses, Smerdis, Darius, and Xerxes and the battles of Marathon, Thermopylae, Artemisium, Salamis, Plataea, and Mycale; however, his many cultural, ethnographical, geographical, historiographical, and other digressions form a defining and essential part of the Histories and contain a wealth of information. He is widely considered to have been the first writer to have treated historical subjects using a method of systematic investigation—specifically, by collecting his materials and then critically arranging them into an historiographic narrative.
However, the discipline of historiography was first established in the 5th century BC with the Histories of Herodotus, the founder of Greek historiography.

Bodrum

Bodrum, TurkeyPetroniumBudrum
484 BC) was an ancient Greek historian who was born in Halicarnassus in the Persian Empire (modern-day Bodrum, Turkey).
Of Pisindalis, her son and successor, little is known; but Lygdamis, the tyrant of Halicarnussus, who next attained power, is notorious for having put to death the poet Panyasis and causing Herodotus, possibly the best known Halicarnassian, to leave his native city (c.

Battle of Thermopylae

Thermopylae300 SpartansEpitaph of Simonides
His Histories primarily deals with the lives of Croesus, Cyrus, Cambyses, Smerdis, Darius, and Xerxes and the battles of Marathon, Thermopylae, Artemisium, Salamis, Plataea, and Mycale; however, his many cultural, ethnographical, geographical, historiographical, and other digressions form a defining and essential part of the Histories and contain a wealth of information.
The primary source for the Greco-Persian Wars is the Greek historian Herodotus.

Bardiya

GaumataSmerdisBarziya
His Histories primarily deals with the lives of Croesus, Cyrus, Cambyses, Smerdis, Darius, and Xerxes and the battles of Marathon, Thermopylae, Artemisium, Salamis, Plataea, and Mycale; however, his many cultural, ethnographical, geographical, historiographical, and other digressions form a defining and essential part of the Histories and contain a wealth of information.
Herodotus calls him Smerdis, which is the prevalent Greek form of his name; the Persian name has been assimilated to the Greek (Asiatic) name Smerdis or Smerdies, a name which also occurs in the poems of Alcaeus and Anacreon.

Cyrus the Great

CyrusCyrus IIKing Cyrus
His Histories primarily deals with the lives of Croesus, Cyrus, Cambyses, Smerdis, Darius, and Xerxes and the battles of Marathon, Thermopylae, Artemisium, Salamis, Plataea, and Mycale; however, his many cultural, ethnographical, geographical, historiographical, and other digressions form a defining and essential part of the Histories and contain a wealth of information.
However Cambyses II's maternal grandfather Pharnaspes is named by historian Herodotus as "an Achaemenian" too.

Ethnography

ethnographicethnographerethnographical
His Histories primarily deals with the lives of Croesus, Cyrus, Cambyses, Smerdis, Darius, and Xerxes and the battles of Marathon, Thermopylae, Artemisium, Salamis, Plataea, and Mycale; however, his many cultural, ethnographical, geographical, historiographical, and other digressions form a defining and essential part of the Histories and contain a wealth of information.
Herodotus, known as the Father of History, had significant works on the cultures of various peoples beyond the Hellenic realm such as the Scythians, which earned him the title "philobarbarian", and may be said to have produced the first works of ethnography.

Darius the Great

Darius IDariusDarius I of Persia
His Histories primarily deals with the lives of Croesus, Cyrus, Cambyses, Smerdis, Darius, and Xerxes and the battles of Marathon, Thermopylae, Artemisium, Salamis, Plataea, and Mycale; however, his many cultural, ethnographical, geographical, historiographical, and other digressions form a defining and essential part of the Histories and contain a wealth of information.
Herodotus, a Greek historian and author of The Histories, provided an account of many Persian kings and the Greco-Persian Wars.

Phoenix (mythology)

phoenixmythical bird phoenixphoenixes
In particular, it is possible that he copied descriptions of the crocodile, hippopotamus, and phoenix from Hecataeus's Circumnavigation of the Known World (Periegesis / Periodos ges), even misrepresenting the source as "Heliopolitans" (Histories 2.73).
Herodotus, Lucan, Pliny the Elder, Pope Clement I, Lactantius, Ovid, and Isidore of Seville are among those who have contributed to the retelling and transmission of the phoenix motif.

Halicarnassus

HalicarnassosHalikarnassosHalicarnassian
484 BC) was an ancient Greek historian who was born in Halicarnassus in the Persian Empire (modern-day Bodrum, Turkey).
Artemisia's grandson Lygdamis II of Halicarnassus, is notorious for having put to death the poet Panyasis and causing Herodotus, possibly the best known Halicarnassian, to leave his native city (c.

Xerxes I

XerxesXerxes I of PersiaXerxes the Great
His Histories primarily deals with the lives of Croesus, Cyrus, Cambyses, Smerdis, Darius, and Xerxes and the battles of Marathon, Thermopylae, Artemisium, Salamis, Plataea, and Mycale; however, his many cultural, ethnographical, geographical, historiographical, and other digressions form a defining and essential part of the Histories and contain a wealth of information.
According to the Greek historian Herodotus, Xerxes's first attempt to bridge the Hellespont ended in failure when a storm destroyed the flax and papyrus cables of the bridges.

Thucydides

ThucidydesThucididesThuc.
Many authors, starting with the late fifth-century BC historian Thucydides, have accused him of making up stories for entertainment.
Herodotus wrote that the name Olorus, Thucydides's father's name, was connected with Thrace and Thracian royalty.

Crocodile

crocodilescrocodiliancrocodylid
In particular, it is possible that he copied descriptions of the crocodile, hippopotamus, and phoenix from Hecataeus's Circumnavigation of the Known World (Periegesis / Periodos ges), even misrepresenting the source as "Heliopolitans" (Histories 2.73).
It is ascribed to Herodotus, and supposedly describes the basking habits of the Egyptian crocodile.

Xanthus (historian)

XanthusXanthus of LydiaXanthos
Modern historians regard the chronology as uncertain, but according to the ancient account, these predecessors included Dionysius of Miletus, Charon of Lampsacus, Hellanicus of Lesbos, Xanthus of Lydia and, the best attested of them all, Hecataeus of Miletus.
A contemporary and colleague of Herodotus, most of his writings concerned the lineage and deeds of the Lydian kings.

Cambyses II

CambysesCambyses II of PersiaKambyses
His Histories primarily deals with the lives of Croesus, Cyrus, Cambyses, Smerdis, Darius, and Xerxes and the battles of Marathon, Thermopylae, Artemisium, Salamis, Plataea, and Mycale; however, his many cultural, ethnographical, geographical, historiographical, and other digressions form a defining and essential part of the Histories and contain a wealth of information.
The length of the siege is not specified by the 5th-century BC Greek historian Herodotus.

Greco-Persian Wars

Persian WarsPersian WarGreco-Persian War
He is known for having written the book The Histories (Greek: Ἱστορίαι - Historíai), a detailed record of his "inquiry" (ἱστορία historía) on the origins of the Greco-Persian Wars.
By some distance, the main source for the Greco-Persian Wars is the Greek historian Herodotus.

Tyre, Lebanon

TyreTyrianTyrians
He probably traveled to Tyre next and then down the Euphrates to Babylon.
The predominant form in Classical Greek was Týros, which was first seen in the works of Herotodus but may have been adopted considerably earlier.

Artemisia I of Caria

ArtemisiaArtemisia IArtemesia I
The town was within the Persian Empire at that time, making Herodotus a Persian subject, and it may be that the young Herodotus heard local eyewitness accounts of events within the empire and of Persian preparations for the invasion of Greece, including the movements of the local fleet under the command of Artemisia I of Caria.
She is mostly known through the writings of Herodotus, himself a native of Halicarnassus, who praises her courage and the respect in which Xerxes held her.

Battle of Plataea

PlataeaBattle of Plateaat Plataea in 479 BCE
His Histories primarily deals with the lives of Croesus, Cyrus, Cambyses, Smerdis, Darius, and Xerxes and the battles of Marathon, Thermopylae, Artemisium, Salamis, Plataea, and Mycale; however, his many cultural, ethnographical, geographical, historiographical, and other digressions form a defining and essential part of the Histories and contain a wealth of information.
According to Herodotus, the Persians numbered 300,000 and were accompanied by troops from Greek city states that supported the Persian cause (including Macedonia, Thessaly and Thebes).

Babylon

BabilBabelAncient Babylon
He probably traveled to Tyre next and then down the Euphrates to Babylon.
The main sources of information about Babylon—excavation of the site itself, references in cuneiform texts found elsewhere in Mesopotamia, references in the Bible, descriptions in classical writing (especially by Herodotus), and second-hand descriptions (citing the work of Ctesias and Berossus)—present an incomplete and sometimes contradictory picture of the ancient city even at its peak in the sixth century BC.

Pericles

PericleanPeriklesPericlean Athens
For some reason, possibly associated with local politics, he subsequently found himself unpopular in Halicarnassus, and sometime around 447 BC, migrated to Periclean Athens – a city whose people and democratic institutions he openly admires (V, 78).
According to Herodotus and Plutarch, Agariste dreamed, a few nights before Pericles' birth, that she had borne a lion.