Heroin

diamorphinediacetylmorphinesmackjunkheroin traffickingstreet heroindiacetylmorphine/heroindopedrug addictiondrug-taking
Heroin, also known as diamorphine among other names, is an opioid most commonly used as a recreational drug for its euphoric effects.wikipedia
2,614 Related Articles

Recreational drug use

recreational drugdrug userecreational drugs
Heroin, also known as diamorphine among other names, is an opioid most commonly used as a recreational drug for its euphoric effects.
What controlled substances are considered illegal drugs varies by country, but usually includes methamphetamine, heroin, cocaine, LSD, psilocybin mushrooms, MDMA and club drugs.

Opioid use disorder

heroin addictionopioid addictionheroin addict
After a history of long-term use, opioid withdrawal symptoms can begin within hours of the last use.
Opioids include substances such as heroin, morphine, fentanyl, codeine, oxycodone, and hydrocodone.

Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs

Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs 1961Schedule ISingle Convention on Narcotic Drugs of 1961
Internationally, heroin is controlled under Schedules I and IV of the Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs, and it is generally illegal to make, possess, or sell without a license.
Earlier treaties had only controlled opium, coca, and derivatives such as morphine, heroin and cocaine.

Morphine

morphiamorphine addictionmorphine sulfate
When given by injection into a vein, heroin has two to three times the effect of a similar dose of morphine.
About 70 percent of morphine is used to make other opioids such as hydromorphone, oxymorphone, and heroin.

Fentanyl

ActiqDuragesicfentanyl citrate
When compared to the opioids hydromorphone, fentanyl, oxycodone, and pethidine (meperidine), former addicts showed a strong preference for heroin and morphine, suggesting that heroin and morphine are particularly susceptible to abuse and addiction.
Fentanyl is also used as a recreational drug, often mixed with heroin or cocaine.

Naloxone

NarcanNaloxone hydrochlorideEvzio
A heroin overdose may be treated with naloxone.
It is included as a part of emergency overdose response kits distributed to heroin and other opioid drug users and emergency responders.

Naltrexone

Revianaltrexone hydrochlorideSinclair method
Medications can include buprenorphine, methadone, or naltrexone.
Long-acting injectable naltrexone decreases heroin use more than placebo.

Heroin-assisted treatment

heroin maintenanceHeroin Assisted Treatmentdiamorphine maintenance
Diamorphine may be used as a maintenance drug to assist the treatment of opiate addiction, normally in long-term chronic intravenous (IV) heroin users.
Heroin-assisted treatment, or diamorphine assisted treatment, refers to the prescribing of synthetic, injectable heroin to opiate addicts who do not benefit from or cannot tolerate treatment with one of the established drugs used in opiate replacement therapy like methadone or buprenorphine (brand name Subutex).

Hydromorphone

DilaudidPalladonedihydromorphinone
When compared to the opioids hydromorphone, fentanyl, oxycodone, and pethidine (meperidine), former addicts showed a strong preference for heroin and morphine, suggesting that heroin and morphine are particularly susceptible to abuse and addiction.
Adverse effects of hydromorphone are similar to those of other potent opioid analgesics, such as morphine and heroin.

Controlled Drugs and Substances Act

Schedule IVSchedule ISchedule 1
On August 26, 2016 Health Canada issued regulations amending prior regulations it had issued under the Controlled Drugs and Substances Act; the "New Classes of Practitioners Regulations", the "Narcotic Control Regulations", and the "Food and Drug Regulations", to allow doctors to prescribe diamorphine to people who have a severe opioid addiction who have not responded to other treatments.

Drug policy

drugs policydrugdrug legislation
Though this is somewhat controversial among proponents of a zero-tolerance drug policy, it has proven superior to methadone in improving the social and health situations of addicts.
For example, heroin is regulated almost everywhere; substances such as qat, codeine are regulated in some places, but not others.

Tim Buckley

Tim
Examples include the overdose deaths of Sid Vicious, Janis Joplin, Tim Buckley, Hillel Slovak, Layne Staley, Bradley Nowell, Ted Binion, and River Phoenix.
He died at the age of 28 from a heroin overdose, leaving behind his sons Taylor and Jeff.

Oxycodone

OxyContinEukodalRoxicodone
When compared to the opioids hydromorphone, fentanyl, oxycodone, and pethidine (meperidine), former addicts showed a strong preference for heroin and morphine, suggesting that heroin and morphine are particularly susceptible to abuse and addiction.
In 2011, it was the leading cause of drug-related deaths in the U.S. However, from 2012 onwards, heroin and fentanyl have become more common causes of drug-related deaths.

Cocaine

cokecocaine traffickingcrack
In 1964 the Brain Committee recommended that only selected approved doctors working at approved specialised centres be allowed to prescribe diamorphine and benzoylmethylecgonine (cocaine) to users.
An injected mixture of cocaine and heroin, known as "speedball" is a particularly dangerous combination, as the converse effects of the drugs actually complement each other, but may also mask the symptoms of an overdose.

Sid Vicious

John BeverleySidJohn Simon Ritchie
Examples include the overdose deaths of Sid Vicious, Janis Joplin, Tim Buckley, Hillel Slovak, Layne Staley, Bradley Nowell, Ted Binion, and River Phoenix.
He died in 1979 after overdosing on heroin.

Buprenorphine

SubutexSuboxoneProbuphine
Medications can include buprenorphine, methadone, or naltrexone.
It is also a common drug of abuse, being used in place of heroin.

Subcutaneous injection

subcutaneousinjection under the skinunder the skin
Under the generic name diamorphine, heroin is prescribed as a strong pain medication in the United Kingdom, where it is administered via subcutaneous, intramuscular, intrathecal or intravenous routes.
Subcutaneous injections are highly effective in administering medications such as insulin, morphine, diacetylmorphine and goserelin.

Bradley Nowell

Brad NowellLou Dog
Examples include the overdose deaths of Sid Vicious, Janis Joplin, Tim Buckley, Hillel Slovak, Layne Staley, Bradley Nowell, Ted Binion, and River Phoenix.
Throughout the band's career, Nowell struggled with a worsening addiction to heroin.

Hillel Slovak

SlovakHillel
Examples include the overdose deaths of Sid Vicious, Janis Joplin, Tim Buckley, Hillel Slovak, Layne Staley, Bradley Nowell, Ted Binion, and River Phoenix.
During his career, Slovak developed a serious heroin addiction.

Drug injection

intravenous drugintravenous drug useinjecting drug user
Injection, also known as "slamming", "banging", "shooting up", "digging" or "mainlining", is a popular method which carries relatively greater risks than other methods of administration.
It also bypasses first-pass metabolism in the liver, resulting in higher bioavailability and efficiency for many drugs (such as morphine or diacetylmorphine/heroin; roughly two-thirds of which is destroyed in the liver when consumed orally) than oral ingestion would.

Rolleston Committee

a system of heroin maintenance since the 1920sDepartmental Committee on Morphine and Heroin AddictionUK Departmental Committee on Morphine and Heroin Addiction
The UK Department of Health's Rolleston Committee Report in 1926 established the British approach to diamorphine prescription to users, which was maintained for the next 40 years: dealers were prosecuted, but doctors could prescribe diamorphine to users when withdrawing.
In 1924, following concerns about the treatment of addicts by doctors, James Smith Whitaker suggested to the Home Office who suggested to the Ministry of Health Departmental Committee on Morphine and Heroin Addiction be formed under the chairmanship of Sir Humphry Rolleston to "... consider and advise as to the circumstances, if any, in which the supply of morphine and heroin (including preparations containing morphine and heroin) to persons suffering from addiction to those drugs may be regarded as medically advisable, and as to the precautions which it is desirable that medical practitioners administering or prescribing morphine or heroin should adopt for the avoidance of abuse, and to suggest any administrative measures that seem expedient for securing observance of such precautions".

Opioid

opioidsopioid-induced constipationopioid analgesic
Heroin, also known as diamorphine among other names, is an opioid most commonly used as a recreational drug for its euphoric effects.
As of 2015, increased rates of recreational use and addiction are attributed to over-prescription of opioid medications and inexpensive illicit heroin.

John Bodkin Adams

Dr John Bodkin AdamsDr. John Bodkin Adamsthe doctor
John Bodkin Adams is also known to have used heroin as a murder weapon.
When told they were looking for, "Morphine, Heroin, Pethidine and the like", Adams was surprised: "Oh, that group. You will find none here. I haven't any. I very seldom ever use them", he said.

Harold Shipman

Dr Harold ShipmanDr. Harold ShipmanHarold Shipman inquiry
The serial killer Harold Shipman used diamorphine on his victims, and the subsequent Shipman Inquiry led to a tightening of the regulations surrounding the storage, prescribing and destruction of controlled drugs in the UK.
Grundy's body was exhumed and when examined, was found to contain traces of diamorphine (heroin), often used for pain control in terminal cancer patients.

Ted Binion

TedSandra MurphySandy Murphy
Examples include the overdose deaths of Sid Vicious, Janis Joplin, Tim Buckley, Hillel Slovak, Layne Staley, Bradley Nowell, Ted Binion, and River Phoenix.
Later in life, he developed a severe heroin addiction.