diamorphinediacetylmorphinesmackjunkheroin traffickingstreet heroindiacetylmorphine/heroindopedrug addictiondrug-taking
Heroin, also known as diamorphine among other names, is an opioid most commonly used as a recreational drug for its euphoric effects.wikipedia
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depressantsdownerscentral depressant
However, many fatalities reported as overdoses are probably caused by interactions with other depressant drugs such as alcohol or benzodiazepines.

Controlled Substances Act

Schedule ISchedule IISchedule III
In the United States, diamorphine is a Schedule I drug according to the Controlled Substances Act of 1970, making it illegal to possess without a DEA license.
These drugs vary in potency: for example fentanyl is about 80 times as potent as morphine (heroin is roughly two times as potent).

Poly drug use

polydrugpolydrug useCombinations
For the same reason, poly drug use (the use of two or more drugs at the same time) is discouraged.
A speedball is a mixture of cocaine and heroin.

Heinrich Dreser

Hoffmann was working at Bayer pharmaceutical company in Elberfeld, Germany, and his supervisor Heinrich Dreser instructed him to acetylate morphine with the objective of producing codeine, a constituent of the opium poppy that is pharmacologically similar to morphine but less potent and less addictive.
Heinrich Dreser (1 October 1860 – December 21, 1924 ) was a German chemist responsible for the aspirin and heroin projects at Bayer AG.


pro-drugprodrugsinactive prodrug
When taken orally, heroin undergoes extensive first-pass metabolism via deacetylation, making it a prodrug for the systemic delivery of morphine.


Two other 3,6 diesters of morphine invented in 1874–75 along with diamorphine, dibenzoylmorphine and acetylpropionylmorphine, were made as substitutes after it was outlawed in 1925 and, therefore, sold as the first "designer drugs" until they were outlawed by the League of Nations in 1930.
It was developed in the early 1900s after first having been synthesised in 1875 in the UK by the CR Alders Wright organisation at Bayer, along with various other esters of morphine, but was never used medically, instead being widely sold as one of the first "designer drugs" for around five years following the introduction of the first international restrictions on the sale of heroin in 1925.

Harrison Narcotics Tax Act

Harrison ActHarrison Narcotics ActHarrison Narcotic Act
In the U.S., the Harrison Narcotics Tax Act was passed in 1914 to control the sale and distribution of diacetylmorphine and other opioids, which allowed the drug to be prescribed and sold for medical purposes.
Congress responded by tightening up the Harrison Act—the importation of heroin for any purpose was banned in 1924.

Allegations of CIA drug trafficking

allegation of CIA drug dealingalleged CIA drug traffickingC.I.A.
Later in the same region, while the CIA was sponsoring a "Secret War" in Laos from 1961 to 1975, it was openly accused of trafficking heroin in the area then known as the Golden Triangle.

Sicilian Mafia

the MafiaMafiaCosa Nostra
After World War II, the Mafia took advantage of the weakness of the postwar Italian government and set up heroin labs in Sicily.
This prompted American mafia boss Joseph Bonanno to return to Sicily in 1957 to franchise out his heroin operations to the Sicilian clans.


oxymorphone hydrochlorideOpanaNumorphan
Unlike hydromorphone and oxymorphone, however, administered intravenously, heroin creates a larger histamine release, similar to morphine, resulting in the feeling of a greater subjective "body high" to some, but also instances of pruritus (itching) when they first start using.
In 1924, the United States Congress had banned the sale, importation, or manufacture of heroin, another opioid pain medication in the Anti-Heroin Act of 1924.

Haji Bagcho

Bagcho organization
On 13 March 2012, Haji Bagcho, with ties to the Taliban, was convicted by a U.S. District Court of conspiracy, distribution of heroin for importation into the United States and narco-terrorism.
He was convicted on March 13, 2012, by a jury in U.S. District Court for the District of Columbia of conspiracy, distribution of heroin for importation into the United States and narco-terrorism.

Nola Blake

The penalty applies even to citizens of countries where the penalty is not in place, sometimes causing controversy when foreign visitors are arrested for trafficking, for example the arrest of nine Australians in Bali, the death sentence given to Nola Blake in Thailand in 1987, or the hanging of an Australian citizen Van Tuong Nguyen in Singapore.
4.47 kilograms of heroin was hidden inside the pillow in her son's push chair.

Opioid antagonist

narcotic antagonistantagonistEndorphin blocker
Heroin overdose is usually treated with the opioid antagonist, naloxone.

Supervised injection site

safe injection sitesupervised injection sitessafe injection sites
Some Australian cities (such as Sydney) have instituted legal diamorphine supervised injecting centers, in line with other wider harm minimization programs.
The approach at the centers is also more clinical in nature, as they provide true supervision with a staff that is equipped and trained to administer Oxygen or Naloxone in the case of a heroin or other opioid overdose.

Nirvana (band)

Nirvana lead singer Kurt Cobain's heroin addiction was well documented.
In the ensuing weeks, Cobain's heroin addiction resurfaced.

Needle exchange programme

needle exchangeneedle exchange programneedle exchange programs
Governments that support a harm reduction approach usually fund needle and syringe exchange programs, which supply new needles and syringes on a confidential basis, as well as education on proper filtering before injection, safer injection techniques, safe disposal of used injecting gear and other equipment used when preparing diamorphine for injection may also be supplied including citric acid sachets/vitamin C sachets, steri-cups, filters, alcohol pre-injection swabs, sterile water ampules and tourniquets (to stop use of shoe laces or belts).
In addition to sterile needles, syringe-exchange programmes typically offer services such as HIV and Hepatitis C testing; alcohol swabs; bleach water and normal saline (often as eye drops); aluminium "cookers"; citric acid powder (an imperative agent that enables heroin to dissolve in water); containers for needles and many other items.


On 13 March 2012, Haji Bagcho, with ties to the Taliban, was convicted by a U.S. District Court of conspiracy, distribution of heroin for importation into the United States and narco-terrorism.

Cold medicine

antitussivecough medicinecough suppressant
It was developed chiefly as a morphine substitute for cough suppressants that did not have morphine's addictive side-effects.
Heroin was originally marketed as a cough suppressant in 1898.

Golden Crescent

The Soviet-Afghan war led to increased production in the Pakistani-Afghan border regions, as U.S.-backed mujaheddin militants raised money for arms from selling opium, contributing heavily to the modern Golden Crescent creation.
The United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC) heroin production estimates for the past 10 years show significant changes in the primary source areas.


AfghanIslamic Republic of AfghanistanAfghans
Traffic is heavy worldwide, with the biggest producer being Afghanistan.
Afghanistan's opium poppy harvest produces more than 90% of illicit heroin globally, and more than 95% of the European supply.

Ray Charles

I Believe to My SoulRay Charles BandCharles
Use of heroin by jazz musicians in particular was prevalent in the mid-twentieth century, including Billie Holiday, saxophonists Charlie Parker and Art Pepper, guitarist Joe Pass and piano player/singer Ray Charles; a "staggering number of jazz musicians were addicts".
He later became addicted to heroin for sixteen years.

Phil Anselmo

Housecore RecordsPhilip AnselmoPhilip H. Anselmo & The Illegals
Pantera frontman, Phil Anselmo, turned to heroin while touring during the 1990s to cope with his back pain.
To alleviate the pain, he drank heavily, abused pills such as painkillers and muscle relaxants, and eventually became addicted to heroin.

Standard for the Uniform Scheduling of Medicines and Poisons

Poisons StandardSchedule 8Schedule 9
In Australia diamorphine is listed as a schedule 9 prohibited substance under the Poisons Standard (October 2015).

Acetic anhydride

Ac 2 Oacetic anhydridesacetanhydride
Heroin is derived from opium through a process involving various chemicals such as acetone and acetic anhydride.
Because of its use for the synthesis of heroin by the diacetylation of morphine, acetic anhydride is listed as a U.S. DEA List II precursor, and restricted in many other countries.

Platzspitz park

During the late 1980s and early 1990s, Swiss authorities ran the ZIPP-AIDS (Zurich Intervention Pilot Project), handing out free syringes in the officially tolerated drug scene in Platzspitz park.
During the 1980s, heroin addicts would frequently gather at the park, and attempts to disperse them merely resulted in them regrouping elsewhere.