Hierarchical database model

hierarchical modelhierarchical databasehierarchicalchildData organizationhierarchical datahierarchical data modelhierarchical databaseshierarchicallyhierarchically structured data
A hierarchical database model is a data model in which the data are organized into a tree-like structure.wikipedia
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Data model

structured datastructuredData models
A hierarchical database model is a data model in which the data are organized into a tree-like structure.
According to Leondes (2002), "during that time, the information system provided the data and information for management purposes. The first generation database system, called Integrated Data Store (IDS), was designed by Charles Bachman at General Electric. Two famous database models, the network data model and the hierarchical data model, were proposed during this period of time".

Database

database management systemdatabasesDBMS
The hierarchical structure was developed by IBM in the 1960s, and used in early mainframe DBMS.
The two main early navigational data models were the hierarchical model and the CODASYL model (network model)

IBM Information Management System

IMSInformation Management SystemHierarchical Sequential Access Method
The IBM Information Management System (IMS) and the RDM Mobile are examples of a hierarchical database system with multiple hierarchies over the same data.
IBM Information Management System (IMS) is a joint hierarchical database and information management system with extensive transaction processing capabilities.

Relational model

relationalrelational data modelrelationships
The hierarchical data model lost traction as Codd's relational model became the de facto standard used by virtually all mainstream database management systems.
Other models are the hierarchical model and network model.

Hierarchical and recursive queries in SQL

common table expressionsHierarchical queryrecursive queries
A hierarchical query is a type of SQL query that handles hierarchical model data.

Tree (data structure)

treetree data structuretrees
A hierarchical database model is a data model in which the data are organized into a tree-like structure.

Raima Database Manager

RDM EmbeddedRaima Database Manager (RDM)RDM Mobile
The IBM Information Management System (IMS) and the RDM Mobile are examples of a hierarchical database system with multiple hierarchies over the same data.

Edgar F. Codd

E. F. CoddE.F. CoddCodd
The hierarchical data model lost traction as Codd's relational model became the de facto standard used by virtually all mainstream database management systems.

Nested set model

nested modelsNested sets
A relational-database implementation of a hierarchical model was first discussed in published form in 1992 (see also nested set model).

XML

Extensible Markup LanguageXML documentXML parser
Hierarchical data organization schemes resurfaced with the advent of XML in the late 1990s (see also XML database).

XML database

Native XML databaseXML databasesnative
Hierarchical data organization schemes resurfaced with the advent of XML in the late 1990s (see also XML database).

Windows Registry

registryRegistry Editorregistry keys
Another example of the use of hierarchical databases is Windows Registry in the Microsoft Windows operating systems.

Microsoft Windows

WindowsPCMS Windows
Another example of the use of hierarchical databases is Windows Registry in the Microsoft Windows operating systems.

Foreign key

Foreignforeign key constraintforeign key references
In Relational database terms, the ReportsTo column is a foreign key referencing the EmpNo column.

Adjacency list

Incidence listadjacency list modeladjacency-list representation
However, the model is only a special case of a general adjacency list for a graph.

Hierarchical clustering

agglomerative hierarchical clusteringhierarchical cluster analysisdivisive clustering

Database model

data design modeldatabasedata model
In a hierarchical model, data is organized into a tree-like structure, implying a single parent for each record.

Apache ZooKeeper

ZooKeeper
It is essentially a service for distributed systems offering a hierarchical key-value store, which is used to provide a distributed configuration service, synchronization service, and naming registry for large distributed systems (see Use cases).

DBOMP

DBOMP (Database Organization and Maintenance Processor) was an early hierarchical database system from IBM for DOS.

MUMPS

MDSM-11M technology
MUMPS was then an interpreted language, yet even then, incorporated a hierarchical database file system to standardize interaction with the data.

Metakit

It fills the gap between flat-file, relational, object-oriented, and tree-structured databases, supporting relational joins, serialization, nested structures, and instant schema evolution.

Network model

networknetwork databasenetwork data model
While the hierarchical database model structures data as a tree of records, with each record having one parent record and many children, the network model allows each record to have multiple parent and child records, forming a generalized graph structure.

InterSystems Caché

Cachécaching at the ISP levelCaché (software)
Internally, Caché stores data in multidimensional arrays capable of carrying hierarchically structured data.

Graph database

graph databasesgraphGraphDB
In the mid-1960s, navigational databases such as IBM's IMS supported tree-like structures in its hierarchical model, but the strict tree structure could be circumvented with virtual records.