Hierarchy

Maslow's hierarchy of human needs. This is an example of a hierarchy visualized with a triangle diagram. The hierarchical aspect represented here is that needs at lower levels of the pyramid are considered more basic and must be fulfilled before higher ones are met.
Matryoshka dolls, also known as nesting dolls or Russian dolls. Each doll is encompassed inside another until the smallest one is reached. This is the concept of nesting. When the concept is applied to sets, the resulting ordering is a nested hierarchy.
A simple military organizational hierarchy depicted in the form of a tree. Diagrams like this exemplify organizational charts.
Career-oriented purposes can be diagrammed using a hierarchy describing how less important actions support a larger goal.

Arrangement of items (objects, names, values, categories, etc.) that are represented as being "above", "below", or "at the same level as" one another.

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Supervisor

Job title of a lower-level management position that is primarily based on authority over workers or workplace.

A 1940s poster from the United States

Carry out policies passed down a hierarchy from the level above.

Organizational theory

A theory involves concepts or constructs that are related in such a way as to explain why certain phenomena occur.

Structure of the United Nations

It is possible to find the utilization of hierarchical subordination in all bureaucratic structures. This means that higher-level offices supervise lower-level offices.

Superior (hierarchy)

Maslow's hierarchy of human needs. This is an example of a hierarchy visualized with a triangle diagram. The hierarchical aspect represented here is that needs at lower levels of the pyramid are considered more basic and must be fulfilled before higher ones are met.

In a hierarchy or tree structure of any kind, a superior is an individual or position at a higher level in the hierarchy than another (a "subordinate" or "inferior"), and thus closer to the apex.

Tree structure

A tree structure showing the possible hierarchical organization of an encyclopedia
The original Encyclopédie used a tree diagram to show the way in which its subjects were ordered.
A tree map used to represent a directory structure as a nested set
information diagram in the shape of a tree illustrating the "evolution" of thermionic tubes (a type of vacuum tube) between 1883 and 1934

A tree structure, tree diagram, or tree model is a way of representing the hierarchical nature of a structure in a graphical form.

Autocephaly

Diagram with the organization of the Eastern Orthodox Church as of 2020

Autocephaly (from αὐτοκεφαλία, meaning "property of being self-headed") is the status of a hierarchical Christian church whose head bishop does not report to any higher-ranking bishop.

Heterarchy

Maslow's hierarchy of human needs. This is an example of a hierarchy visualized with a triangle diagram. The hierarchical aspect represented here is that needs at lower levels of the pyramid are considered more basic and must be fulfilled before higher ones are met.

A heterarchy is a system of organization where the elements of the organization are unranked (non-hierarchical) or where they possess the potential to be ranked a number of different ways.

Dominance hierarchy

A high-ranking male mandrill advertises his status with bright facial coloration.
Wedge-capped capuchins have a clear dominance hierarchy
The effect of relative rank on stress hormone levels in savanna baboons
The bonobo is one of the few mammals with female-biased dominance.
Bottom-rank chicken showing feather damage from pecking by other hens
Eringer cattle competing for dominance.

In biology, a dominance hierarchy (formerly and colloquially called a pecking order) is a type of social hierarchy that arises when members of animal social groups interact, creating a ranking system.

System

Group of interacting or interrelated elements that act according to a set of rules to form a unified whole.

Open systems have input and output flows, representing exchanges of matter, energy or information with their surroundings.

Logic has been applied to categories such as taxonomy, ontology, assessment, and hierarchies.

Dewey Decimal Classification

Proprietary library classification system which allows new books to be added to a library in their appropriate location based on subject.

A library bookshelf in Hong Kong classified using the New Classification Scheme for Chinese Libraries, an adaptation of the Dewey Classification scheme
Melvil Dewey, the inventor of the Dewey Decimal classification
1885 - Dewey Decimal Classification
Children being taught the top-level categories of the Dewey Decimal Classification system at a library in Edmonton, Alberta, Canada, in the 1960s

The classification structure is hierarchical and the notation follows the same hierarchy.

Linnaean taxonomy

Linnaean name also has two meanings: depending on the context, it may either refer to a formal name given by Linnaeus (personally), such as Giraffa camelopardalis Linnaeus, 1758, or a formal name in the accepted nomenclature (as opposed to a modernistic clade name).

The title page of Systema Naturae, Leiden (1735)
Key to the Sexual System (from the 10th, 1758, edition of the Systema Naturae)
Kalmia is classified according to Linnaeus' sexual system in class Decandria, order Monogyna, because it has 10 stamens and one pistil
The 1735 classification of animals

Species can be placed in a ranked hierarchy, starting with either domains or kingdoms.